Questions to Consider:
Making Content Comprehensible
for English Language Learners
SIOP Model Review
Sheltered Instruction...
• Are your content and language learning objectives written on
the board? Did you state them orally to the students?
• Is ...
Building Background
• Did you link explicit
concepts to students’
background
experience?
• Did you make clear
links betwee...
Comprehensible Input Checklist
• Did you speak appropriately to accommodate students’
proficiency level?
• Did you explain...
Strategies Checklist
• Did you provide ample opportunities for students to
use strategies?
– GIST, SQP2R, Reciprocal Teach...
Interaction Checklist
• Did you provide frequent opportunities for interaction and
discussion?
• Did you give opportunitie...
Practice and Application Checklist
• Did you supply lots of hands-on materials?
• Did you provide activities for students ...
Lesson Delivery Checklist
• Did your lesson clearly support content objectives?
– objectives apparent throughout lesson
– ...
Review and Assessment
• Did you provide comprehensive review of key vocabulary?
– teach, review, assess, teach…
– use word...
LIBRARY OF TEACHING
STRATEGIES
Lesson Design
• Base lessons on grade-level
appropriate curriculum
• Share content and
language objectives with EL
student...
Strategies: Making Content Accessible
• Graphic Organizers
• Outlines
• Leveled Study Guides
• Highlighted Text
• Taped Te...
Vocabulary Strategies
• Students should:
– be active in developing
understanding
– personalize word
learning
– be immersed...
Continuum of Strategies
Student-Centered
Rehearsal:
Repeated
Selective Underlining
Two-column notes
Mental Imagery:
Guided...
Strategies and Techniques
• Step by Step
– Present instructions in a step-
by-step manner and/or with
demonstrations.
– Wr...
More Strategies for Understanding
• Questioning Techniques
– Cube Rolls
• Thinking Cube with 6 higher order questions from...
More Strategies
• GIST summarizing strategy:
– After reading a passage or
section of text, teacher and
students underline ...
Student Interactions
• Encouraging more elaborate responses:
– going beyond “yes” and “no” answers—
– “Tell me more about ...
Grouping Configurations
• Recommendation – at least 2
different groupings in every
lesson
• Whole class
– To develop class...
Wait Time
• Wait time varies by culture:
– The average length of wait
time in US classrooms is
clearly not sufficient—give...
Cooperative Learning Activities
• Information gap activities
– Each student in a group has only one or two
pieces of infor...
More Group Activity Ideas
• Roundtable
– Use with open-ended questions, grammar
practice.
– 4-5 students are grouped at ta...
Hands-on Materials for Practice
• Give students multiple opportunities to practice.
• Practice in relevant, meaningful way...
SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
• Paraphrasing
– oral rehearsal of what student is going to say
with group before saying it to the whole...
Review and Informal Assessment
• Review Key Concepts
– Outcome Sentences wrap up
technique Students respond to one of
the ...
Assessment
• Assessment
– “the gathering and synthesizing of information
concerning students’ learning”
• Evaluation
– “ma...
SIOP Resources
• Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making
Content Comprehensible for English Language
Learners. Pearson.
...
