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  • 1. Observations and Developmental Domains EDUU325 Child Development Review Prepared by Dr. Piper
  • 2. Child Development
    • Four areas or domains of development
      • Physical domain
      • Cognitive domain
      • Social domain
      • Emotional domain
    • Each child develops along a continuum in within each domain
  • 3. Development Continuum
    • Not all children develop at the same “speed”
    • Most children develop in the same sequence
    • No two children are the same
  • 4. Physical Domain
    • The physical domain includes various measures of physical growth
      • Height and weight
      • Development of muscle coordination
      • Fine Motor Skills
      • Gross Motor Skills
  • 5. Cognitive Domain
    • The way children’s thinking processes develop
    • How children learn to reason and solve problems.
  • 6. Social Domain
    • The social domain is about
      • How children relate to others
      • How children make moral decisions
  • 7. Emotional Domain
    • H ow children learn to trust
    • How children recognize and express their feelings
    • How children understand and accept who they are
  • 8. Factors Influencing Development
    • Maturation
      • The growth of a child determined in large part by genetics or heredity
      • Ongoing process of “the unfolding” of a child’s potential
      • Not all children mature at the same rate!
    • Experience
      • a child’s interaction with the environment, the world
      • what happens to a child in the world.
      • Not all children have had the same experiences
    • Culture
      • Cultural experiences may influence child’s development.
    • Over time a child normally develops increasingly confident and complex reactions to what happens around him/her.
  • 9. Experiences
    • S ome experiences can inhibit, delay, damage, or stop a child’s development
    • Poor nutrition
    • Serious illness
    • Lack of opportunity to explore
    • Abusiveness
    • We have to observe children to find out where they are before we plan activities for them.
  • 10. Predictable Patterns in Development
    • Development is sequential
      • One thing has to happen before the next thing can. For example
      • Examples
        • A student cannot learn to hop until after learning to walk.
        • A student can write only after learning how to hold a pencil in a way to control it.
    • Development is cumulative
      • Development builds on itself
      • Each new skill strengthens the foundation that supports the whole child
      • What a child can do and understand today is the basis for future development.
      • New experience build upon previous experiences
      • We should be sure a child is ready before we try to teach him/her something new.
  • 11. Child Development
    • A child’s chronological age is only approximately related to his/her stage of development.
    • Not all children have had the same experiences
    • All children do not mature at the same rate.
    • We have to observe children to find out where they are before we plan activities for them.
  • 12. What is Physical Development?
    • Gradually gaining control over large and small muscles.
    • Gross Motor Skills
      • sitting, crawling, walking, running, throwing
    • Fine Motor Skills
      • holding, pinching, flexing fingers and toes
    • Coordination
      • Coordinate large and small muscles
      • Using senses - sight, sound, and touch
  • 13. A Child’s First Three Years
    • Learn to control body muscles
    • Practice physical skills they will use for the rest of their lives
    • Need opportunities to learn and practice
    • Use senses to understand the world around them – sight, sound, touch
    • Important for developing self-esteem.
  • 14. Caregivers Role
    • Schedule time for active play everyday
    • Help and encourage children when they are learning new skills.
    • Encourage children to use large and small muscles in a coordinated way
    • Help develop awareness of rhythm for coordination
    • Encourage children to use all senses to explore size, shape, volume, etc.
    • Give children time to practice new skills.
  • 15.
    • Set up room so infants have freedom and opportunities to explore safely
    • Use materials and equipment that require children to use large muscles
    • Play indoor and outdoor non-competitive games with children
    • Encourage development of self-help skills
    • Plan increasingly difficult activities using large muscles – moving objects, furniture
  • 16.
    • Use materials that require children to use small muscles
    • Give infants opportunities to develop small muscles like grasping, pulling, dropping, fingering
    • Encourage self-help skills – dressing, eating
    • Plan activities – fingerplays, cooking, etc.
    Fine Motor
  • 17. Young Infants
    • Do not have control over how they move
    • Some kicking, squirming, wiggling is random, without purpose
    • Reflexive movements – automatic
    • Begin to gain control over how they move
    • Develop at different rates
    • Follow head to toe general pattern
    • Gross motor skills come before fine motor skills
    Lift Head Sit Crawl Walk
  • 18. From Newborn to 18 Months
    • Eye-hand coordination
      • Bringing hands to mouth
      • Reaching for things
      • Letting go of things
      • Moving a toy from one hand to another
      • Grasping things with fingers and thumbs
    • Make physical contact with a piece of their world
      • A sight and sound of a rattle, bell, book
      • Crawlers feel soft rug, hard floor, sponge pillows
      • New walkers discover places, things, toys
  • 19. Toddlers
    • Wide range of large and small muscle skills
    • Walk, run, climb, and squat
    • Move about without their hands to support themselves
    • Begin to throw and catch
    • Hop and jump
    • Gain control of bladder and bowel muscles
  • 20. Toddler Fine Motor Skills
    • Fit pieces into simple puzzle
    • Build with blocks
    • Pour juice from a pitcher
    • Hands free to touch, lift, grasp, push, etc.
    • May show preference for right/left hand
    • Reach for objects
    • Use eating utensils
    • Turn pages of book
    • Pretend to write
    • Draw and paint
  • 21. Three-Year-Olds Gross Motor Skills
    • Usually sure and nimble on their feet
    • Walk, run, turn sharp corners with ease
    • Often hold arms out to their sides for balance
    • Walk up stairs using alternate feet
    • Jump from stairs and land on both feet
    • Gallop and dance to music
    • Hop several times in a row on one foot
    • Walk along a line made of tape
    • Push and pedal tricycles and swing
    • Throw, catch, and kick large balls
  • 22. Three-Year-Olds Fine Motor Skills
    • Prefer gross motor activities
    • Gaining control of fingers, hands, wrists
    • Family-style meals good for active participation – using spoons to serve, etc.
    • Have learned to dress themselves
    • Can wash own hands
    • String beads, build towers with blocks, play with puzzles, use scissors,
    • Hold crayons and scribble
    • Explore through playdough, sand, water, clay
  • 23. Four-Year Olds Gross Motor Skills
    • Greater control over their large muscles
    • Able to start and stop suddenly
    • Hopping which leads to skipping
    • Balancing on a walking board
    • Throwing balls overhand
    • Climbing ladders and play equipment
    • Can pedal, steer, and turn corners on tricycles
  • 24. Four-Year Olds Fine Motor Skills
    • More refined small muscle movements and eye-hand coordination
    • Cut easily with scissors
    • Begin to draw pictures that represent real things
    • May write recognizable letters and numbers
    • Can lace shoes, zip and snap
    • Can pour from small pitchers
    • Serve and eat with knife and fork
    • Build detailed block constructions
    • Use tools in their hands
    • Form shapes with playdough and clay
  • 25. Five-Year Olds Gross Motor Skills
    • Refining existing physical skills
    • Run faster
    • Ride tricycles with greater speed and distance
    • Skip alternating feet
    • Walk full-length of a balance beam
    • Enjoy ball games, catching, kicking, throwing
    • Some jump rope, do somersaults, and use the overhead ladder on a climber
  • 26. Five-Year Olds Fine Motor Skills
    • Most have well-developed fine motor skills
    • Drawings and paintings represent real objects and include detail
    • Use utensils properly in eating
    • Have little difficulty with dressing and undressing themselves
    • Can handle buttons, snaps, zippers, and buckles
    • Learning to tie shoes
    • Most can draw some letters and numbers and possibly name
  • 27. What is Cognitive Development?
    • The process of learning to think and reason
    • How do children develop thinking skills?
      • Actively explore their world
      • Try out new ideas
      • Observe what happens
  • 28. Jean Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development
    • Sensorimotor Stage
      • Birth to two
      • Objects exist outside of their visual field - object permanence
      • Learn strictly through sensory experience within their environment
  • 29. Jean Piaget Pre-operational Stage
    • Ages 2 - 7
    • Period of language development
    • Egocentrism - only see self perceptions
    • Categorize by single obvious feature
  • 30. Concrete Operational Stage
      • Develop ability to handle complex logic and make comparisons
      • Hypothesize and reason ONLY about things they’ve experienced themselves
      • Ages 7 - 12
  • 31. Formal Operational Stage
    • Age 12 – Adult
    • Abstract thinking ability
    • Offer interpretations
    • Draw conclusions
    • Formulate hypotheses
  • 32. Lev Vygotsky’s Theories
    • Children learn best through social interactions with children and adults
    • Adults provide mental scaffolding
      • Give children a framework for understanding
      • Gives children support so they can use their own cognitive skills
    • Adults are guides or facilitators who help children understand their world
  • 33. Fostering Cognitive Growth
    • What do children need?
      • Self-confidence and skills to explore their world
      • To try out new ideas
      • To make mistakes
      • To solve problems on their own
      • Take on new challenges
    • What can the teacher do?
