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  • 1. History of Instructional Design Part II EDUU566 Based on Reiser & Dempsey, 2006 & Reiser, 2001 Carla Piper, Ed. D. Course Developer
  • 2. Constructivism
    • “ An epistemological and ontological conception of what reality, knowledge, the mind, thought, and meaning are” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2006, p. 46).
    • “ Reality is constructed by individuals and social groups based on their experiences with and interpretations of the world” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2006, p. 46).
    • Constructivists contrast with Objectivists
  • 3. Behaviorist vs. Constructivist Behaviorist-Objectivist Approach Constructivist-Interpretivist Approach
    • Sequential, linear, top-down, systematic
    • Behavioral objectives
    • Designed by professional instructional designers
    • Careful sequencing and teaching of subskills
    • Pre-selected knowledge is goal for learning
    • Summative evaluation for collecting objective data
    • Non-linear,chaotic, organic, reflective, and collaborative
    • Objectives emerge from design and development
    • Context is crucial – not content
    • Emphasis on learning and understanding in meaningful contexts
    • Formative evaluation through subjective data
  • 4. Positivism and Objectivism
    • Knowledge exists as absolute truth
    • Transfer knowledge from outside to inside the learner
    • Arrange conditions to promote specific goals
    • Teacher directed, learner receiving
    • Goals predetermined
    • Objectives defined
    • Activities, materials, assessment is teacher driven
    • Hand in products for teacher assessment
  • 5. Relativism and Constructivism
    • Knowledge is contructed by learner
    • Truth is contextual
    • Teacher guides learner to construct knowledge
    • Teacher provides rich context
    • Learner centered environment
    • Teacher facilitates, learner controls
  • 6. Relativism and Constructivism
    • Learning goals negotiated and problems are contextual and authentic
    • Activities, materials, assessment is context driven and individually constructed
    • Artifacts share and reflected on, collectively and individually
  • 7. J. L. Bruner – Cognitive Theory
    • Child processes information and builds increasingly complex models of the world
    • Motivation based on intrinsic value, curiosity, and cooperation/reciprocity
    • The way problems are structured must address a child’s intellectual development and maturation
    • Three modes of how things are represented:
      • Enactive - touch, feel, manipulate objects
      • Iconic - images that stand for perceptual events
      • Symbolic representation – language and ideas
  • 8. Cognitive Development
    • Changes in cognitive skills are related to intellectual growth and age
    • Child’s behavior not just result of external stimuli – but also internal stimuli
    • Social learning actually leads to cognitive development
    • Individual differences in children should be recognized and addressed
  • 9. Social Constructivist
  • 10. Jean Piaget
    • Three Types of Knowledge
      • Physical, Social, Logical
    • Developmental Concept Learning
      • Assimilation – what makes sense in child’s environment
      • Accommodation – new in context with known
      • Adaptation – adjusts to the environment and learns the consequences of specific actions
      • Organization – integrates schemata and develop more complex logic
  • 11. Piaget: Stages of Cognitive Development
    • Sensorimotor Stage - Birth to two
      • Objects exist outside of their visual field - object permanence
      • Learn strictly through sensory experience within their environment - KINESTHETIC
    • Pre-operational Stage - Ages 2 - 7
      • Period of Language Development
      • Egocentrism - only see self perceptions
      • Categorize by single obvious feature
  • 12. Piaget Stage Theory
    • Concrete Operational Stage
      • Ages 7 - 12
      • Develop ability to handle complex logic and make comparisons
      • Hypothesize and reason ONLY about things they’ve experienced themselves
    • Formal Operational Stage –
      • Age 12 - Adult
      • Abstract thinking ability
      • Offer interpretations and draw conclusions
      • Formulate hypotheses
  • 13. Vygotsky - ZPD
    • Social Cognitive Development
    • Zone of Proximal Development - ZPD
  • 14. Constructivism in the Classroom
    • Students construct new ideas by incorporating new material into the concepts and thought processes already in place.
    • Allow student thinking to drive lessons
    • Ask thoughtful, open-ended questions
    • Encourage metacognition - thinking about how they are learning
    • Encourage students to interact with each other and YOU – Cooperate and Collaborate.
    • Reflect and Predict!
  • 15. Four Step Process to Teaching
    • Teacher presents an invitation to learn - CAPTURE ATTENTION!
    • Teacher gives students opportunity to explore, discover, and create
    • Students propose explanations and solutions
    • Students take action on what they have learned.
