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early childhood

early childhood

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  • 1. Social and Emotional Competence Teaching Strategies: Dodge, Dombro, Koralek, Pizzolongo Preschool Children with Special Needs: Lerner, Lowenthal, Egan Prepared by Dr. Carla Piper and Libby Holmes
  • 2. Goal is Self-discipline <ul><li>Ability to control one’s own behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Make own decisions and choices based on what is right </li></ul><ul><li>Know the difference between right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Can correct own mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Value acceptable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t behave well just because of fear of punishment . </li></ul>
  • 3. Positive Guidance <ul><li>Take action to prevent dangerous or unacceptable behavior before it occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Intervene and redirect behavior to guide child towards a better choice </li></ul><ul><li>Step in and stop an inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Model what is acceptable and what is not </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage and offer your own acceptance of good behavior by a child </li></ul>
  • 4. Provide an environment that promotes self-discipline <ul><li>Remove safety hazards and encourage safe exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Store toys and equipment on low shelves </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare children for changes in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Organize daily routines to keep waiting time down to a minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange the room to provide child with private space </li></ul><ul><li>Follow children’s cues when planning activities </li></ul><ul><li>Involve children in making up rules. </li></ul>
  • 5. Use Positive Methods to Guide Each Child’s Behavior <ul><li>Try to understand why a child is crying </li></ul><ul><li>Help children see the consequences of their actions </li></ul><ul><li>Redirect children to acceptable activities </li></ul><ul><li>Stay with child who is having tantrum </li></ul><ul><li>Use simple, positive reminders to restate rules </li></ul><ul><li>Gently move children while accepting their need to say no </li></ul><ul><li>Know when ignoring inappropriate behavior is constructive </li></ul><ul><li>Assume a firm, authoritarian role only when necessary to keep children safe </li></ul>
  • 6. Help Children Understand and Express their Feelings in Acceptable Ways <ul><li>Make it easier to wait for a turn </li></ul><ul><li>Offer an angry child a soothing activity </li></ul><ul><li>Give children words for their feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Model acceptable ways to express anger </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to children’s crying or words that tell how they are feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Tell children you accept their feelings, even when their actions are not acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Work with parents to help a child with a challenging behavior </li></ul>
  • 7. Infants <ul><li>Need what they need when they need it </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show that when infants needs are met quickly, the infant cries less often </li></ul><ul><li>At 6-8 months, infants begin to have more control over their actions </li></ul><ul><li>Between 10-12 months, infants begin to realize that caregivers don’t approve of some of the things they do </li></ul><ul><li>A caregiver’s tone of voice or firm “no” can help infants learn the limits. </li></ul>
  • 8. Toddlers <ul><li>Can try your patience! </li></ul><ul><li>One minute they want to be independent and the next, they want to be babies </li></ul><ul><li>Time for tantrums and losing control </li></ul><ul><li>Need caregivers to set limits </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning to learn what is acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Can be possessive </li></ul><ul><li>Eager to please adults but will test limits </li></ul><ul><li>Will sometimes hit out of anger </li></ul>
  • 9. Preschool Children Milestones <ul><li>Dr. Stanley Greenspan’s Milestones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children learn to get involved in their play and activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children enjoy being with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children understand and respond appropriately to nonverbal cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children learn to use words to express their feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children learn to understand the consequence of their actions. </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Discipline versus Punishment <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling child’s behavior through fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May stop children’s negative behavior temporarily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t help children develop self-discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May reinforce bad feelings about themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guiding and directing children toward acceptable behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help children learn how to control their own behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children not born with self control – but learn through daily interactions with other children and adults . </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Principles for Enhancing Social Competence <ul><li>Children’s feelings deserve respect. </li></ul><ul><li>Respecting children’s feelings does not always mean allowing children to act on those feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Social competence is socially defined. </li></ul><ul><li>Must show respect for different cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Respect different patterns of appropriate interaction. </li></ul>
  • 12. Social Competence <ul><li>Ability to initiate and maintain satisfying, reciprocal relationships with peers and adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Children achieve a good developmental outcome with social competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who lack social competence are at risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropping out of school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delinquency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health problems. </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Emotional Regulation <ul><li>Must be able to control frustration long enough to resolve conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to peer status and friendship. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be established by attending preschool. </li></ul>
  • 14. Social Knowledge and Understanding <ul><li>Needed to form friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Children need knowledge of norms and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Involves having the ability to predict/anticipate other’s preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Children need be able to express feelings openly </li></ul><ul><li>Involves children being able to understand other’s feelings as well </li></ul>
  • 15. Social Skills and Peer Acceptance <ul><li>Preschool children need to gain access to play groups and allow others to join their own play groups (turn-taking) </li></ul><ul><li>Able to request information from the other children about their activities </li></ul><ul><li>Need to contribute to ongoing discussions among peers </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-directed aggression is a factor in determining social acceptance among peers. </li></ul>
