Carla Gilbert
Table of Contents• Imperfect              •Future• Preterite                 •Irregular  –   -car, -gar, -zar      •Condit...
Imperfecto• When is it used?  – Ongoing action (was/were)  – Repeated action  – No definite beginning or end  – Time, date...
Imperfect endings                      -ar      -ir/-er       Yo            -aba          -ía       Tú            -abas   ...
Irregulars                      Ir      Ser       Ver       Yo            iba       era     Veía       Tú            ibas ...
Preterite –car, -gar, -zar• Irregular in yo form only     Tocar          Jugar     Comenzar     Toqué          Jugué     C...
Spock Irregulars                  •Ir/Ser• Hacer (did)         -Fui      IR   –   Hiciste        -Fuiste   –   Hizo       ...
Cucaracha (Irregular Preterite)                  Andar     Anduv-                                        Yo       e       ...
Snake and Snakey (Preterite with a Y         Spelling Change)• Snake                  • Snakey                           –...
Modal Verbs• Conjugate and pair the modal verbs with an  infinitive to get a new meaning  – Ir + a + infinitive (going to ...
Adverbs• Most are made be adding –mente to the  feminine singular form of an adjective• When two adverbs modify the same v...
Progressive Tense• Present  – Formed by combining the verb “to be” with the    present participle  – Conjugate estar + -an...
Future Tense • The future tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen.                          Yo   ...
Irregular Future• decir dir- to say• haber habr- there to be [impersonal];  to have [helping verb]                      Yo...
Conditional• Used to express probability, possibility, wonder  or conjecture, and is usually translated as would,  could, ...
Superlatives• When you want to say that something has the  most or the least of a certain quality, use a  superlative.    ...
Formal Commands• Ud./Usd. – put in „yo‟ form and change to opposite vowel.1. Start with the yo form of the present indicat...
Prepositions  Abajo                     Below Arriba                     AboveDebajo de                   BelowDentro de  ...
Demonstratives• Always agree in gender and in number with the noun they modify• Always come in front of the noun they modi...
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Gramer book #2

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Gramer book #2

  1. 1. Carla Gilbert
  2. 2. Table of Contents• Imperfect •Future• Preterite •Irregular – -car, -gar, -zar •Conditional – Spock •Superlatives – Cucaracha •Formal Commands – Snake and Snakey •Prepositions• Modal Verbs • Demonstratives• Adverbs• Progressive – Past, present
  3. 3. Imperfecto• When is it used? – Ongoing action (was/were) – Repeated action – No definite beginning or end – Time, date, age, feelings, descriptions – Interrupted activity (cuando)
  4. 4. Imperfect endings -ar -ir/-er Yo -aba -ía Tú -abas -ías Él/ella/ Ud. - aba -ía Nosotros -ábamos -íamos Vosotros -abais -íaisEllos/ellas/ Uds. -aban -ían
  5. 5. Irregulars Ir Ser Ver Yo iba era Veía Tú ibas Eras Veías Él/ella/ Ud. iba Era Veía Nosotros íbamos Éramos Veíamos Vosotros ibais Erais VeíaisEllos/ellas/ Uds. iban eran veían
  6. 6. Preterite –car, -gar, -zar• Irregular in yo form only Tocar Jugar Comenzar Toqué Jugué Comencé Tocaste Jugaste Comenzaste Tocó Juegó Comenzó Tocamos jugamos Comenzaron Tocaron Jugaron Comenzaron
  7. 7. Spock Irregulars •Ir/Ser• Hacer (did) -Fui IR – Hiciste -Fuiste – Hizo -Fue – Hicimos -Fuimos – Hicieron -Fueron• Dar/Ver (gave/went) – i – iste – io – imos – ieron
  8. 8. Cucaracha (Irregular Preterite) Andar Anduv- Yo e Estar Estuv- Poder Pus- Tú iste Querer Quis- Venir Vin- él o Decir Dij- Traer Traj- NosotroDrop “i” imos Conducir Conduj- ssound in thirdperson plural Producir Produj- Ellos ieron Traducir Traduj-
  9. 9. Snake and Snakey (Preterite with a Y Spelling Change)• Snake • Snakey – Y Changers – Stem Changers • Leer • Dormir – Leí – Dormí – Limos – Dormimos – Leiste – Dormiste – Leyó – Durmió – Leyeron – Dumieron
  10. 10. Modal Verbs• Conjugate and pair the modal verbs with an infinitive to get a new meaning – Ir + a + infinitive (going to do something) – Poder + infinitive (are able to do something) – Querer + infinitive(want to do something) – deber + infinitive (should do something) – Tener que + infinitive (to have to do something) – Soler + infinitive (to be accustomed to…)
  11. 11. Adverbs• Most are made be adding –mente to the feminine singular form of an adjective• When two adverbs modify the same ver, only the second one uses the –mente ending. The first is kept in the feminine singular form.• Irregulars – Mucho, bien, nunca, muy, ya, poco, mal, tan, peor, bastante, pemasiado, siempre
  12. 12. Progressive Tense• Present – Formed by combining the verb “to be” with the present participle – Conjugate estar + -ando/iendo/yendo • Estoy hablando a ti.• Past – Conjugate estar with present participle • Estaba hablando a ti. • Estabamos estudiando para la examin.
  13. 13. Future Tense • The future tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen. Yo é Tu ás• Infinitive + El/ Ella á Nosotros emos Ellos/ellas án
  14. 14. Irregular Future• decir dir- to say• haber habr- there to be [impersonal]; to have [helping verb] Yo é• hacer har- to make, do• poder podr- to be able Tu ás• poner pondr- to put, place, set• querer querr- to want, love + El/ Ella á• saber sabr- to know [a fact], know how [+ infinitive] Nosotros emos• salir saldr- to leave, go out• tener tendr- to have Ellos/ellas án• valer valdr- to be worth• venir vendr- to come
  15. 15. Conditional• Used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, and is usually translated as would, could, must have or probably. Hablar ía Hablaría ías Hablarías• Infinitive + ía Hablaría íamos Hablaríamos íais Hablaríais ían Hablarían
  16. 16. Superlatives• When you want to say that something has the most or the least of a certain quality, use a superlative. El más El menos • Luis es el más alto. • Mercedes es la menos Los más Los menos consada. • Ivan prepara las comidas más Las más La menos sabrosas. Las más Las menos
  17. 17. Formal Commands• Ud./Usd. – put in „yo‟ form and change to opposite vowel.1. Start with the yo form of the present indicative.2. Then drop the -o ending.3. Finally, add the following endings: Irregulars: TVDISHES -ar verbs: Tenga -e (for Ud.), -en (for Uds.) Vea -er and -ir verbs: -a (for Ud.), -an (for Uds.) DigaExamples: Vaya – Hablen Uds. más lentamente. Haga Speak more slowly. – Coman Uds. la cena. Sepa Eat the dinner. Easta – Escriba Ud. la carta. Write the letter. Sea
  18. 18. Prepositions Abajo Below Arriba AboveDebajo de BelowDentro de InsideEncima de On top ofFuera da Outside
  19. 19. Demonstratives• Always agree in gender and in number with the noun they modify• Always come in front of the noun they modify• Singular – Este/esta- this (four letters-near) – Ese/esa- that (three letters- far) – Aquel/ aquella- That over there• Plural – Estos/ estas- these – Esos/ esas- those – Aquellos/ aquellas- those over there• Add accent mark over the “e” to make it a pronoun• Eso/esto/aquello neutral in gender
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