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SIOP Review

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Review of SIOP Principles

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SIOP Review

  1. 1. Questions to Consider: Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners SIOP Model Review Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
  2. 2. • Are your content and language learning objectives written on the board? Did you state them orally to the students? • Is the content appropriate for these students’ educational and linguistic background? • Do you have supplementary materials ready to help make lessons clear and meaningful? • Do you have ways to adapt content to all levels of student proficiency? – graphic organizers, study guides, taped texts, jigsaw reading… • Are your activities meaningful and authentic? • Do your activities integrate lesson concepts with language practice opportunities? – surveys, letter writing, making models, plays, games… Lesson Preparation Checklist Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  3. 3. Building Background • Did you link explicit concepts to students’ background experience? • Did you make clear links between students’ past learning and new concepts? • Did you emphasize key vocabulary? • Major Instructional Interventions – Pre-teach vocabulary – Provide experiences (ex: showing video before lesson) – Introduce conceptual framework (ex: graphic organizers Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  4. 4. Comprehensible Input Checklist • Did you speak appropriately to accommodate students’ proficiency level? • Did you explain academic tasks clearly? • Did you use a variety of techniques to make content concepts clear? – modeling, hands-on materials, visuals, demos, gestures, film clips… • Did you speak slowly and enunciate clearly? • Did you avoid jargon? • Did you paraphrase and use repetition? • Did you keep your sentence structure simple? Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  5. 5. Strategies Checklist • Did you provide ample opportunities for students to use strategies? – GIST, SQP2R, Reciprocal Teaching, mnemonics, 12 minute research paper, 2 column notes, repeated readings, … • Did you use scaffolding techniques throughout lesson – think-alouds, paraphrasing, partnering… • Did you employ a variety of question types in discussion? – use Question Cube, Thinking Cube, Bloom’s Taxonomy… Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  6. 6. Interaction Checklist • Did you provide frequent opportunities for interaction and discussion? • Did you give opportunities for “oral rehearsal?” • Can you group students to support language and content objectives? – use at least 2 different structures during a lesson—pairs, triads, teams, varied by language proficiency or interest • Do you consistently allow for sufficient wait time? – let other students write down answers while waiting for one student to respond • Did you give ample opportunities for clarification for concepts in L1? - use bilingual paraprofessionals, native language materials, notes by students… Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  7. 7. Practice and Application Checklist • Did you supply lots of hands-on materials? • Did you provide activities for students to apply content/language knowledge? – discussing and doing make abstract concepts concrete – allow students to work in partners before working alone • Did you integrate all language skills into each lesson? – listening, speaking, reading, writing Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  8. 8. Lesson Delivery Checklist • Did your lesson clearly support content objectives? – objectives apparent throughout lesson – no “bird-walks” • Did you clearly support language objectives? – students given ample opportunities to “show off” their language capabilities in speaking, reading, writing • Did you engage students 90-100% of the lesson? – less “teacher talk” – no “down-time” – students are actively working in whole groups, small groups, individually… • Did you pace the lesson appropriately to students’ ability level? Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  9. 9. Review and Assessment • Did you provide comprehensive review of key vocabulary? – teach, review, assess, teach… – use word study books – Content Word Wall • Did you provide a comprehensive review of key content concepts? – review content directly related to objectives throughout lesson – use graphic organizers as review • Did you give regular feedback to students on their output? – clarify, discuss, correct responses • Did you conduct assessment of student comprehension and learning? – use a variety of quick reviews: thumbs up-down, numbered wheels, small dry erase boards; include student self-assessment… Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  10. 10. LIBRARY OF TEACHING STRATEGIES
  11. 11. Lesson Design • Base lessons on grade-level appropriate curriculum • Share content and language objectives with EL students – take from Grade-Level Content Expectations • Start with “jump-start” mini lessons that develop context and access to background knowledge • Plan meaningful, real-life activities – Plan activities to promote language – Relate authentic activities to students’ lives – Apply to grade level content standards – Involve students in reading, writing, discussion of important concepts and ideas Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  12. 12. Strategies: Making Content Accessible • Graphic Organizers • Outlines • Leveled Study Guides • Highlighted Text • Taped Text • Adapted Text • Jigsaw Text Reading • Marginal Notes • Native Language Texts • Hands-on manipulatives and realia • Pictures, photos, visuals • Multimedia: film clips, songs and chants, posters, computer games • Demonstrations: step by step modeling • Leveled fiction and nonfiction books • Websites Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  13. 13. Vocabulary Strategies • Students should: – be active in developing understanding – personalize word learning – be immersed in words – build on multiple sources of information – repeat exposures to words (Recommended 25 times for word ownership) • Contextualize key vocabulary • Allow students to self-select essential vocabulary • Personal Dictionaries • Content Word Wall • Concept Definition Map • Cloze Sentences • Word Sorts • Word Generation • Word Study Books • Vocabulary Games • Visual Vocabulary • Vocabulary through Songs
