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  • 1. Designing a SurveyDesigning a Survey EDUU600EDUU600 Adapted from McMillan & SchumacherAdapted from McMillan & Schumacher
  • 2.  Make items clearMake items clear  Avoid double-barreled questions (avoidAvoid double-barreled questions (avoid and)and)  Respondents must be competent toRespondents must be competent to answer (and provide reliable information)answer (and provide reliable information)  Questions should be relevantQuestions should be relevant  Short, simple items are bestShort, simple items are best  Avoid negative itemsAvoid negative items  Avoid biased items or termsAvoid biased items or terms Writing Questions andWriting Questions and StatementsStatements
  • 3. Types of ItemsTypes of Items  Closed Form – Structured response whereClosed Form – Structured response where subject chooses between predeterminedsubject chooses between predetermined responsesresponses  Open Form – subject writes in any responseOpen Form – subject writes in any response  Scaled itemsScaled items – Gradations, levels, or valuesGradations, levels, or values – Likert scaleLikert scale – Semantic differential scaleSemantic differential scale – Ranked itemsRanked items – Checklist itemsChecklist items
  • 4. Data Collection TechniquesData Collection Techniques Pros and ConsPros and Cons  Paper/pencilPaper/pencil – Economical/standardEconomical/standard – Norms inappropriateNorms inappropriate – Must be able to readMust be able to read  Alternative AssessmentAlternative Assessment – Holistic/authenticHolistic/authentic – Subjective ratingSubjective rating – Costly/time-consumingCostly/time-consuming  Questionnaire or SurveyQuestionnaire or Survey – Economical/easy to scoreEconomical/easy to score – Response rate/inability to probe and clarifyResponse rate/inability to probe and clarify – Biased/ambiguous itemsBiased/ambiguous items
  • 5. Interview and ObservationInterview and Observation  InterviewInterview – Flexible/include nonverbal responsesFlexible/include nonverbal responses – Costly/time consumingCostly/time consuming – Can be anonymousCan be anonymous – Effect of interviewer and interviewer biasEffect of interviewer and interviewer bias  ObservationObservation – Captures natural behaviorCaptures natural behavior – Costly/time consumingCostly/time consuming – Observer biasObserver bias – Not anonymousNot anonymous
  • 6. Designing a QuestionnaireDesigning a Questionnaire StronglyStrongly AgreeAgree AgreeAgree NeutralNeutral DisagreeDisagree StronglyStrongly DisagreeDisagree AlwaysAlways Most of theMost of the TimeTime SometimesSometimes RarelyRarely NeverNever Very happyVery happy SomewhatSomewhat happyhappy Neither sadNeither sad or happyor happy SomewhatSomewhat sadsad Very SadVery Sad Use a Likert Scale, (or combination of Likert, ranking and differential) Like Dislike Important Unimportant
  • 7. Smileys for KidsSmileys for Kids  Questions must be readQuestions must be read  Child can respond by circling correctChild can respond by circling correct responseresponse  May respond verbally or by pointingMay respond verbally or by pointing
  • 8. Open-ended QuestionsOpen-ended Questions  Questions to which there is not one definiteQuestions to which there is not one definite answer.answer.  May be a good way to break the ice with a surveyMay be a good way to break the ice with a survey  Gives respondents an opportunity to answer inGives respondents an opportunity to answer in their own words.their own words.  Example: "Are there any other comments aboutExample: "Are there any other comments about the course you would like to add?"the course you would like to add?"  Responses to open-ended questions can be veryResponses to open-ended questions can be very useful, often yielding quotable material.useful, often yielding quotable material.  Drawback is that the responses are more difficultDrawback is that the responses are more difficult to catalogue and interpretto catalogue and interpret From types of survey questions -
  • 9. Closed-ended QuestionsClosed-ended Questions  Have a finite set of answers from which theHave a finite set of answers from which the respondent chooses.respondent chooses.  One of the choices may be "Other" but need toOne of the choices may be "Other" but need to provide a write-in responseprovide a write-in response  Easy to standardizeEasy to standardize  Data gathered from closed-ended questions lendData gathered from closed-ended questions lend themselves to statistical analysisthemselves to statistical analysis  More difficult to write than open-ended questionsMore difficult to write than open-ended questions  Design choices must include allDesign choices must include all the possiblethe possible answers a respondent could give for eachanswers a respondent could give for each questionquestion From types of survey questions -
