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early childhood

early childhood

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Social Social Presentation Transcript

  • Social and Emotional Competence Teaching Strategies: Dodge, Dombro, Koralek, Pizzolongo Preschool Children with Special Needs: Lerner, Lowenthal, Egan Prepared by Dr. Carla Piper and Libby Holmes
  • Goal is Self-discipline
    • Ability to control one’s own behavior
    • Make own decisions and choices based on what is right
    • Know the difference between right and wrong
    • Can correct own mistakes
    • Value acceptable behavior
    • Don’t behave well just because of fear of punishment .
  • Positive Guidance
    • Take action to prevent dangerous or unacceptable behavior before it occurs
    • Intervene and redirect behavior to guide child towards a better choice
    • Step in and stop an inappropriate behavior
    • Model what is acceptable and what is not
    • Encourage and offer your own acceptance of good behavior by a child
  • Provide an environment that promotes self-discipline
    • Remove safety hazards and encourage safe exploration
    • Store toys and equipment on low shelves
    • Prepare children for changes in advance
    • Organize daily routines to keep waiting time down to a minimum
    • Arrange the room to provide child with private space
    • Follow children’s cues when planning activities
    • Involve children in making up rules.
  • Use Positive Methods to Guide Each Child’s Behavior
    • Try to understand why a child is crying
    • Help children see the consequences of their actions
    • Redirect children to acceptable activities
    • Stay with child who is having tantrum
    • Use simple, positive reminders to restate rules
    • Gently move children while accepting their need to say no
    • Know when ignoring inappropriate behavior is constructive
    • Assume a firm, authoritarian role only when necessary to keep children safe
  • Help Children Understand and Express their Feelings in Acceptable Ways
    • Make it easier to wait for a turn
    • Offer an angry child a soothing activity
    • Give children words for their feelings
    • Model acceptable ways to express anger
    • Listen to children’s crying or words that tell how they are feeling
    • Tell children you accept their feelings, even when their actions are not acceptable
    • Work with parents to help a child with a challenging behavior
  • Infants
    • Need what they need when they need it
    • Studies show that when infants needs are met quickly, the infant cries less often
    • At 6-8 months, infants begin to have more control over their actions
    • Between 10-12 months, infants begin to realize that caregivers don’t approve of some of the things they do
    • A caregiver’s tone of voice or firm “no” can help infants learn the limits.
  • Toddlers
    • Can try your patience!
    • One minute they want to be independent and the next, they want to be babies
    • Time for tantrums and losing control
    • Need caregivers to set limits
    • Beginning to learn what is acceptable
    • Can be possessive
    • Eager to please adults but will test limits
    • Will sometimes hit out of anger
  • Preschool Children Milestones
    • Dr. Stanley Greenspan’s Milestones
      • Children learn to get involved in their play and activities
      • Children enjoy being with others
      • Children understand and respond appropriately to nonverbal cues
      • Children learn to use words to express their feelings
      • Children learn to understand the consequence of their actions.
  • Discipline versus Punishment
    • Punishment
      • Controlling child’s behavior through fear
      • May stop children’s negative behavior temporarily
      • Doesn’t help children develop self-discipline
      • May reinforce bad feelings about themselves
    • Discipline
      • Guiding and directing children toward acceptable behavior
      • Help children learn how to control their own behavior
      • Children not born with self control – but learn through daily interactions with other children and adults .
  • Principles for Enhancing Social Competence
    • Children’s feelings deserve respect.
    • Respecting children’s feelings does not always mean allowing children to act on those feelings.
    • Social competence is socially defined.
    • Must show respect for different cultures
    • Respect different patterns of appropriate interaction.
  • Social Competence
    • Ability to initiate and maintain satisfying, reciprocal relationships with peers and adults.
    • Children achieve a good developmental outcome with social competence.
    • Children who lack social competence are at risk
      • Academic failure
      • Dropping out of school
      • Delinquency
      • Mental health problems.
  • Emotional Regulation
    • Must be able to control frustration long enough to resolve conflict
    • Contributes to peer status and friendship.
    • Can be established by attending preschool.
  • Social Knowledge and Understanding
    • Needed to form friendships
    • Children need knowledge of norms and customs
    • Involves having the ability to predict/anticipate other’s preferences.
    • Children need be able to express feelings openly
    • Involves children being able to understand other’s feelings as well
  • Social Skills and Peer Acceptance
    • Preschool children need to gain access to play groups and allow others to join their own play groups (turn-taking)
    • Able to request information from the other children about their activities
    • Need to contribute to ongoing discussions among peers
    • Peer-directed aggression is a factor in determining social acceptance among peers.
