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Instructional design review


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  • 1. Consult your textbook for more resources:Reiser and Dempsey (2012)Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and TechnologyQUICK REVIEW OFINSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODELS
  • 2. Behaviorist vs. Constructivist Behaviorist-Objectivist Constructivist-Interpretivist Approach Approach•Sequential, linear, top-down, •Non-linear, chaotic, organic,systematic reflective, and collaborative•Behavioral objectives •Objectives emerge from•Designed by professional design and developmentinstructional designers •Context is crucial – not•Careful sequencing and contentteaching of subskills •Emphasis on learning and•Pre-selected knowledge is understanding in meaningfulgoal for learning contexts•Summative evaluation for •Formative evaluation throughcollecting objective data subjective data
  • 3. B.F. Skinner Wrote article called: The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching (1954) Believed that increasing human learning could increase if instructional materials were effectively designed. Programmed instructional materials should:  present instruction in small steps  require overt responses to frequent questions  provide immediate feedback  allow for learner self-pacing Learner would receive positive reinforcement with the feedback they received TIP Theories – Operant Conditioning More on Skinner
  • 4. Programmed Instruction Data regarding the effectiveness of the materials were collected Instructional weaknesses were identified Materials were revised accordingly Trial and revision procedure provided formative evaluation B.F. Skinner’s Teaching Machine for Still found in current instructional Programmed design models. Instruction More on Programmed Instruction
  • 5. Robert Mager Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction (1962)  now in its third edition Describes how to write objectives that include  a description of desired learner behaviors  the conditions under which the behaviors are to be performed  the standards (criteria) by which the behaviors are to be judged Current instructional designers still require these three elements in course objectives Robert Mager TIP Theories – Criterion Referenced Instruction
  • 6. Glaser’s Instructional System 1962
  • 7. Dick and Carey Model - 1978 Dick and Carey Model
  • 8. Original ADDIE Model - 1975
  • 9. ADDIE Model Systematic Design A – identify problem, analyze setting D – organize management, identify objectives D – specify methods, consult prototypes I – test prototypes, implement recycle E – analyze resultsResources  Learning Theories  Wikipedia  e-LearningIntuology  ISU
  • 10. Don Clark’s ADDIE Timeline
  • 11. ADDIE Core Elements/Phases of Instructional Design Revise Revise Analyze Implement Evaluate Design Develop Revise Revise
  • 12. Constructivism “An epistemological and ontological conception of what reality, knowledge, the mind, thought, and meaning are” (Reiser & Dempsey). “Reality is constructed by individuals and social groups based on their experiences with and interpretations of the world” (Reiser & Dempsey). Constructivists contrast with Objectivists
  • 13. J. L. Bruner – Cognitive Theory Child processes information and builds increasingly complex models of the world Motivation based on intrinsic value, curiosity, and cooperation/reciprocity The way problems are structured must address a child’s intellectual development and maturation Three modes of how things are represented: • Enactive - touch, feel, manipulate objects • Iconic - images that stand for perceptual events • Symbolic representation – language and ideas
  • 14. Social Constructivist
  • 15. Jean Piaget Cognition Three Types of Knowledge • Physical, Social, Logical Developmental Concept Learning • Assimilation – what makes sense in child’s environment • Accommodation – new in context with known • Adaptation – adjusts to the environment and learns the consequences of specific actions • Organization – integrates schemata and develop more complex logic
  • 16. Piaget: Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage - Birth to two • Objects exist outside of their visual field - object permanence • Learn strictly through sensory experience within their environment - KINESTHETIC Pre-operational Stage - Ages 2 - 7 • Period of Language Development • Egocentrism - only see self perceptions • Categorize by single obvious feature
  • 17. Piaget Stage Theory  Concrete Operational Stage • Ages 7 - 12 • Develop ability to handle complex logic and make comparisons • Hypothesize and reason ONLY about things they’ve experienced themselves  Formal Operational Stage – • Age 12 - Adult • Abstract thinking ability • Offer interpretations and draw conclusions • Formulate hypotheses
  • 18. Vygotsky - ZPD Social Cognitive Development Zone of Proximal Development – ZPD
  • 19. Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky ZPD The difference Student’s between what a learner can do without help Current and what he or she can Achievement do with help Capable of Tap into prior Learning with Instruction knowledge ZPD Aim instruction just beyond that point Avoid teaching beyond the ZPD Beyond reach
  • 20. Benjamin Bloom Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) Various types of learning outcomes within the cognitive domain  Objectives could be Evaluation classified according to Synthesis type of learner behavior Analysis described Application  A hierarchical relationship Comprehension exists among the various Knowledge types of outcomes
  • 21. Bloom’s Taxonomy KNOWLEDGE: define, list, name, memorize COMPREHENSION: identify, describe, explain APPLICATION: demonstrate, use, show, teach ANALYSIS: categorize, compare, calculate SYNTHESIS: design, create, prepare, predict EVALUATION: judge, assess, rate, revise
  • 22. Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge - recall information in original form Comprehension - show understanding Application - use learning in a new situation Analysis - show s/he can see relationships Synthesis - combine and integrate parts of prior knowledge into a product, plan, or proposal that is new Evaluation - assess and criticize on basis of standards and criteria
  • 23. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Creating • Creating – designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making • Evaluating – checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, Evaluating experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoring • Analyzing – comparing, organizing, Analyzing deconstructing, attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating • Applying – implementing, carrying out, using, Applying executing • Understanding – interpreting, summarizing,Understanding inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying • Remembering – recognizing, listing, describing,Remembering identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding
  • 24. Seymour Papert Constructionist learning based on constructivism Learning is an active process, learners are actively constructing mental models and theories of the world around them. “Constructionism holds that learning can happen most effectively when people are actively making things in the real world” (Wikipedia). Developed logo computer programming Book - “Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas” More on Read “Gears of my Childhood” - Papert Works
  • 25. Cognitive Apprentice Modeling -- involves an experts carrying out a task so that student can observe and build a conceptual model of the processes that are required to accomplish the task. Coaching - consists of observing students while they carry out a task and offering hints, feedback, modeling, reminders, etc. Articulation - includes any method of getting students to articulate their knowledge, reasoning, or problem-solving processes. Reflection - enables students to compare their own problem- solving processes with those of an expert or another student. Exploration - involves pushing students into a mode of problem solving on their own.
  • 26. Cognitive Apprenticeship Modeling by experts - problem solving activities Community of practice Set desired goals and create a learning community Provide scaffolds that aid pupils in applying problem-solving strategies Model and coach students
  • 27. ICON Model – InterpretationConstruction ICON ModelObservation: Students make observations of authentic artifacts anchored in authentic situationsInterpretation Construction: Students construct interpretations of observations and construct arguments for the validity of their interpretationsContextualization: Students access background and contextual materials of various sorts to aid interpretation and argumentationCognitive Apprenticeship: Students serve as apprentices to teachers to master observation, interpretation and contextualizationCollaboration: Students collaborate in observation, interpretation and contextualizationMultiple Interpretations: Students gain cognitive flexibility by being exposed to multiple interpretationsMultiple Manifestations: Students gain transferability by seeing multiple manifestations of the same interpretations
  • 28. Four Phase Cycle of David MerrillInstructionLearning is promoted when: learners observe a demonstration learners apply the new knowledge learners engage in a task-centered instructional strategy learners activate relevant prior knowledge or experience learners integrate their new knowledge into their everyday world Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  • 29. Information is NOT Instruction"If you dont provide adequate practice, if you dont have an adequate knowledge structure, if you dont provide adequate guidance, people dont learn" (Merrill, 1998) David Merrill’s Key to Learning  provide structured knowledge  provide practice  provide guidance Online Principles  Acknowledge learner’s prior experience and preconceptions  Help learners transform facts and concepts into usable knowledge.  Help learners monitor their own learning and learn independently  Provide learner-centered environment online David Merrill
  • 30. Kellers ARCS Model forMotivation Attention - gaining and  Confidence keeping the learners attention  Need to feel confident in the  Through the senses program’s purpose and  Through inquiry - thought objectives provoking questions  Need to believe they can  Through variety - variance in succeed and that this is exercises and use of different worthwhile for them media  Satisfaction – What’s the Relevance reward?  Training needs to relevant.  Need to feel rewarded from the  "Whats in it for me?" learning experience.  Need entertainment or a sense of achievement.  Need to achieve satisfaction in what they have learned  Need see that their new skills can be immediately useful and beneficial on their job.
  • 31. Community of Inquiry Social Supporting Cognitive Discourse Presence Presence Educational Experience Setting Selecting Climate Content Blended Learning in Higher Education D. Randy Garrison Teaching and Norman D. Vaughan (2008) Presence Structure/ProcessCommunity of Inquiry Framework
  • 32. Communities of Practice “Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passionfor something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.” Etienne Wenger
  • 33. Communities of Practice inEducation Internally: How to organize educational experiences that ground school learning in practice through participation in communities around subject matters? Externally: How to connect the experience of students to actual practice through peripheral forms of participation in broader communities beyond the walls of the school? Over the lifetime of students: How to serve the lifelong learning needs of students by organizing communities of practice focused on topics of continuing interest to students beyond the initial schooling period? Etienne Wenger
  • 34. Understanding by Design Desired Results: What will Identify the student learn? desired results Acceptable Evidence: How will you design an assessment that accurately Determine determines if the student acceptable evidence learned what he/she was supposed to learn? Plan learning Lesson Planning: How do experiences you design a lesson that and results in student learning? instruction
  • 35. Don Clark’s ADDIE Backwards Design
  • 36. Multiple Intelligences• Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence – word player• Logical-Mathematical Intelligence - questioner• Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence - mover• Visual-Spatial Intelligence - visualizer• Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence – music lover• Interpersonal Intelligence - socializer• Intrapersonal Intelligence - individualizer• Naturalist Intelligence – nature lover Howard Gardner
  • 37. Developing our Intelligences Stage 1: Awaken - trigger the intelligence Stage 2: Amplify - strengthen by practice Stage 3: Teach - learn and acquire specific knowledge Stage 4: Transfer the intelligence to real life - Knowing how to live in the real world
  • 38. Kirkpatrick’s Model of Course Evaluation Level 1 Evaluation—Reaction  how participants in a training program react to it Level 2 Evaluation—Learning  the amount of learning that has occurred due to a training program Level 3 Evaluation—Behavior  measures the transfer that has occurred in learners behavior due to the training program Level 4 Evaluation—Results  assess training in terms of results or overall impact for education, business, military, etc. settings
  • 39. Resources Reiser and Dempsey History of Instructional Design (Website) Instructional Design Central TIP Theories Wikipedia Instructional Design Models A Journey into Constructivism Piaget’s Constructivism and Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the Difference? Edutopia – Seymour Papert and Project-based Learning ICON Model Applying Learning Theories to Online Instructional Design Cognitive Apprenticeships