Using Technology in the
Qualitative Research Process
Carla Piper, Ed. D.
Brandman University
Types of Technology
 On-line research, communication, and
collaboration
 Word Processing – type and save text
files digi...
Word Processing
 Create digital files of all text generated
in study
 Field Journal Entries
 Reflections/Memos
 Observ...
Spreadsheets & Presentations
Computer Activity
8 + hours
6-7 hours
4-5 hours
2-3 hours
1 hour
Software Usage
58%
17%
8%
67...
Ethnograph 5.0
 Complex program with many
dimensions and possible levels of use
 Used for extensive long-term studies
wh...
Qualitative Research
Paradigm
 Inductive Process
 Naturalistic Inquiry
 Discover critical themes and patterns as they
e...
Human as Instrument
 Can interact with the situation
 Can be responsive to environmental clues
 Can provide immediate f...
Trustworthiness of Study
 Triangulation of multiple sources of data
 Maintain an audit trail
 Establish dependability a...
Appropriate Analysis
“Working with data, organizing it,
breaking it into manageable units,
synthesizing it, searching for
...
QDA - Qualitative Data Analysis
 Noticing
 Producing a record of what you notice
 As you notice, you code with descript...
The Cycle – Constant Spiral
Notice Things
Collect
Things
Think About
Things
“A little bit of data and a lot of
right brain”
“The critical way of seeing, in my
experience at least, comes out of
numer...
Ethnograph helps you…
 Compile
 Import data files
 Reformats text – 40 character/hanging indent
 Numbers each line of ...
Basic Process
 Create new project (with “child” sub
projects)
 Import ALL typed text into project
 Code and index text
...
Create or Open Project
Example of Text Import
(+) identifier
(:) contextual
comment
Coded Text
! – Hyper
# - Templates
$ - Design
% - Artifacts
% - Objectives
Family Tree Codebook
Code Counts
Searching Options
Searching Code Words
Search Options
Searching Segments
Searching for Specific
Reference to Code Words
Frequency Counts
Face and Identifier Sheets
Carla Piper, Ed. D.
Home Page Index
http://www.chapman.edu/univcoll/faculty/piper
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Qualitative technologies

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Qualitative technologies

  1. 1. Using Technology in the Qualitative Research Process Carla Piper, Ed. D. Brandman University
  2. 2. Types of Technology  On-line research, communication, and collaboration  Word Processing – type and save text files digitally  Code and analyze text in Ethnograph  Spreadsheet - Excel  Create charts and graphs demonstrated results of study  Provide visual representation of data  Powerpoint multimedia presentation of results of the study for colleagues
  3. 3. Word Processing  Create digital files of all text generated in study  Field Journal Entries  Reflections/Memos  Observations/Notetaking/Descriptions  Survey Results  Interview Transcriptions  Audio and Video Transcriptions  E-mail/Phone Communications  Select “save as text” – available for all computer formats
  4. 4. Spreadsheets & Presentations Computer Activity 8 + hours 6-7 hours 4-5 hours 2-3 hours 1 hour Software Usage 58% 17% 8% 67% 83% 75% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% E-Mail WWW SS/DB Graphics/MM Research Word Processing  Integrating data with: Excel Powerpoint
  5. 5. Ethnograph 5.0  Complex program with many dimensions and possible levels of use  Used for extensive long-term studies when a variety of information is gathered from multiple sources - sociological, health, ethnographic, educational, socio-economic, etc.  Helps to understand what is really happening with individuals in a particular society Seidell (1998)
  6. 6. Qualitative Research Paradigm  Inductive Process  Naturalistic Inquiry  Discover critical themes and patterns as they emerge from the data  Seek out details to understand diverse and unique experiences of each individual  Examine multiple realities  Exploratory in nature  Requires non-standardized methods of investigation Patton – 1980 & 1990 Lincoln & Guba - 1985
  7. 7. Human as Instrument  Can interact with the situation  Can be responsive to environmental clues  Can provide immediate feedback  Can request verification of data  Collects information at multiple levels simultaneously  Explores atypical or unexpected responses  Processes data as soon as they become available  Maintains “empathetic neutrality” Patton, 1980 Lincoln & Guba, 1985 Hoepfl, 1997
  8. 8. Trustworthiness of Study  Triangulation of multiple sources of data  Maintain an audit trail  Establish dependability and confirmability of the study  Hard copies, disks, audio/video tapes, interview transcriptions, etc.  Maintain process notes – researcher’s diary, memos, field observations, etc.  Record intentions and dispositions  Develop valid instruments – interviews, surveys, questionnaires Patton - 1980
  9. 9. Appropriate Analysis “Working with data, organizing it, breaking it into manageable units, synthesizing it, searching for patterns, discovering what is important and what is to be learned, and deciding what you will tell others" Bogdan and Biklen (1982)
  10. 10. QDA - Qualitative Data Analysis  Noticing  Producing a record of what you notice  As you notice, you code with descriptive meanings  Collecting – sorting, classifying, synthesizing, summarizing, indexing  Thinking  Making sense out the pieces  Looking for patterns and relationships  Making general discoveries Seidell, 1998 – Ethnograph Author
  11. 11. The Cycle – Constant Spiral Notice Things Collect Things Think About Things
  12. 12. “A little bit of data and a lot of right brain” “The critical way of seeing, in my experience at least, comes out of numerous cycles through a little bit of data, massive amounts of thinking about the data, and slippery things like intuition and serendipity.” Agar, 1991
  13. 13. Ethnograph helps you…  Compile  Import data files  Reformats text – 40 character/hanging indent  Numbers each line of the text  Organize  Code data files  Add contextual comments, identifiers, memos  Identify and name interesting things  Manipulate  Search for coded segments  Bring order to the data  “Sort and sift”  Compare and contrast
  14. 14. Basic Process  Create new project (with “child” sub projects)  Import ALL typed text into project  Code and index text  Look for emerging topics of interest  Create a hierarchical family codebook indexing key terms  Search codes to find, count, examine, and organize data segments
  15. 15. Create or Open Project
  16. 16. Example of Text Import (+) identifier (:) contextual comment
  17. 17. Coded Text ! – Hyper # - Templates $ - Design % - Artifacts % - Objectives
  18. 18. Family Tree Codebook
  19. 19. Code Counts
  20. 20. Searching Options
  21. 21. Searching Code Words
  22. 22. Search Options
  23. 23. Searching Segments
  24. 24. Searching for Specific Reference to Code Words
  25. 25. Frequency Counts
  26. 26. Face and Identifier Sheets
  27. 27. Carla Piper, Ed. D. Home Page Index http://www.chapman.edu/univcoll/faculty/piper
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