Integrating Technology into Teaching and Lesson Planning Prepared by Carla Piper, Ed. D.
What is Teaching? Curriculum Instruction What do you teach? How should you teach it? AssessmentHow do you determine if you’ve taught it successfully? How do you know students learned? If learning is not the result, adjust instruction.
What is Curriculum?Experienced Curriculum “Curriculum is what happens.” What the student experiences and perceives during the day Planned or unplannedPlanned Curriculum – Based onAcademic Content Standards Planned learning experiences Know what to teach – CONTENT Know how to teach it - PEDAGOGY
Three Elements of Curriculum“WHO?” The Learner WHO?“WHAT?” The Content WHAT? HOW? Subject Matter“HOW?” The Process of Instruction Kinds of Planned Learning Opportunities From “Who Am I in the Lives of Children?” Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
What do we teach?Educational Values Based on Vision of Society What do you believe is worth knowing? What do you know about the learners and their development? What do you know about subject matter? What is the best way to promote student learning? Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
Instruction How do you plan your lessons?Steps to Lesson Planning 1. What content standard will be met? 2. What are your learning objectives? 3. What is the activity? 4. What is the sequence or timing. 5. Who will participate? 6. What is the overall purpose of the lesson? 7. How will you measure student learning?
Planning InstructionWhat do you need to teach thislesson? Materials Space Time ResourcesWhat do you do? How? When? Introduction – How do you get them interested? Procedure – What will you do and say (step-by-step guide) Closure – How will you help students make a transition to the next activity?
Assessment What will students say or do to show you objectives were met? What will you collect to show student’s learning (portfolios, observations, work samples, photographs, etc.)? How will you evaluate student work? How will you be objective in your assessment?
Reflection How will your assessment guide your teaching practice? What needs to be “re-taught” and how can you teach it differently when assessment demonstrates that some students did not learn the material? Is there a better way to teach this material? What will you do differently next time? How could you extend this activity for another lesson? Was your instruction effective in promoting student learning?
Traditional 5-Step Lesson Plan Format1. Anticipatory Set • “The Hook” to get students interested, curious, motivated. • Setting the stage - providing frame of reference • Scaffolding – tapping in to previous knowledge2. The Instruction – Step by Step Learning of Concept3. Guided Practice – Individualized? Drill?4. Assessment5. Closure – Transition to New Topic
Why Teach with Technology? Do we really need to know how to use technology?What was good enough for me ought to be good enough for my students!
Classifications ofEducational TechnologiesUsed as a tutor - Student answers questionsor solves problems in sequenced learningUsed to explore - Student discovers throughinteractive information, demonstration, orsimulationApplied as a tool for accomplishing tasks andexpressing creativityUsed to communicate - Student retrievesand sends information electronically Barbara Means
Using Instructional Software or Interactive Multimedia WebsitesHow will you structure your class so students can use this software or website effectively? • Whole class? One computer displayed on LCD or TV? Smart board? • Computer lab or library? • Cooperative groups? • Small computer learning center? • Work on computer at home? • Tablet, ipad, android?
Using Instructional TimeIs using this software or website agood use of instructional time?Will using this software or websiteresult in student learning?Is there a better way to teach theseconcepts than through technology?
Using Technology in Lesson PlanningHow is this technology going to helpstudents meet subject matter contentstandards?When will you use an electronic learningresources of website in your lesson plan?Select content-rich software orinteractive, multimedia curriculumwebsites
How do Teachers Decideto Use New Technologies?Stage 1: Use technology to do thingswe can already do but more convenient: Typing vs. word processing Calculator vs. spreadsheetsStage 2: Use technology to improve ontasks we already do: Track student progress Create more professional looking products
Use technology to do things that were not previously possibleReal-time Instant globalmanipulation of data communication- graphs/charts Help with studentsProfessional who have specialpublishing and needsgraphicsMulti-mediapresentations
Writing Measurable Instructional ObjectivesLearning objectives connect instructional planningwith curriculum content as measured byassessment.By participating in this activity students will: Learn about…? Gain greater understanding of…? Practice…? Develop an awareness of…? Express understanding of…? Develop skill in…? Begin to be able to…How will you measure learning outcomes?
Learning Objectives Must Include:A measurable verbThe important condition (if any) underwhich the performance is to occur andThe criterion of acceptable performance. Objectives The Magic Learning Triangle Evaluation Activities
ABCDs of Learning ObjectivesAudience - Who will be doing thebehavior?Behavior - What should the learner beable to do?Condition - Under what conditions doyou want the learner to be able to do it?Degree - How well must it be done?
Writing Learning Objectives for your Lesson PlanAudience: The learners Who is doing the performance? (not the instructor).Behavior (Performance): What the learner will be able to do? Can this performance be seen or heard?Condition: The conditions under which the learners must demonstrate their mastery of the objective: What will the learners be allowed to use? What wont the learners be allowed to use?Degree (or criterion): Common degrees include: Speed, Accuracy, Quality HOW WELL the behavior must be done?
Benjamin BloomTaxonomy of EducationalObjectives (1956) EvaluationLearning outcomes withinthe cognitive domain Synthesis Objectives reflect learner Analysis behavior Hierarchical relationship Application Lower to Higher Level Comprehension Thinking Domains Knowledge
Kinds of Lesson ObjectivesCognitive Thought or knowledge Objectives describe: "what the student is able to do" (an observable)Affective Feelings or choices Objectives describe: "how the student chooses to act"Psychomotor Physical skills Objectives describe: "what the student can perform"
Bloom’s Learning TaxonomyHigher order thinking – critical thinkingThree overlapping domains Cognitive – Knowledge, recall, comprehension, analyzing/ synthesizing data, problem solving, etc. Psychomotor – physical skills, fine or gross motor skills, coordination, dexterity Affective – attitudes of awareness, interest, attention, concern, respo nsibility, respect, enjoyment, appreciation, mo tivation
Ask Students to:Know - recall information in original formComprehend - show understandingApply - use learning in a new situationAnalyze - show s/he can see relationshipsSynthesize - combine and integrate parts of priorknowledge into a product, plan, or proposal that isnewEvaluate - assess and criticize on basis ofstandards and criteria
References“Pedagogy: A Primer on Education Theory for TechnicalProfessionals” – Brahler & Johnson. Washington State University –Download from Microsoft Higher Education Website“Multiple Intelligences and Technology” – Edwards (no longeravailable)Bloom’s Digital Technology -http://www.techlearning.com/techlearning/archives/2008/04/AndrewChurches.pdfConstructivism -http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.htmlBloom’s Taxonomy -http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm