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  • 1. History of Instructional Design Part III EDUU566 Based on Reiser & Dempsey, 2006 & Reiser, 2001 Carla Piper, Ed. D. Course Developer
  • 2. Four Phase Cycle of Instruction
    • Learning is promoted when:
    • learners observe a demonstration
    • learners apply the new knowledge
    • learners engage in a task-centered instructional strategy
    • learners activate relevant prior knowledge or experience
    • learners integrate their new knowledge into their everyday world
    Reiser & Dempsey, 2006 David Merrill
  • 3. Information is NOT Instruction
    • "If you don't provide adequate practice, if you don't have an adequate knowledge structure, if you don't provide adequate guidance,
    • people don't learn" (Merrill, 1998)
    • David Merrill ’s Key to Learning
      • provide structured knowledge
      • provide practice
      • provide guidance
    • Online Principles
      • Acknowledge learner’s prior experience and preconceptions
      • Help learners transform facts and concepts into usable knowledge.
      • Help learners monitor their own learning and learn independently
      • Provide learner-centered environment online
    David Merrill
  • 4. First Principle: Problem Centered
    • Do you involve authentic real-world problems or tasks?
    • Does the objective show the learners what they will be able to do when they complete the task?
    • Is the problem broken down into component tasks which will help complete the whole task?
    • Is the instruction a progression of problems – and not just a single application?
    Mirror the job! Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  • 5. Principle: Activation
    • Do you help learners recall, retell, describe, or apply prior knowledge?
    • Is the instruction relevant?
    • Does the instruction help the learner organize new knowledge?
      • Graphic organizers
      • Concrete advanced organizers
      • Conceptual models
      • Maps and Diagrams
      • Checklists
    Where do I start? Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  • 6. Principle: Demonstration
    • Show examples of what will be learned
    • Include demonstrations related to content
      • Specific how-to procedures
      • Classify concepts
      • Activate misconceptions and clarify
      • Detailed sequence of actions
      • Provide visual models
    • Provide learner guidance
      • Narrated animations
      • Signaling devices
      • Visual representation of material
      • Use structured tasks
    • Make instructional media relevant to the content to enhance learning
      • Multimedia
      • Narrated animations in natural voice
    Show me! Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  • 7. Demonstration
  • 8. Principle: Application
    • Opportunity to practice and apply new skill or knowledge
      • Use questions
      • Check for understanding
    • Application and assessment consistent with learning objectives
    • Practice followed by corrective and systematic feedback
    • Enable learners to access context sensitive help
    • Provide coaching
    • Use a variety of instructional tasks
    Let me do it! Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  • 9. Task Centered: Coaching David Merrill
  • 10. Principle: Integration
    • Can student integrate the skill and knowledge into everyday life?
    • Publicly demonstrate their new knowledge or skill
    • Provide opportunity for reflection, discussion, defense of knowledge
    • Provide an opportunity to create, invent, and explore new ways to use this new knowledge.
    Watch Me! Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  • 11. Implementation
    • Facilitate learner navigation through task
    • Allow learner to control pacing
    • Provide a course map
    • Use collaboration effectively
    • Structure group assignments around products or processes
    • Use multimedia
    • Use conversational style
    Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  • 12. 4C/ID Instructional Model
    • Characterized by four components:
      • Learning Tasks
      • Supportive Information
      • Procedural Information
      • Part-Task Practice
    • Tasks ordered by task difficulty
    • Each task offers scaffolding at the beginning
    • Scaffolding is reduced as the learner progresses.
  • 13. Holistic Design Process Merriënboer 4C/ID Model Merriënboer
  • 14. Kolb’s Model of Experiential Learning Accommodate Divergent Assimilative Convergent
  • 15. Experiential Learning
    • Learning is a process whereby knowledge is created through experience
    • Experiences are a transformational process
    • Students actively construct their experience within a socio-cultural context
    • Provides a framework for designing active, collaborative, and interactive learning experiences.
    Kolb Experiential Learning
  • 16. Kolb’s Four Stage Cycle and Learning Styles
    • Four-stage cycle
      • Concrete Experience (CE)
      • Reflective Observation (RO)
      • Abstract Conceptualization (AC)
      • Active Experimentation (AE)
    • Four learning styles
      • Diverging (CE/RO)
      • Assimilating (AC/RO)
      • Converging (AC/AE)
      • Accommodating (CE/AE)
    From Business Balls
  • 17. Diagram of Kolb’s Learning Styles From Business Balls
  • 18. Typology of Learners
    • Activist = Accommodating
    • Reflector = Diverging
    • Theorist = Assimilating
    • Pragmatist = Converging
    Honey & Mumford Clark Website Take the Learning Style Inventory!
  • 19. Keller's ARCS Model for Motivation
    • Attention - gaining and keeping the learner's attention
      • Through the senses
      • Through inquiry - thought provoking questions
      • Through variety - variance in exercises and use of different media
    • Relevance
      • Training needs to relevant.
      • "What's in it for me?"
    • Confidence
      • Need to feel confident in the program’s purpose and objectives
      • Need to believe they can succeed and that this is worthwhile for them
    • Satisfaction – What’s the reward?
      • Need to feel rewarded from the learning experience.
      • Need entertainment or a sense of achievement.
      • Need to achieve satisfaction in what they have learned
      • Need see that their new skills can be immediately useful and beneficial on their job.
    Go to the Official ARCS Website
  • 20. Resources
    • Instructional Design Models
    • TIP Theories
    • Wikipedia
    • EduTech Wiki
    • Learning Theories
    • Kolb Experiential Learning
    • Business Balls
    • Honey & Mumford
    • David Merrill
    • ARCS Model
    • UCDenver Instructional Design Models
    • Reiser & Dempsey (2006). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology.