Bloom’s Taxonomy, Essential Questions, and Understanding by Design<br />EDUU552<br />
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956)<br />Various types of learning outcomes within the cognitive domain <br />Object...
KNOWLEDGE: define, list, name, memorize<br />COMPREHENSION: identify, describe, explain<br />APPLICATION: demonstrate, use...
Ask students to demonstrate:<br />Knowledge - recall information in original form<br />Comprehension - show understanding ...
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy<br />Creating<br /><ul><li>Creating – designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, de...
Evaluating – checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoring
Analyzing – comparing, organizing, deconstructing, attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating
Applying – implementing, carrying out, using, executing
Understanding– interpreting, summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying
Remembering – recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding</li></ul>Evaluating<br ...
Knowledge or Remembering – Recalling Information<br />Where – What – Who – How many – Point to…<br />Comprehension or Unde...
Analysis – Ability to see parts/relationships<br />What other ways…? Similar/Different (Venn)<br />Interpretation – What k...
Evaluation and Synthesis<br />Judgment based on Criteria<br />Literature<br />Would you recommend this book – WHY or WHY n...
Essential Questions at the top of Bloom’s Taxonomy<br />Create - innovate<br />Evaluate– make a thoughtful choice between ...
Spark our curiosity and sense of wonder<br />Desire to understand <br />Something that matters to us<br />Answers to EQs c...
Answering such questions may take a lifetime!<br />Answers may only be tentative<br />Information gathering may take place...
Framed by students themselves<br />Best to start with subsidiary questions that might help support the main question<br />...
Understanding by Design<br />What are the big ideas?<br />Core concepts<br />Focusing themes<br />On-going debates/issues<...
Understanding by Design<br />Desired Results: What will the student learn?<br />Acceptable Evidence: How will you design a...
Understanding by Design<br />Worth being familiar with<br />Important to know and do<br />Enduring<br />Understanding<br /...
Understanding by Design<br />Assessment Types<br />Traditional quizzes and tests<br />Paper/pencil<br />Selected response<...
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Essential questions

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Essential questions

  1. 1. Bloom’s Taxonomy, Essential Questions, and Understanding by Design<br />EDUU552<br />
  2. 2. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956)<br />Various types of learning outcomes within the cognitive domain <br />Objectives could be classified according to type of learner behavior described <br />A hierarchical relationship exists among the various types of outcomes<br />Benjamin Bloom<br />Evaluation<br />Synthesis<br />Analysis<br />Application<br />Comprehension<br />Knowledge<br />
  3. 3. KNOWLEDGE: define, list, name, memorize<br />COMPREHENSION: identify, describe, explain<br />APPLICATION: demonstrate, use, show, teach<br />ANALYSIS: categorize, compare, calculate<br />SYNTHESIS: design, create, prepare, predict<br />EVALUATION: judge, assess, rate, revise<br />Bloom’s Original Taxonomy<br />
  4. 4. Ask students to demonstrate:<br />Knowledge - recall information in original form<br />Comprehension - show understanding <br />Application - use learning in a new situation<br />Analysis - show s/he can see relationships<br />Synthesis - combine and integrate parts of prior knowledge into a product, plan, or proposal that is new<br />Evaluation - assess and criticize on basis of standards and criteria<br />Thinking Levels<br />
  5. 5. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy<br />Creating<br /><ul><li>Creating – designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making
  6. 6. Evaluating – checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoring
  7. 7. Analyzing – comparing, organizing, deconstructing, attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating
  8. 8. Applying – implementing, carrying out, using, executing
  9. 9. Understanding– interpreting, summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying
  10. 10. Remembering – recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding</li></ul>Evaluating<br />Analyzing<br />Applying<br />Understanding<br />Remembering<br />http://uwf.edu/cutla/assessstudent.cfm<br />
  11. 11. Knowledge or Remembering – Recalling Information<br />Where – What – Who – How many – Point to…<br />Comprehension or Understanding – <br />Tell me in your own words – What does it mean?<br />Give me an example, describe, illustrate<br />Application – Using learning in a new situation<br />What would happen if…? Would you have done the same…? How would you solve this problem?<br />In the library, find information about….<br />Blooming Questions<br />
  12. 12. Analysis – Ability to see parts/relationships<br />What other ways…? Similar/Different (Venn)<br />Interpretation – What kind of person…? What caused the person to react in this way…? What part was most exciting, sad…?<br />Synthesis – Parts of information to create original whole<br />What would it be like if…? Design, pretend, use your imagination, write a new ending…<br />More Blooming Questions<br />
  13. 13. Evaluation and Synthesis<br />Judgment based on Criteria<br />Literature<br />Would you recommend this book – WHY or WHY not?<br />Select the best – WHY?<br />Which person in history would you most like to meet – and WHY?<br />Is the quality good or bad? WHY?<br />Could this story have happened? WHY?<br />Creating at top of revised Bloom’s Taxonomy - Innovation<br />Highest Levels of Questioning<br />
  14. 14. Essential Questions at the top of Bloom’s Taxonomy<br />Create - innovate<br />Evaluate– make a thoughtful choice between options, with the choice based on a clearly stated criteria<br />Synthesize – invent a new or different version<br />Analyze – develop a thorough and complex understanding through skillful questioning.<br />Framing Essential Questions<br />
  15. 15. Spark our curiosity and sense of wonder<br />Desire to understand <br />Something that matters to us<br />Answers to EQs can NOT be found<br />Students must construct own answers<br />Make their own meaning from information they have gathered<br />Create insight<br />Essential Questions: EQs<br />
  16. 16. Answering such questions may take a lifetime!<br />Answers may only be tentative<br />Information gathering may take place outside of formal learning environments<br />Engage students in real life applied problem solving<br />EQ lend themselves to multidisciplinary investigations.<br />Essential Questions<br />
  17. 17. Framed by students themselves<br />Best to start with subsidiary questions that might help support the main question<br />Formulate categories of related questions<br />“What else do we need to know?<br />State suppositions <br />Hypothesizing and Predicting<br />Thought process helps provide a basis for construction of meaning.<br />Ideal Essential Questions<br />
  18. 18. Understanding by Design<br />What are the big ideas?<br />Core concepts<br />Focusing themes<br />On-going debates/issues<br />Insightful perspectives<br />Illuminating paradox/problem<br />Organizing theory<br />Overarching principle<br />Underlying assumption<br />What’s the evidence?<br />How do we get there?<br />Enduring Understanding<br />
  19. 19. Understanding by Design<br />Desired Results: What will the student learn?<br />Acceptable Evidence: How will you design an assessment that accurately determines if the student learned what he/she was supposed to learn?<br />Lesson Planning: How do you design a lesson that results in student learning?<br />Identify desired results<br />Determine acceptable evidence<br />Plan learning experiences and instruction<br />
  20. 20. Understanding by Design<br />Worth being familiar with<br />Important to know and do<br />Enduring<br />Understanding<br />Will this lesson lead to enduring understanding?<br />
  21. 21. Understanding by Design<br />Assessment Types<br />Traditional quizzes and tests<br />Paper/pencil<br />Selected response<br />Constructed response<br />Performance tasks and projects<br />Open-ended<br />Complex<br />Authentic<br />Worth being familiar with<br />Important to know and do<br />Enduring<br />Understanding<br />Performance tasks and projects need assessments that<br />are more authentic than traditional quizzes and tests.<br />
  22. 22. Rubric - a scoring guide for evaluating student performance<br />Allows for a variety of criteria or categories to be evaluated on a sliding rating scale (not subject to one final percentage score as in testing)<br />A way to measure real-life, authentic learning experiences in the classroom<br />Provides a guide for students in determining expectations of assignments<br />Shows students and parents how the teacher is judging student performance<br />Rubrics for Assessment<br />
  23. 23. Allows teacher to focus on what expectations he/she have for student work<br />Provides alternative grading system for performance assessment, portfolios, projects, web assignments, etc.<br />Can measure a variety of categories in any content area<br />Teacher can determine criteria and scale - rather than be subject to standardized testing scores.<br />Rubrics for Assessment<br />
  24. 24. Clear targets: <br />Provide clear descriptions of specific achievement expectations to be assessed.<br />Measure one or more of the four achievement expectations.<br />Assure that evaluators understand and remain aware of what they are assessing.<br />Focused purpose: <br />Clarify the intended uses of the assessment results. <br />Specify whose information needs the assessment will meet: teachers, curriculum developers, and policymakers.<br />Proper method:<br />Use an assessment method that is suited to the assessment goals (such as essays, direct communication, selected response or extended investigations).<br />PALS Five Features of Good Performance Assessment <br />
  25. 25. Sound sampling:<br />Provide a representative sample of all the questions that can be asked.<br />Produce results of maximum quality at minimum cost in time and effort.<br />Yield confident inferences about how the respondent would have done given all possible exercises.<br />Accurate assessment free of bias and distortion:<br />Present sources of inference and error that may have affected the development and implementation of the assessment.<br />Anticipate sources of bias that can create ambiguity in results.<br />PALS Five Features of Good Performance Assessment <br />
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