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  1. 1. History of Instructional Design Part One EDUU566Based on Reiser & Dempsey, 2006 & Reiser, 2001 Carla Piper, Ed. D. Course Developer
  2. 2. What is Instructional Design?• Involves the analysis of learning and performance problems• Includes design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources• Intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings including educational institutions and the workplace• Uses systematic instructional design (ISD) procedures and employ a variety of instructional media to accomplish their goals. (Reiser, 2001 p. 57)
  3. 3. History of Instructional Media• Primary physical means of instruction prior to the 20th Century – The teacher – The chalkboard – The textbook• Influence of technology – the use of media for instructional purposes – the use of systematic instructional design procedures or instructional design
  4. 4. World War IIPsychologists and Educators• Conducted experimental research• Developed training materials for the military• Influenced the types of training materials that were developed• Based on their work on instructional principles• Examined research and theory on instruction, learning, and human behavior
  5. 5. American Institutes for Research• Established after WWII• Started seeing training as a system• Developed a number of innovative analysis, design, and evaluation procedures• Programmed instruction movement (mid-1050s through the mid-1060s)• Major factor in the development of the systems approach.
  6. 6. B.F. Skinner• Wrote article called: The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching (1954)• Believed that increasing human learning could increase if instructional materials were effectively designed.• Programmed instructional materials should: – present instruction in small steps – require overt responses to frequent questions – provide immediate feedback – allow for learner self-pacing• Learner would receive positive reinforcement with the feedback they received More on Skinner• TIP Theories – Operant Conditioning
  7. 7. Programmed Instruction• Data regarding the effectiveness of the materials were collected• Instructional weaknesses were identified• Materials were revised accordingly• Trial and revision procedure provided formative evaluation B.F. Skinner’s Teaching Machine for• Still found in current instructional Programmed Instruction design models. More on Programmed Instruction
  8. 8. Robert Mager• Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction (1962) – now in its third edition• Describes how to write objectives that include – a description of desired learner behaviors – the conditions under which the behaviors are to be performed – the standards (criteria) by which the behaviors are to be judged• Current instructional designers still require these three elements in course objectives• TIP Theories – Criterion Referenced Robert Mager Instruction• How to Write Learning Objectives -
  9. 9. Benjamin Bloom• Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956)• Various types of learning outcomes within the cognitive domain Evaluation – Objectives could be Synthesis classified according to type of learner behavior Analysis described Application – A hierarchical relationship Comprehension exists among the various Knowledge types of outcomes
  10. 10. The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement of the 1960s• Norm-referenced tests common before the early 1960s – spread out the performance of learners – bell curve - determine the norm or average scores in a population – some students do well on a test and others do poorly• Criterion-referenced tests – determine how well an individual can perform a particular behavior or set of behaviors – Individual performance not compared to the performance of others• Glaser (1963) used criterion-referenced measures – assess student entry-level behavior – determine the extent to which students had acquired the behaviors an instructional program was designed to teach
  11. 11. Glaser’s Instructional System 1962
  12. 12. The Systems Approach – 1970s• U.S. Military developed instructional design model for training• Instructional improvement centers were created in higher education – To help faculty use media and instructional design procedures to improve the quality of their instruction• Marks the beginning of graduate programs in instructional design• Professional organizations formed – Educational Technology and Research Development• Current ASAT Website – Army Automated Systems Approach
  13. 13. Dick and Carey Model - 1978
  14. 14. Reiser and Dick Model - Current• Dick and Carey Model• Reiser’s Website
  15. 15. The IDI Model- Gerlach and Ely1980 Link to PDF
  16. 16. Original ADDIE Model - 1975
  17. 17. ADDIE Core Elements/Phases of Instructional Design Revise Revise Analyze Implement Evaluate Design Develop Revise Revise
  18. 18. ADDIE Model Systematic Design• A – identify problem, analyze setting• D – organize management, identify objectives• D – specify methods, consult prototypes• I – test prototypes, implement recycle• E – analyze resultsResources – Learning Theories – Wikipedia – e-LearningIntuology – ISU
  19. 19. ADDIE Table
  20. 20. Don Clark’s ADDIE Timeline