      • Build on child’s natural curiosity
      • Create an environment for exploration
      • Ask questions and talk with children
      • Give children a chance to construct their own knowledge
  • 34. A Child’s First Three Years
    • Provide children with opportunities to use all of their senses to explore the environment.
    • Allow children to see how things work
    • Build on children’s natural curiosity
    • Help them feel good about expressing ideas and solving problems on their own.
    • Help them develop new concepts and acquire thinking skills
  • 35.
    • Learn through everyday experiences
    • Think through daily routines
    • Explore through mouthing, dropping, banging, squeezing, etc.
    • Learn “object permanence” – Object exists even when it’s out of sight
    • Begin to understand cause and effect
    • Learn how to use one object to get another
  • 36. Toddlers
    • Learning all the time!
    • As they develop, the same experiences take on new meanings
    • Just beginning to understand how things and events relate to each other – in, out, under
    • Think concretely and understand words very literally
    • Can anticipate what will happen next and learn order in daily routines and schedules
    • Beginning to understand cause and effect.
  • 37.
    • Active participants in the learning process
    • Like detectives – trying to make sense of their experiences
    • Constructivism
      • Learning takes place within the child
      • Child’s mind is not an empty slate that we fill with knowledge
      • Children construct their own knowledge
      • They apply what they already know
      • Actively explore through the senses
      • Build on prior experiences
    Preschool Children
  • 38. How do Preschool Children Learn?
    • Interact and teach each other
      • Playing with water
      • Building with blocks
      • Finger painting
      • Engaging in dramatic play
      • Talking and sharing information
      • Giving advice and correcting one another
    • Learn by doing – not by sitting and listening
    • Learn by observing, hearing, and putting their own ideas into word
  • 39. Learning through play!
    • Functional play
      • Examine physical properties of materials and objects
      • Handling, experimenting, observing, etc.
    • Constructive play
      • Use materials to create a representation of something
      • Build a farm with blocks, paint a picture, make something
    • Socio-dramatic play
      • Make believe and pretend
      • Re-enact experiences, use props, role play
    • Games with rules
      • Board games or active games
      • Learn to understand rules and control their behavior
  • 40. Social Development
    • Helping children learn to get along with others
    • Helping children understand and express their feelings and respect those of others
    • Providing an environment and experiences that help children develop social skills
  • 41. Influences
    • Increased knowledge about self and others
    • Influenced by
      • Experiences and relationships that child have with significant adults in their lives
      • Cognitive development
  • 42. Cognition Effects Social Development
    • Move from being egocentric – seeing the world from one’s one perspective
    • Growing ability to understand how other people think and feel
    • Increased understanding of cause and effect – connections between actions and consequences
    • Change from concrete thinking to abstract thinking
    • Understanding complex concepts like multiple relationships (mother is wife, daughter, aunt, etc.)
  • 43. Social Competence: Infants
    • Forges strong bonds with adults
    • Develops trust
    • Develops connection to secure attachment figure
    • Begins to orient to people in the environment
    • Becomes socially responsive
    • Participates in games like peekaboo
    • Becomes selective about who they response to
    • Responds to another’s distress some of the time.
  • 44. Social Competence: Toddlers
    • Concerned about the presence of principal attachment figure
    • Prefers to play along with the exclusive attention of favorite adults (solitary play)
    • Begins to enjoy nearby company of other children in play (parallel play)
    • Tries to do something for a distressed person – patting
    • Makes vocal exchanges in social play – turn-taking, social imitation, conflicts over toys
    • Begins to develop genuine friendship
  • 45. Social Competence: Preschool
    • More flexible, able to separate from significant adults
    • At 3 enjoys adult but plays with other children (associative play)
    • At 4-5 prefers peers
      • Learning to cooperate, share, and negotiate with other children
      • Has friendships depending on proximity and shared activities
    • At 3 expresses aggression physically
    • Growing ability to recognize needs and wishes of others
    • Prosocial behavior increasing
      • At 4 – bases decisions on self interest
      • At 5 – sees conflict between what they want and external rules
    • Moral judgments based on the amount of damage done rather than intentions.
  • 46. Social Knowledge and Understanding
    • Social knowledge is needed to form friendships.
    • Children should have knowledge of norms and customs
    • Involves having the ability to predict and anticipate other’s preferences.
    • Children should be able to express feelings openly.
    • Involves children being able to understand other’s feelings as well.
  • 47. Social Competence
    • The ability to initiate and maintain satisfying, reciprocal relationships with peers and adults.