  • Social Dispositions
    • A pattern of behavior exhibited frequently and in the absence of coercion
    • A habit of mind that is under some conscious control.
    • A social disposition is the characteristic ways in which a child responds to social situations.
    • Some examples
      • curiosity
      • creativity
      • impulsivity
      • humorousness
  • Direct Communication
    • Helps adults be effective with children.
    • Use direct, authentic and straightforward communication
      • Norms, rules and expectations for participation in the group
    • Preschool children become more and more capable of responding to direct and straightforward suggestions and directions.
    • Meaningful relationships require content
      • Adults must have relationships based on content, not behavior.
    • Long-term social development is best
    • Foster relationships with children based on content rather than the behavior to be changed.
  • Teacher Intervention
    • Teacher Intevention
      • Should not be so frequent that children have few opportunities to solve their own problems.
      • Should be frequent enough to ensure that no child falls into a negative recursive cycle.
      • Teacher must have knowledge of each child in a group and constant monitoring of each child’s progress.
    • Adults’ expectations shape children’s characters
      • Attributions adults make about children’s characters tend to be adopted by the children,
        • Become their self-images
        • In turn they try to live up to those self images.
      • Unpopular children may experience repeated rejections because they expect to be rejected
  • Teachers Model Social Competence
    • Teachers need to be aware of their interactions with children.
    • Help resolve conflicts or offer suggestions to children about their interactions
    • Interact and listen rather than just lecture
  • Social Difficulties
    • Misbehavior is an opportunity to teach the child more effective way of responding to a situation.
    • Social behavior develops in cycles
      • Social behavior leads to a response which leads to a social behavior and so on…
      • The cycles can be positive or negative.
    • Potential for bias based on the reputation of the child
      • Leads to them either being accepted or rejected by their peers.
    • Behavior patterns are difficult to change.
    • Adults need to help children change their behavior.
  • Fostering Social Competence
    • Arouse empathy
      • Encourage the child to be empathetic to other’s feelings.
      • Example: “Robin has been waiting a long time, and you know how it feels to wait.”
    • Deepen understanding of effect of actions on others
      • Especially important for aggressive children.
      • Example: “I am sure Billy doesn’t like it when you hit him. Try another way to tell him what you mean.”
    • Help children anticipate other’s feelings
      • The goal is to help children develop the ability to speculate and anticipate the responses and feelings of peers to various events.
      • Children will begin to deepen their understanding of other’s feelings.
      • Example: “How do you think Jamie will feel coming back to class tomorrow to see we’ve changed the class around?”
  • Discusssions with Children
    • Help children interpret why others are feeling something.
      • Example: “I wonder why Joey was feeling mad this morning”
    • Help children participate in ongoing discussions.
      • Offer specific suggestions about topics that the child could bring up.
    • Help children discover common ground with others.
      • Example: Jenny collects shells; she might like to see you new one.”
  • Strengthening Interactive Skills
    • Foster verbal communication
      • Give the child ways to state feelings clearly.
    • Offer suggestions for verbal openings
      • Help the approaching child make a positive comment.
      • Example: “I really like that block structure you are making. Can I join you?”
    • Strengthen turn-taking skills
      • Example: “You know how it feels to wait a long time.”
      • Saying this can encourage the child to share by reminding them of how to take turns.
  • Help Children Negotiate
    • Help children learn to negotiate
      • “ Tell Johnny that you’ll let him use the truck if you get to use it after him”
      • Children will need assistance making sure that the agreement made is followed through upon.
      • If a child negotiates and adults don’t assist with follow through, the child is less like to use the skill again.
    • Teach children to assert their preferences gracefully
      • Help children come up with reasons for why they want certain things.
      • Ex: “ Let Janey know why you want to play the mother, not the cat.”
    • Help bullies change their behavior
      • “ I don’t like it when you hit Tina. It hurts her.”
      • Give the child an alternative action.
  • Changing Behavior
    • Help victims change their behavior
      • “ Tell him you don’t like it when he hits you.”
      • Encourage the child to use their words to solve the problem rather than go straight to an adult for help.
    • Pair children
      • Pair a child who lacks social competence skills with one that has some.
  • Provide Social Skills Training
    • Knowledge
      • Does the child have the knowledge of what skills are needed in specific situations?
    • Action
      • Is the child developmentally capable to practice and act in accordance with their knowledge?
    • Application
      • Can the child generalize skills to new situations?
      • Can the child take a skill that is appropriate in one situation and apply it to a similar situation?