  21. 21. Don Clark’s ADDIE Backwards Design
  22. 22. 1980s – Computer-based Instruction• Applied principles of cognitive psychology in the instructional design process• Increasing interest in the use of microcomputers for instructional purposes• Instructional design professionals turned their attention to producing computer-based instruction• Began to develop new models of instructional design to accommodate the interactive capabilities• ERIC Digest – Roblyer (1989)
  23. 23. Robert Gagne• The Conditions of Learning (1965 currently in 4th edition)• Described five domains or types of learning outcomes – verbal information – intellectual skills – psychomotor skills – attitudes – cognitive strategies• Each require a different set of conditions to promote learning• TIP Theories – Conditions of Learning
  24. 24. Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction1. Gain attention (reception)2. Inform learners of objectives (expectancy)3. Stimulate recall of prior learning (retrieval)4. Present the content (selective perception)5. Provide "learning guidance" (semantic encoding)6. Elicit performance (responding)7. Provide feedback (reinforcement)8. Assess performance (retrieval)9. Enhance retention and transfer (generalization). Tip Theories
  25. 25. Gagne’s Model Instructional Design
  26. 26. The 1990s - Constructivism• Constructivist theory of learning and instruction• The instructional principles require learners to: – solve complex and realistic problems – work together to solve those problems – examine the problems from multiple perspectives – take ownership of the learning process (rather than being passive recipients of instruction) – become aware of their own role in the knowledge construction process• Designers create "authentic learning tasks that reflect the complexity of the real-world environment in which learners will be using the skills they are learning”
  27. 27. 1990s Developments• New electronic • Rapid prototyping performance support – developing a prototype product in systems the very early stages – information base with – going through a series of rapid essential work tryout and revision cycles until an information acceptable version of the product is – intelligent coaching produced and expert • CAD –Computer-aided Design advisement systems – customized support tools that automate and simplify job tasks• Increased interest in using the Internet for distance learning
  28. 28. Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) Theory• Memory is basis for information processing• Three stages of memory – Sensory • perceive organizations in patterns in environment • recognize and code patterns – Short term • hold information briefly • try to make sense of information • make connections with information in long term memory – Long term • enables learner to remember • Helps learner apply information to real-life applications• The importance of feedback – Provides learner with knowledge about the correctness of his/her response or adequacy of performance – Allows learner to correct response or improve performance Reiser (2006), p. 38
  29. 29. CIP and Stages of Memory
  30. 30. Executive Control Responses
  31. 31. Books Papers OfficeSchema Theory Chairs Laptop Desk• “Knowledge presented in long term memory as packets of information called schemata” (Reiser, 2006, p. 39).• Schemata –organize information in categories in “systematic, predictable ways”• Automated schemata free learner’s working memory capacity• Roles and scripts for interpreting the world and making predictions about environment (Widmayer, 2007).• Each individual’s schema is unique and dependent on experiences and cognitive processes.
  32. 32. Cognitive Load• Working memory needs to be kept to a minimum of “7 chunks of information at the same time”• Goal is to facilitate the changes in long term memory• “Need to group or chunk information in smaller portions so working memory is not overloaded and information can be passed to long term memory more efficiently allowing learning to occur”
  33. 33. Situated Learning Theory• Learning occurs in a community Individual of practice (Wenger) Information• Relies on social and cultural aspects of learning• Students in community of Passive Active practice – Enter as individual newcomer and begin to engage in the practices of the community – Become old timers in the community and refine practices Experience – Sustain the interconnected Social community and become effective and valuable leaders
  34. 34. Need for Instructional Designers• Distance learning programs – need for high quality Internet based instruction – can not simply be on-line replicas of the instruction delivered in classrooms• Trend toward knowledge management – identifying, documenting, and disseminating explicit and tacit knowledge within an organization in order to improve the performance of that organization – database programs, groupware, and intranets allow organizations to "manage" (i.e., collect, filter, and disseminate) knowledge and expertise
  35. 35. Resources• Survey of Instructional Design Models (1997) -• Instructional Design Models• TIP Theories• Wikipedia• Reiser, R.A. (2001). History of Instructional Design (Website)• Reiser & Dempsey (2006). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology.