Integrating Technology into Teaching and Lesson Planning Prepared by Carla Piper, Ed. D.
Educational Values Based on Vision of Society What do you believe is worth knowing? What do you know about the learners and their development? What do you know about subject matter? Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
What is the best way to promote student learning?
What is Curriculum? “ Curriculum is what happens.” What the student experiences and perceives during the day Planned learning experiences Know what to teach – CONTENT Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
Know how to teach it - PEDAGOGY
Three Elements of Curriculum The Process of Instruction WHO? WHAT? HOW? From “Who Am I in the Lives of Children?” Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
Kinds of Planned Learning Opportunities
What is Teaching? Curriculum What do you teach? Instruction How should you teach it? Assessment How do you determine if you’ve taught it successfully? If learning is not the result, adjust instruction Results in Student Learning!
History of Educational Reform
Old School Teacher dispenses knowledge Students work individually Students grouped by ability Students assessed on knowledge of facts Students memorize and test recall
Students read and answer questions at the end of the chapter
Traditional Classrooms Every student learns the same materials Teachers use the identical instructional delivery mode Students learn by listening and reading – and very little by doing authentic tasks Lecture based method does not accommodate all learners. Aimed at: Verbal-linguistic learners
History of Instructional Media Primary physical means of instruction prior to the 20 th Century the use of media for instructional purposes
the use of systematic instructional design procedures or instructional design
Objectivism and Behaviorism Knowledge exists as absolute truth Transfer knowledge from outside to inside the learner Arrange conditions to promote specific goals Teacher directed, learner receiving Activities, materials, assessment is teacher driven
Hand in products for teacher assessment
World War II Psychologists and Educators Conducted experimental research Developed training materials for the military Influenced the types of training materials that were developed Based on their work on instructional principles
Examined research and theory on instruction, learning, and human behavior
Programmed Instruction Behaviorism: 1960s Data regarding the effectiveness of the materials were collected Instructional weaknesses were identified Materials were revised accordingly Trial and revision procedure provided formative evaluation B.F. Skinner’s Teaching Machine for Programmed Instruction
Still found in current instructional design models.
Computer-Based Instruction – 1980s Applied principles of cognitive psychology Increasing interest in the use of microcomputers for instructional purposes New sequential models of instructional design
Accommodate the interactive capabilities
Why Teach with Technology? Do we really need to know how to use technology?
What was good enough for me ought to be good enough for my students!
Stage 1: Use technology to do things we can already do but more convenient: Typing vs. word processing Calculator vs. spreadsheets Stage 2: Use technology to improve on tasks we already do: How do Teachers Decide to Use New Technologies?
Create more professional looking products
Stage 3: Use technology to do things that were not previously possible Real-time manipulation of data - graphs/charts Professional publishing and graphics Multi-media presentations Instant global communication
Help with students who have special needs
Used as a tutor - Student answers questions or solves problems in sequenced learning Used to explore - Student discovers through interactive information, demonstration, or simulation Applied as a tool for accomplishing tasks and expressing creativity Classifications of Educational Technologies Barbara Means
Used to communicate - Student retrieves and sends information electronically
New School Students work collaboratively Students grouped heterogeneously Students assessed on performance according to standards - criterion based Students complete authentic tasks
Students solve problems and create products
Constructivism – Building on Prior Knowledge and Experiences Students create knowledge through bringing meaning to their own experiences. Individuals have different meanings attached to the same experience Knowledge is tentative and incomplete because humans are constantly undergoing new experiences Brahler & Johnson
Understanding becomes greater when new experience tests itself with previous knowledge
Instructional Planning Learners must have ability to transfer knowledge and skills beyond the initial learning situation Flexible learning environments help to develop cognitively flexible processing skills Brahler & Johnson
Knowledge must be presented in a variety of different ways and for a variety of different purposes
Instruction How do you plan your lessons? Planning Curriculum Instruction What content standard will be met? What are your learning objectives? What is the sequence or timing. What is the overall purpose of the lesson?
How will you measure student learning?
Planning Instruction What do you need to teach this lesson? What do you do? How? When? Introduction – How do you get them interested? Procedure – What will you do and say (step-by-step guide)
Closure – How will you help students make a transition to the next activity?
Using Instructional Software How will you structure your class so students can use this software effectively? (Classroom Management, Schedule, Time Frame) Whole class? One computer displayed on LCD or TV? Small computer learning center? Work on computer at home? Is using this software a good use of instructional time? Will using this software result in student learning?
Is there a better way to teach these concepts than through technology?
Using Technology in Lesson Planning How is this technology going to help students meet subject matter content standards? When will you use an electronic learning resources of website in your lesson plan? “ The Hook” to get students interested, curious, motivated. Setting the stage - providing frame of reference Scaffolding – tapping in to previous knowledge The Instruction – Step by Step Learning of Concept Guided Practice – Individualized? Drill? Part of Assessment Process Simulation
Closure – Transition to New Topic
Writing Measurable Instructional Objectives Learning objectives connect instructional planning with curriculum content as measured by assessment. By participating in this activity students will: Gain greater understanding of…? Develop an awareness of…? Express understanding of…?
How will you measure learning outcomes?
Learning Objectives Must Include: The important condition (if any) under which the performance is to occur and The Magic Triangle Learning Activities Objectives Evaluation
The criterion of acceptable performance.
ABCD's of Learning Objectives A udience - Who will be doing the behavior? B ehavior - What should the learner be able to do? C ondition - Under what conditions do you want the learner to be able to do it?
D egree - How well must it be done?
Writing Learning Objectives for your Lesson Plan Who is doing the performance? (not the instructor). What the learner will be able to do? Can this performance be seen or heard? Condition: The conditions under which the learners must demonstrate their mastery of the objective: What will the learners be allowed to use? What won't the learners be allowed to use? Degree (or criterion): Common degrees include: Speed, Accuracy, Quality
HOW WELL the behavior must be done?
Benjamin Bloom Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) Learning outcomes within the cognitive domain Objectives reflect learner behavior Hierarchical relationship Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
Lower to Higher Level Thinking Domains
Kinds of Lesson Objectives Cognitive Thought or knowledge Objectives describe: "what the student is able to do" (an observable) Affective Feelings or choices Objectives describe: "how the student chooses to act" Psychomotor Physical skills Objectives describe: "what the student can perform"
Bloom’s Learning Taxonomy Higher order thinking – critical thinking Three overlapping domains Cognitive – Knowledge, recall, comprehension, analyzing/synthesizing data, problem solving, etc. Psychomotor – physical skills, fine or gross motor skills, coordination, dexterity
Affective – attitudes of awareness, interest, attention, concern, responsibility, respect, enjoyment, appreciation, motivation
Bloom’s Taxonomy Higher Level Thinking KNOWLEDGE: define, list, name, memorize COMPREHENSION: identify, describe, explain APPLICATION: demonstrate, use, show, teach ANALYSIS: categorize, compare, calculate SYNTHESIS: design, create, prepare, predict
EVALUATION: judge, assess, rate, revise
Ask Students to: Know - recall information in original form Comprehend - show understanding Apply - use learning in a new situation Analyze - show s/he can see relationships Synthesize - combine and integrate parts of prior knowledge into a product, plan, or proposal that is new
Evaluate - assess and criticize on basis of standards and criteria
Action Verbs from Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating Creating – designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making Evaluating – checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoring Analyzing – comparing, organizing, deconstructing, attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating Applying – implementing, carrying out, using, executing Understanding – interpreting, summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying Remembering
Remembering – recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding
Assessment and Reflection What will students say or do to show you objectives were met? What will you collect to show student’s learning (portfolios, observations, work samples, photographs, etc.) Reflection on your teaching How will your assessment guide your teaching practice? What needs to be “re-taught” and how can you teach it differently when assessment demonstrates that some students did not learn the material? Is there a better way to teach this material? What will you do differently next time? How could you extend this activity for another lesson?
Was your instruction effective in promoting student learning?
References “ Pedagogy: A Primer on Education Theory for Technical Professionals” – Brahler & Johnson. Washington State University – Download from Microsoft Higher Education Website “ Multiple Intelligences and Technology” – Edwards (no longer available) Bloom’s Digital Technology - http://www.techlearning.com/techlearning/archives/2008/04/AndrewChurches.pdf Constructivism - http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html
Bloom’s Taxonomy - http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm