Reaching and Teaching the Whole Child Prepared by Carla Piper, Ed. D.
The Whole Child Emotional Physical Intellectual Social Science Math Sensory Small Muscle Large Muscle Music Art Language Literacy Creative Movement Social Studies Literature Nutrition, Health, Safety Feeny, Christensen, Moravick Human Development Domains
The Whole Child
ASCD Whole Child Website
About the Whole Child Initiative
The Learning Compact Redefined: A Call to Action
Human Development Domains in Early Childhood
The Whole Child Initiative
Click on image to view YouTube Video
Early Learning Standards
Must Include all areas of early development and learning
• The content and desired outcomes are meaningful and important to children’s current well being and later learning.
Must recognize and accommodate variations and support positive outcomes for all children
children’s cultures, languages, communities
individual characteristics, abilities, and disabilities.
Each Child is a Unique Case
“ When schools get obsessed with ensuring predicable results, they tend to treat children in uniform and standardized ways.”
All children are alike in some ways and every child resembles certain children more than others.
Theory of Multiple Intelligences Prepared by Dr. Carla Piper
Definition of Intelligence
The ability to solve problems that one encounters in real life
The ability to generate new problems to solve
The ability to make something or offer service that is valued within one’s culture
Howard Gardner Gardner, 1983
Diverse preferred modes of learning for each individual
Different ways of information processing
Result of years of scientific brain research
Intelligence is not fixed at birth. It changes and grows through life. It can be improved and expanded.
Intelligence can be taught and improved by activating levels of perception.
Intelligence is a multiple phenomenon that occurs in many different parts of the brain/mind/body system.
A stronger, more dominant intelligence can be used to train (improve or strengthen) a weaker intelligence.
Most persons possess all intelligences – but in varying strengths (at varying times)
Frames of Mind
“ The ways in which intelligences combine and blend are as varied as the faces and personalities of individuals”
Intelligence is changeable – not stagnant
Genetics influences intelligence
BUT providing a nurturing, positive, and stimulating learning environment is very important!
Unique Gardner, 1983
Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence – word player
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence - questioner
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence - mover
Visual-Spatial Intelligence - visualizer
Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence – music lover
Interpersonal Intelligence - socializer
Intrapersonal Intelligence - individualizer
Naturalist Intelligence – nature lover
How can we help our children develop their intelligences?
Stage 1: Awaken - trigger the intelligence
Stage 2: Amplify - strengthen by practice
Stage 3: Teach - learn and acquire specific knowledge
Stage 4: Transfer the intelligence to real life - Knowing how to live in the real world
Neurons (brain cells) make connections between different parts of the brain.
The Word Player
Verbal Linguistic Learner
Uses words effectively
Has highly-developed auditory skills
Enjoys reading, playing word games, and writing
Has good memory for verse, lyrics, or trivia
Preschool age great for repetition and memorization
Thinks conceptually and abstractly
Is able to see and explore patterns and relationships
Enjoys reasoning, calculating, playing logic games, solving puzzles.
Likes brain teasers, logical puzzles, and strategy games.
Communicates well through body language
Enjoys physical activity
Excels at hands-on learning
Processes knowledge through bodily sensations – moving, touching, manipulation, role plays, creative movement
Thinks in terms of physical space
Notices images and thinks in pictures
Learns best through drawings, designs, and imagery
What do you know about the learners and their development?
WHO? WHAT? HOW?
What is Teaching? Curriculum What do you teach? Instruction How should you teach it? Assessment How do you determine if you’ve taught it successfully? If learning is not the result, adjust instruction Results in Student Learning!
What Should be Taught?
Essential knowledge changes throughout history and culture
Dictated by social and political pressure
Current California subjects considered “CORE”
Visual and Performing Arts
* Currently tested!
Should we teach only what’s tested?
What should be highlighted: facts, information? data? If so, which of the countless facts that exist?
Subject matters and disciplines--if so, which ones?
Which science, which history?
Should we nurture creativity , critical thinking ?
If there is to be an additional focus, should it be arts, technology, a social focus, a moral focus?
Aims of Education - Today
Public schools in U.S. established for moral and social reasons as well as academic.
“ Surely we should demand more from our schools than to educate people to be proficient in reading and mathematics.” Educational Leadership, September, 2005
Industrial Revolution invented way of thinking about productivity.
Determine best practice for achieving goals
Predict success for all
High premium on effectiveness and efficiency
Measurement mania and competition
The speed of reaching the destination is considered a virtue.
Consider the faster student the brighter student
Elliott Eisner, 2005
Consequences of current reform efforts and emphasis on boosting test scores.
Narrowed the curriculum and “blinkered” our vision of what we used to call “the whole child.”
“ To focus all our attention on measure academic performance is to blind us to these youngster’s need to live a satisfying life.”
Aim is not to simply focus on the narrowly cognitive , but to see how students respond emotionally, imaginatively, and socially.
The arts make it possible in vivid ways to eliminate a distinction between cognition and emotion.
Invention of Education
One of the most magnificent of human inventions is the Invention of Education-- no other species educates its young as do we.
At this time of great change, we must remember the ancient value of education and preserve it—
Not just facts, data, information, but
Knowledge, understanding, judgment, wisdom.
We must use the ancient arts and crafts of education to prepare youngsters for a world we can not anticipate or fully envision.
Howard Gardner, 2003
Today’s Focus for Education
What is Special about Human Beings
“ Human beings have done many terrible things but countless members of our species have done wonderful things as well: works of art, works of music, discoveries of science and technology, heroic acts of courage and sacrifice.
Our youngsters must learn about these achievements, come to respect them, have time to reflect about them (and what it took to achieve them) and aspire some day to achieve anew in the same tradition…or perhaps even to found a new tradition.”
Howard Gardner, 2003
Quote of the Day!
“ Children are not a
can of baked beans… Standardized in the cooking and canning process”
Assembly line model Products have little variability Uniformity is a virtue