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Qualitative technologies

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  • 1. Using Technology in the Qualitative Research Process Carla Piper, Ed. D. Brandman University
  • 2. Types of Technology
    • On-line research, communication, and collaboration
    • Word Processing – type and save text files digitally
    • Code and analyze text in Ethnograph
    • Spreadsheet - Excel
      • Create charts and graphs demonstrated results of study
      • Provide visual representation of data
    • Powerpoint multimedia presentation of results of the study for colleagues
  • 3. Word Processing
    • Create digital files of all text generated in study
      • Field Journal Entries
      • Reflections/Memos
      • Observations/Notetaking/Descriptions
      • Survey Results
      • Interview Transcriptions
      • Audio and Video Transcriptions
      • E-mail/Phone Communications
    • Select “save as text” – available for all computer formats
  • 4. Spreadsheets & Presentations
    • Integrating data with:
      • Excel
      • Powerpoint
  • 5. Ethnograph 5.0
    • Complex program with many dimensions and possible levels of use
    • Used for extensive long-term studies when a variety of information is gathered from multiple sources - sociological, health, ethnographic, educational, socio-economic, etc.
    • Helps to understand what is really happening with individuals in a particular society
    Seidell (1998)
  • 6. Qualitative Research Paradigm
    • Inductive Process
    • Naturalistic Inquiry
    • Discover critical themes and patterns as they emerge from the data
    • Seek out details to understand diverse and unique experiences of each individual
    • Examine multiple realities
    • Exploratory in nature
    • Requires non-standardized methods of investigation
    Patton – 1980 & 1990 Lincoln & Guba - 1985
  • 7. Human as Instrument
    • Can interact with the situation
    • Can be responsive to environmental clues
    • Can provide immediate feedback
    • Can request verification of data
    • Collects information at multiple levels simultaneously
    • Explores atypical or unexpected responses
    • Processes data as soon as they become available
    • Maintains “empathetic neutrality” Patton, 1980
      • Lincoln & Guba, 1985
    • Hoepfl, 1997
  • 8. Trustworthiness of Study
    • Triangulation of multiple sources of data
    • Maintain an audit trail
      • Establish dependability and confirmability of the study
      • Hard copies, disks, audio/video tapes, interview transcriptions, etc.
    • Maintain process notes – researcher’s diary, memos, field observations, etc.
    • Record intentions and dispositions
    • Develop valid instruments – interviews, surveys, questionnaires
    Patton - 1980
  • 9. Appropriate Analysis
    • “ Working with data, organizing it, breaking it into manageable units, synthesizing it, searching for patterns, discovering what is important and what is to be learned, and deciding what you will tell others"
    Bogdan and Biklen (1982)
  • 10. QDA - Qualitative Data Analysis
    • Noticing
      • Producing a record of what you notice
      • As you notice, you code with descriptive meanings
    • Collecting – sorting, classifying, synthesizing, summarizing, indexing
    • Thinking
      • Making sense out the pieces
      • Looking for patterns and relationships
      • Making general discoveries
    Seidell, 1998 – Ethnograph Author
  • 11. The Cycle – Constant Spiral Notice Things Collect Things Think About Things
  • 12. “ A little bit of data and a lot of right brain”
    • “ The critical way of seeing, in my experience at least, comes out of numerous cycles through a little bit of data, massive amounts of thinking about the data, and slippery things like intuition and serendipity.” Agar, 1991
  • 13. Ethnograph helps you…
    • Compile
      • Import data files
      • Reformats text – 40 character/hanging indent
      • Numbers each line of the text
    • Organize
      • Code data files
      • Add contextual comments, identifiers, memos
      • Identify and name interesting things
    • Manipulate
      • Search for coded segments
      • Bring order to the data
      • “ Sort and sift”
      • Compare and contrast
  • 14. Basic Process
    • Create new project (with “child” sub projects)
    • Import ALL typed text into project
    • Code and index text
    • Look for emerging topics of interest
    • Create a hierarchical family codebook indexing key terms
    • Search codes to find, count, examine, and organize data segments
  • 15. Create or Open Project
  • 16. Example of Text Import (+) identifier (:) contextual comment
  • 17. Coded Text ! – Hyper # - Templates $ - Design % - Artifacts % - Objectives
  • 18. Family Tree Codebook
  • 19. Code Counts
  • 20. Searching Options
  • 21. Searching Code Words
  • 22. Search Options
  • 23. Searching Segments
  • 24. Searching for Specific Reference to Code Words
  • 25. Frequency Counts
  • 26. Face and Identifier Sheets
  • 27. Carla Piper, Ed. D.
    • Home Page Index http://www.chapman.edu/univcoll/faculty/piper