  14. 14. Continuum of Strategies Student-Centered Rehearsal: Repeated Selective Underlining Two-column notes Mental Imagery: Guided Imagery Peer-Assisted Creating Analogies Role Playing Organizational: Peer Tutoring Graphic Organizers Teacher-Assisted Reciprocal Teaching Outlining Drill and practice Cooperative Learning  Discovery Learning  Teacher-Centered Brainstorming  Lecture Discussion  Direct Instruction  Demonstration  Recitation  Moving Students to Independence Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  15. 15. Strategies and Techniques • Step by Step – Present instructions in a step- by-step manner and/or with demonstrations. – Write oral directions on board – Ask students to re-explain – Use peer-modeling – Focus attention on one group that is functioning well on activity. – Let those students explain step-by-step instructions to whole class using an overhead transparency • Scaffolding Techniques – Verbal scaffolding: paraphrasing – Think-Alouds – Reinforcing contextual definitions – Model – Use gestures – Employ hands-on activities – Demonstrate techniques and experiments – Discussion – Sentence strips – Reporting out orally – Multimedia, PowerPoint, Websites, and other Technologies Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  16. 16. More Strategies for Understanding • Questioning Techniques – Cube Rolls • Thinking Cube with 6 higher order questions from Bloom’s Taxonomy • Question Cube - Who, What, When, Where, Why, How – QAR (Question-Answer Relationships) • Distinguish between “Right here” (literal) questions, “Author and Me” (inferential), and “On My Own” (from experience) questions – QtA (Questioning the Author) • Develop a deep comprehension of the reading material. • Mnemonics—using acronyms to memorize terms or concepts, ex: HOMES –each letter stands for one of the Great Lakes • “I Wonder” Brainstorming about book, topic, theme—should be in the form of questions (who, what, when, what if, why…) or “I wonder if…” Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  17. 17. More Strategies • GIST summarizing strategy: – After reading a passage or section of text, teacher and students underline or pick out 10 words and concepts that are “most important” to understanding text. • Illustrate new learning on a poster including appropriate captions and details. • Create a poem, chant, song, or play demonstrating new learning. • Graffiti Write • Word Splash Procedural Scaffolding Whole Class Small Group Partners Independent Work Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  18. 18. Student Interactions • Encouraging more elaborate responses: – going beyond “yes” and “no” answers— – “Tell me more about that” – “What do you mean by…?” – “What else…” – “How do you know?” – “Why is that important?” – “What does that remind you of?” or teacher restates student’s answer— – “In other words…. Is that accurate?” – or teacher allows wait time for student to formulate answer – or teacher calls on another student to extend classmate’s response • Fostering student-student interaction: – Putting students in pairs, triads or small groups – Types of activities that encourage “table talk”: – Literature circles, think-pair-share, jigsaw readings debates, science or math experiments • Other ways: dialogue journals, e-mail, pen pals, research files Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  19. 19. Grouping Configurations • Recommendation – at least 2 different groupings in every lesson • Whole class – To develop classroom community and provide a shared experience for everyone • Flexible small groups – To promote multiple perspectives and encourage collaboration • Flexible small groups – To promote multiple perspectives and encourage collaboration • Homogenous or Heterogeneous grouping – By gender, language proficiency, language background, and/or ability – Variety maintains students’ interest – Movement from whole class, to partners, to small group increases student involvement – Varying group structures increases the preferred mode of instruction for students Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  20. 20. Wait Time • Wait time varies by culture: – The average length of wait time in US classrooms is clearly not sufficient—give students at least 20 seconds wait time • Effective teachers allow students to express their thoughts fully without interruption • Helpful Tips: – Allow students to practice their answer with a partner before calling on them to speak out before the whole class. – Have more advanced students write down their responses while waiting, and then check their answers against the final answer. – If students cannot answer right away let them answer from a list of choices or “phone” (ask) a friend for help. Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  21. 21. Cooperative Learning Activities • Information gap activities – Each student in a group has only one or two pieces of information needed to solve the puzzle or problem. – Students must work together, sharing information while practicing their language, and using critical thinking skills. • Jigsaw – Jigsaw reading task by chunking text into manageable parts (1-2 pages). – Number students in each group (1-4 or 5). – All #1s read the first 2 pages, #2s read the second 2 pages, etc. – These expert groups then discuss their reading and share ideas. – The original groups reconvene, discuss the whole text and share their expertise. – Students pool their information. • Numbered heads together – Similar to Jigsaw without forming expert groups. – Each student works on one portion of assignment and then students share. • Four corners (Carousel) – Great activity to introduce a topic or chapter of study. – Write one question or idea on each chart paper. – Divide class into 4 groups, each group has a different color marker— students move to one corner chart paper and designated student begins writing their ideas on chart. – Time activity 2-4 minutes. – Students move clockwise to next corner, read responses and add their comments. Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  22. 22. More Group Activity Ideas • Roundtable – Use with open-ended questions, grammar practice. – 4-5 students are grouped at tables, one sheet of paper, and one pencil. – Question or grammar point is given by teacher, students pass paper around table, each writing their own response. – Teacher circulates room. • 3 Step Interview – Students are paired. – Each student listens to the other as they respond to a topic question. – At the end of 3 minutes, each pair joins another pair of students and shares what their partners said. – Good way to practice language. • Writing Headlines – Good way to practice summarizing an activity, story or project. – Provide models of Headlines. – Students work in pairs writing a headline for an activity. – Pairs share out their headlines and class votes on most effective headline. • Send a Problem – One table team sends a question or problem to another table. – Each table team solves or answers question and passes it back to original table. – Good way to review for a test. Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  23. 23. Hands-on Materials for Practice • Give students multiple opportunities to practice. • Practice in relevant, meaningful ways • Provide “hands-on “ experiences • Planning for hands-on practice: – Divide content into meaningful short chunks—chunk by meaning, not just length – Time for practice should be short—10-15 minutes – New learning should have several short practices close together – Older learning should be practices distributed further apart—review material periodically – Give students immediate feedback on how well they have done • Connect abstract concepts with concrete experiences: – Material can be organized, created (chart learning), counted, classified (concept mapping), stacked (index card review), rearranged, dismantled Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  24. 24. SCAFFOLDING IDEAS • Paraphrasing – oral rehearsal of what student is going to say with group before saying it to the whole class or saying the definition of a word right after the word • Systematic study – isolated word lists and dictionary definitions alone do not promote vocabulary and language development. – Words should be studied through multiple modalities—see them, say them, write them many times in different ways, act them out, sing them, draw them, and find them in context • Non-print Ways to Review – use “acting out words”, Pictionary, Charades • Word Study Books – student-made personal notebook in which the student includes frequently used words and concepts. – Book can be organized by language structure: -tion, -sion, -tation and/or alphabetical, and/or by topic of study (ex: Revolution words) • “School Talk” sessions – Teach discussion circle protocol: taking turns, polite disagreement words, how to ask and answer questions. – Do a practice session with a fun topic of students’ interest like movie stars, cars…Teach test-taking “talk”—how questions are worded on a test Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  25. 25. Review and Informal Assessment • Review Key Concepts – Outcome Sentences wrap up technique Students respond to one of the following sentence starters: I wonder…, I discovered…, I still want to know…, I learned…, I still don’t understand – Structured review—summarizing with partners, listing key points on board. – Always link to content objective • Informal Assessment: – On-the-spot, ongoing opportunities to determine the extent of students’ learning. – Includes teacher observations, anecdotal reports, informal conversations with students, quick-writes. Group response activities • Agree/Disagree, True/False, Yes/No – index cards that students or groups of students could use to quickly give their answers to questions. • Thumbs up/thumbs down – For “I don’t know” students can make a fist. • Numbered wheels – Tag board strips (5” x 1”). Each strip is numbered 0-5 or 0-10. This allows students to answer multiple-choice questions quickly by holding up appropriate number. O is a “Don’t know” response. • Response boards: – Small chalk or white boards, or even plastic plates Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  26. 26. Assessment • Assessment – “the gathering and synthesizing of information concerning students’ learning” • Evaluation – “making judgments about students’ learning”. Assessment comes first, then evaluation • Gather base-line data before instruction occurs helps teachers know students’ growth over time • Plan multiple assessments in order to truly assess students’ content and language learning Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners.
  27. 27. SIOP Resources • Echevarria, Vogt, & Short. (2004). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners. Pearson. • SIOP at Center for Applied Linguistics - http://www.cal.org/siop/ • The SIOP Institute - http://www.siopinstitute.net/ • PDF File: http://www.misd.net/bilingual/ELL.pdf Amazon.com Listings of SIOP Books
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