Integrating Technology into Teaching and Lesson Planning Prepared by Carla Piper, Ed. D.
Educational Values Based on Vision of Society
What do you believe is worth knowing?
What do you know about the learners and their development?
What do you know about subject matter?
What is the best way to promote student learning?
Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
What is Curriculum?
“ Curriculum is what happens.”
What the student experiences and perceives during the day
Planned or unplanned
Planned learning experiences
Know what to teach – CONTENT
Know how to teach it - PEDAGOGY
Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
Three Elements of Curriculum
The Process of Instruction
Kinds of Planned Learning Opportunities
WHO? WHAT? HOW? From “Who Am I in the Lives of Children?” Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
What is Teaching? Curriculum What do you teach? Instruction How should you teach it? Assessment How do you determine if you’ve taught it successfully? If learning is not the result, adjust instruction Results in Student Learning!
History of Educational Reform
Teacher dispenses knowledge
Students work individually
Students grouped by ability
Students assessed on knowledge of facts
Students memorize and test recall
Students read and answer questions at the end of the chapter
Every student learns the same materials
Teachers use the identical instructional delivery mode
Students learn by listening and reading – and very little by doing authentic tasks
Lecture based method does not accommodate all learners. Aimed at:
History of Instructional Media
Primary physical means of instruction prior to the 20 th Century
Influence of technology
the use of media for instructional purposes
the use of systematic instructional design procedures or instructional design
Objectivism and Behaviorism
Knowledge exists as absolute truth
Transfer knowledge from outside to inside the learner
Arrange conditions to promote specific goals
Teacher directed, learner receiving
Activities, materials, assessment is teacher driven
Hand in products for teacher assessment
World War II
Psychologists and Educators
Conducted experimental research
Developed training materials for the military
Influenced the types of training materials that were developed
Based on their work on instructional principles
Examined research and theory on instruction, learning, and human behavior
Programmed Instruction Behaviorism: 1960s
Data regarding the effectiveness of the materials were collected
Instructional weaknesses were identified
Materials were revised accordingly
Trial and revision procedure provided formative evaluation
Still found in current instructional design models.
B.F. Skinner’s Teaching Machine for Programmed Instruction
Computer-Based Instruction – 1980s
Applied principles of cognitive psychology
Increasing interest in the use of microcomputers for instructional purposes
New sequential models of instructional design
Accommodate the interactive capabilities
Why Teach with Technology?
Do we really need to know how to use technology?
What was good enough for me ought to be good enough for my students!
Stage 1: Use technology to do things we can already do but more convenient:
Typing vs. word processing
Calculator vs. spreadsheets
Stage 2: Use technology to improve on tasks we already do:
Track student progress
Create more professional looking products
How do Teachers Decide to Use New Technologies?
Stage 3: Use technology to do things that were not previously possible
Real-time manipulation of data - graphs/charts
Professional publishing and graphics
Instant global communication
Help with students who have special needs
Used as a tutor - Student answers questions or solves problems in sequenced learning
Used to explore - Student discovers through interactive information, demonstration, or simulation
Applied as a tool for accomplishing tasks and expressing creativity
Used to communicate - Student retrieves and sends information electronically
Classifications of Educational Technologies Barbara Means
Students work collaboratively
Students grouped heterogeneously
Students assessed on performance according to standards - criterion based
Students complete authentic tasks
Students solve problems and create products
Constructivism – Building on Prior Knowledge and Experiences
Students create knowledge through bringing meaning to their own experiences.
Individuals have different meanings attached to the same experience
Knowledge is tentative and incomplete because humans are constantly undergoing new experiences
Understanding becomes greater when new experience tests itself with previous knowledge
Brahler & Johnson
Learners must have ability to transfer knowledge and skills beyond the initial learning situation
Flexible learning environments help to develop cognitively flexible processing skills
Knowledge must be presented in a variety of different ways and for a variety of different purposes
Brahler & Johnson
Instruction How do you plan your lessons?
Planning Curriculum Instruction
Steps to Lesson Planning
What content standard will be met?
What are your learning objectives?
What is the activity?
What is the sequence or timing.
Who will participate?
What is the overall purpose of the lesson?
How will you measure student learning?
What do you need to teach this lesson?
What do you do? How? When?
Introduction – How do you get them interested?
Procedure – What will you do and say (step-by-step guide)
Closure – How will you help students make a transition to the next activity?
Using Instructional Software
How will you structure your class so students can use this software effectively? (Classroom Management, Schedule, Time Frame)
Whole class? One computer displayed on LCD or TV?
Computer lab or library?
Small computer learning center?
Work on computer at home?
Is using this software a good use of instructional time?
Will using this software result in student learning?
Is there a better way to teach these concepts than through technology?
Using Technology in Lesson Planning
How is this technology going to help students meet subject matter content standards?
When will you use an electronic learning resources of website in your lesson plan?
“ The Hook” to get students interested, curious, motivated.
Setting the stage - providing frame of reference
Scaffolding – tapping in to previous knowledge
The Instruction – Step by Step Learning of Concept
Guided Practice – Individualized? Drill?
Part of Assessment Process
Closure – Transition to New Topic
Writing Measurable Instructional Objectives
Learning objectives connect instructional planning with curriculum content as measured by assessment.
By participating in this activity students will:
Gain greater understanding of…?
Develop an awareness of…?
Express understanding of…?
Develop skill in…?
Begin to be able to…
How will you measure learning outcomes?
Learning Objectives Must Include:
A measurable verb
The important condition (if any) under which the performance is to occur and
The criterion of acceptable performance.
The Magic Triangle Learning Activities Objectives Evaluation
ABCD's of Learning Objectives
A udience - Who will be doing the behavior?
B ehavior - What should the learner be able to do?
C ondition - Under what conditions do you want the learner to be able to do it?
D egree - How well must it be done?
Writing Learning Objectives for your Lesson Plan
Audience: The learners
Who is doing the performance? (not the instructor).
What the learner will be able to do?
Can this performance be seen or heard?
Condition: The conditions under which the learners must demonstrate their mastery of the objective:
What will the learners be allowed to use?
What won't the learners be allowed to use?
Degree (or criterion): Common degrees include: Speed, Accuracy, Quality
Kinds of Lesson Objectives Cognitive Thought or knowledge Objectives describe: "what the student is able to do" (an observable) Affective Feelings or choices Objectives describe: "how the student chooses to act" Psychomotor Physical skills Objectives describe: "what the student can perform"
Bloom’s Learning Taxonomy
Higher order thinking – critical thinking
Three overlapping domains
Cognitive – Knowledge, recall, comprehension, analyzing/synthesizing data, problem solving, etc.
Psychomotor – physical skills, fine or gross motor skills, coordination, dexterity