  • 16. Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • KNOWLEDGE: define, list, name, memorize
    • COMPREHENSION: identify, describe, explain
    • APPLICATION: demonstrate, use, show, teach
    • ANALYSIS: categorize, compare, calculate
    • SYNTHESIS: design, create, prepare, predict
    • EVALUATION: judge, assess, rate, revise
    Thinking Levels
  • 17. Ask Students to:
    • Knowledge - recall information in original form
    • Comprehension - show understanding
    • Application - use learning in a new situation
    • Analysis - show s/he can see relationships
    • Synthesis - combine and integrate parts of prior knowledge into a product, plan, or proposal that is new
    • Evaluation - assess and criticize on basis of standards and criteria
  • 18. Blooming Questions
    • Knowledge – Recalling Information
      • Where – What – Who – How many – Point to…
    • Comprehension – Understanding, Meaning
      • Tell me in your own words – What does it mean?
      • Give me an example, describe, illustrate
    • Application – Using learning in a new situation
      • What would happen if…? Would you have done the same…? How would you solve this problem?
      • In the library, find information about….
  • 19. Blooming Questions
    • Analysis – Ability to see parts/relationships
      • What other ways…? Similar/Different (Venn)
      • Interpretation – What kind of person…? What caused the person to react in this way…? What part was most exciting, sad…?
    • Synthesis – Parts of information to create original whole
      • What would it be like if…? Design, pretend, use your imagination, write a new ending…
    • Evaluation – Judgment based on criteria
      • Would you recommend this book to your friend? Why / Why not? What is the best part... Why?
      • Which person in the story would you most like to meet? Why / Why not?
  • 20. Seymour Papert
    • Constructionist learning based on constructivism
    • Learning is an active process, learners are actively constructing mental models and theories of the world around them.
    • “ Constructionism holds that learning can happen most effectively when people are actively making things in the real world” (Wikipedia).
    • Developed logo computer programming
    • Book - “Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas”
    • Read “Gears of my Childhood” -
    More on Papert Works
  • 21. Constructional Design Theory
    • Individuals are active learners and control their own learning processes
    • Individuals create concrete, tangible evidence (artifacts that reflect understanding)
    • Artifacts are shared collectively and reflected on individually to extend understanding
    • Learning problems and contexts are authentic and focused on solving practical problems.
    (Reiser, p. 58) Papert
  • 22. Cognitive Apprentice
    • Modeling -- involves an expert's carrying out a task so that student can observe and build a conceptual model of the processes that are required to accomplish the task.
    • Coaching - consists of observing students while they carry out a task and offering hints, feedback, modeling, reminders, etc.
    • Articulation - includes any method of getting students to articulate their knowledge, reasoning, or problem-solving processes.
    • Reflection - enables students to compare their own problem-solving processes with those of an expert or another student.
    • Exploration - involves pushing students into a mode of problem solving on their own.
  • 23. Cognitive Apprenticeship
    • Modeling by experts - problem solving activities
    • Community of practice
    • Set desired goals and create a learning community
    • Provide scaffolds that aid pupils in applying problem-solving strategies
    • Model and coach students
    Making Thinking Visible
  • 24. Cognitive Apprenticeship
    • Establish communication in discussion to talk about real-life problems.
    • Encourage students to make their thinking processes explicit
    • Students reflect on their own as well as others’ problem-solving approaches.
    • Implement formative assessment that captures the developmental process (portfolio)
  • 25. ICON Model – Interpretation Construction
    • Observation: Students make observations of authentic artifacts anchored in authentic situations
    • Interpretation Construction: Students construct interpretations of observations and construct arguments for the validity of their interpretations
    • Contextualization: Students access background and contextual materials of various sorts to aid interpretation and argumentation
    • Cognitive Apprenticeship: Students serve as apprentices to teachers to master observation, interpretation and contextualization
    • Collaboration: Students collaborate in observation, interpretation and contextualization
    • Multiple Interpretations: Students gain cognitive flexibility by being exposed to multiple interpretations
    • Multiple Manifestations: Students gain transferability by seeing multiple manifestations of the same interpretations
    ICON Model
  • 26. Resources
    • Instructional Design Central
    • TIP Theories
    • Wikipedia
    • Instructional Design Models
    • Reiser, R.A. (2001). History of Instructional Design (Website)
    • Reiser & Dempsey (2006). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology.
    • A Journey into Constructivism
    • Piaget’s Constructivism and Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the Difference?
    • Edutopia – Seymour Papert and Project-based Learning
    • ICON Model
    • Applying Learning Theories to Online Instructional Design
    • Cognitive Apprenticeships