  • 10. Likert ScaleLikert Scale  When you want to know respondents'When you want to know respondents' feelings or attitudes about somethingfeelings or attitudes about something  Respondents must indicate how closelyRespondents must indicate how closely their feelings match the question ortheir feelings match the question or statement on a rating scale.statement on a rating scale.  Number at one end of the scale representsNumber at one end of the scale represents least agreement, or "Strongly Disagree”least agreement, or "Strongly Disagree”  Number at the other end of the scaleNumber at the other end of the scale represents most agreement, or "Stronglyrepresents most agreement, or "Strongly Agree"Agree" From types of survey questions -
  • 11. Multiple ChoiceMultiple Choice  When you want respondents to pickWhen you want respondents to pick the best answer or answers fromthe best answer or answers from among all the possible options,among all the possible options,  Multiple-choice questions are easy toMultiple-choice questions are easy to lay out on a written survey.lay out on a written survey.  Include specific directions about howInclude specific directions about how many answers to select directly aftermany answers to select directly after the question.the question. From types of survey questions -
  • 12. Other Closed QuestionsOther Closed Questions  Ordinal: When you need all possibleOrdinal: When you need all possible answers to be rank orderedanswers to be rank ordered  Categorical: When the possibleCategorical: When the possible answers for a question are categoriesanswers for a question are categories – Each respondent must "belong" inEach respondent must "belong" in exactly one of themexactly one of them  Numerical: When the answer mustNumerical: When the answer must be a real numberbe a real number From types of survey questions -
  • 13. When to Use What Type Question Type of question... Best Used for... Open-ended Breaking the ice in an interview; when respondents' own words are important; when the surveyor doesn't know all the possible answers. Closed-ended Collecting rank ordered data; when all response choices are known; when quantitative statistical results are desired. Likert-scale To assess a person's feelings about something. Multiple-choice When there are a finite number of options (remember to instruct respondents as to the number of answers to select). Ordinal To rate things in relation to other things. Categorical When the answers are categories, and each respondent must fall into exactly one of them. Numerical For real numbers, like age, number of months, etc.
  • 14. InfoPoll Survey TipsInfoPoll Survey Tips  Write a short questionnaireWrite a short questionnaire  Use simple wordsUse simple words  Relax your grammarRelax your grammar  Assure a common understandingAssure a common understanding  Start with interesting questionsStart with interesting questions  Don't write leading questionDon't write leading question  Avoid double negativesAvoid double negatives  Balance rating scalesBalance rating scales
  • 15. InfoPoll Survey TipsInfoPoll Survey Tips  Don't make the list of choices too longDon't make the list of choices too long  Avoid difficult conceptsAvoid difficult concepts  Avoid difficult recall questionsAvoid difficult recall questions  Use Closed-ended questions rather thanUse Closed-ended questions rather than Open-ended onesOpen-ended ones  Put your questions in a logical orderPut your questions in a logical order  Pre-test your surveyPre-test your survey  Name your survey to pique interestName your survey to pique interest  Include cover memo or introductionInclude cover memo or introduction
  • 16. Online Survey EnginesOnline Survey Engines  Survey Monkey - (Basic Account Free)Survey Monkey - (Basic Account Free) http://www.surveymonkey.com  Survey Suite (14 days free) -Survey Suite (14 days free) -  Other Surveys -Other Surveys -  Zoomerang -Zoomerang -  Advanced Survey -Advanced Survey -  Online Survey Builder -Online Survey Builder -  Create Survey -Create Survey -
  • 17. ResourcesResources  Types of Survey Questions -Types of Survey Questions -  Writing questions -Writing questions - stion.htmstion.htm  U of Texas - Survey Questions -U of Texas - Survey Questions - hods/survey.phphods/survey.php  How to write a good survey -How to write a good survey -  Super Survey - Survey - questions.htmquestions.htm  Writing Effective Survey Questions -Writing Effective Survey Questions - questions.aspquestions.asp  Designing Surveys that Count -Designing Surveys that Count -