  • 16. Social Dispositions <ul><li>A pattern of behavior exhibited frequently and in the absence of coercion </li></ul><ul><li>A habit of mind that is under some conscious control. </li></ul><ul><li>A social disposition is the characteristic ways in which a child responds to social situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>curiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impulsivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>humorousness </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Direct Communication <ul><li>Helps adults be effective with children. </li></ul><ul><li>Use direct, authentic and straightforward communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms, rules and expectations for participation in the group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preschool children become more and more capable of responding to direct and straightforward suggestions and directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful relationships require content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults must have relationships based on content, not behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term social development is best </li></ul><ul><li>Foster relationships with children based on content rather than the behavior to be changed. </li></ul>
  • 18. Teacher Intervention <ul><li>Teacher Intevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not be so frequent that children have few opportunities to solve their own problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be frequent enough to ensure that no child falls into a negative recursive cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher must have knowledge of each child in a group and constant monitoring of each child’s progress. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adults’ expectations shape children’s characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributions adults make about children’s characters tend to be adopted by the children, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Become their self-images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In turn they try to live up to those self images. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpopular children may experience repeated rejections because they expect to be rejected </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Teachers Model Social Competence <ul><li>Teachers need to be aware of their interactions with children. </li></ul><ul><li>Help resolve conflicts or offer suggestions to children about their interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Interact and listen rather than just lecture </li></ul>
  • 20. Social Difficulties <ul><li>Misbehavior is an opportunity to teach the child more effective way of responding to a situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Social behavior develops in cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social behavior leads to a response which leads to a social behavior and so on… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cycles can be positive or negative. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential for bias based on the reputation of the child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to them either being accepted or rejected by their peers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior patterns are difficult to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults need to help children change their behavior. </li></ul>
  • 21. Fostering Social Competence <ul><li>Arouse empathy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage the child to be empathetic to other’s feelings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “Robin has been waiting a long time, and you know how it feels to wait.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deepen understanding of effect of actions on others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially important for aggressive children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “I am sure Billy doesn’t like it when you hit him. Try another way to tell him what you mean.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help children anticipate other’s feelings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is to help children develop the ability to speculate and anticipate the responses and feelings of peers to various events. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children will begin to deepen their understanding of other’s feelings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “How do you think Jamie will feel coming back to class tomorrow to see we’ve changed the class around?” </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Discusssions with Children <ul><li>Help children interpret why others are feeling something. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “I wonder why Joey was feeling mad this morning” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help children participate in ongoing discussions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer specific suggestions about topics that the child could bring up. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help children discover common ground with others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Jenny collects shells; she might like to see you new one.” </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Strengthening Interactive Skills <ul><li>Foster verbal communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give the child ways to state feelings clearly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offer suggestions for verbal openings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help the approaching child make a positive comment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “I really like that block structure you are making. Can I join you?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strengthen turn-taking skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “You know how it feels to wait a long time.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saying this can encourage the child to share by reminding them of how to take turns. </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Help Children Negotiate <ul><li>Help children learn to negotiate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tell Johnny that you’ll let him use the truck if you get to use it after him” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children will need assistance making sure that the agreement made is followed through upon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a child negotiates and adults don’t assist with follow through, the child is less like to use the skill again. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teach children to assert their preferences gracefully </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help children come up with reasons for why they want certain things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “ Let Janey know why you want to play the mother, not the cat.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help bullies change their behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t like it when you hit Tina. It hurts her.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give the child an alternative action. </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Changing Behavior <ul><li>Help victims change their behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tell him you don’t like it when he hits you.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage the child to use their words to solve the problem rather than go straight to an adult for help. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pair children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pair a child who lacks social competence skills with one that has some. </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Provide Social Skills Training <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the child have the knowledge of what skills are needed in specific situations? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the child developmentally capable to practice and act in accordance with their knowledge? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the child generalize skills to new situations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the child take a skill that is appropriate in one situation and apply it to a similar situation? </li></ul></ul>

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