    • Children who lack social competence are at risk
      • academic failure
      • dropping out of school
      • delinquency
      • mental health problems
  • 48. Emotional Development
    • Develop as individuals who have:
      • Characteristic needs
      • Ways of expressing feelings
      • Perceptions of themselves
    • Develop a sense of
      • Indentity
      • Self esteem
      • Impulse control
      • Capacity for autonomous responses
    • Influenced by experience
  • 49. Milestones of Emotional Development - Infant
    • Signals need with crying and gazing
    • Establishes attachment to primary caregiver
    • Expresses a wide range of emtions through body movements and facial expressions
    • Cannot tolerate frustration or control impluses
    • Develops stranger anxiety between 6-9 months
    • Amiable from 1 year
  • 50. Emotional Development: Toddlers
    • Vociferous and demanding at 2
    • Calmer and more sociable at 3
    • Begins to assert self strongly
    • Can seem stubbornly self-centered and resistant to change
    • Has little control of impulses
    • Easily frustrated
  • 51. Emotional Development: Preschool
    • Beginning to tolerate frustration
    • Developing self control
    • Developing humor
    • Tends to be curious
    • Generally positive in disposition by 3
    • Seems to display a different personality from minute to minute at 4
    • Becomes more aware of the effects of behavior on others by 4-5
  • 52. Lev Vygotsky
    • Advocate of preschool programs that meet the needs of the whole child
    • Children need to acquire a set of fundamental competencies that shape their minds for further learning:
      • Cognitive
      • Linguistic
      • Social-emotional
    • Lifelong process of development dependent on social interaction with adults and peers
  • 53. Explicit Instruction
    • Skills for preschoolers need explicit instruction:
      • Oral language
      • Deliberate memory
      • Focused attention
      • Self regulation
    • Preschool thinking is reactive – immediate response to what children see and feel
    • Preschoolers ability to learn depends on:
      • repetition or
      • an experience that is personally meaningful
    Bodrova and Leong, 2005 Vygotsky
  • 54. Self Regulation
    • Goal of Preschool Education
    • Children move from reactive thinking to the ability to think before they act.
    • Children are able to reflect and draw on past experience to engage in thoughtful behaviors.
    Bodrova and Leong, 2005 Vygotsky “ Children who do not develop the ability to regulate their attention and their behavior before they enter kindergarten face a higher risk of falling behind academically.”
  • 55. Positive Self Esteem
    • Develop a positive and supportive relationship with each child
    • Help children accept and appreciate themselves and others
    • Provide opportunities for children to be successful and feel confident
  • 56. Observation
    • How professionals learn about children by watching what children do
    • The word “observation” comes from the Latin.
      • to watch or be present without participating.
      • being detached from what you are observing so you do not influence what is going on.
  • 57. Observation Based on Knowledge and Understanding
    • Draw on knowledge of child development
    • Use that knowledge to make careful observations and assessments of children
      • Support healthy development.
      • Make interventions when necessary
      • Communicate to other professionals and parents as needed.
      • Enhance the lives of children under their care.
  • 58. Maintain Detachment
    • Do not let your own biases, prejudices, and points of view interfere with seeing what is actually going on with children.
    • Recording continues the process of detachment.
    • Records reflect what actually happened, not any interpretation of what happened.
  • 59. Gathering Information
    • Monitor children’s development and progress
    • Choose and evaluate teaching strategies and equipment
    • Plan appropriate learning experiences
    • Learn about and solve problems
    • Have informed discussions with family members and other professionals
    • Make informed decisions about seeking other sources of help for children
  • 60. Interpreting Observations
    • Key to good judgments about what is best for children
    • Judgments should be based on documented evidence.
    • Judgments should reflect your professionalism
  • 61. Three Stages of Observation
    • Observing
      • The detached process of watching without participating
    • Recording
      • Making reproducible records of what you have seen
    • Interpreting
      • Final step after observing and recording
      • Based on professional knowledge and expertise
  • 62. Processes and Procedures
    • Legal and ethical practice established by daycare or preschool administration
    • Often need parental permission to administer tests.
    • Need to become familiar with the instruments that your program uses and the process for administering them
  • 63. Reporting Information
    • How do you working with parents share information about their children
      • Focus on the facts (observations) and your common concern about the well-being of the children
      • Review this information and make decisions about children with your director and childhood study team.
    • Maintain professional focus
  • 64. Confidentiality
    • Maintain confidentiality of the information about children and families
    • Use “Need to know” criteria whenever telling anyone something about children and/or families
    • Legal and ethical considerations
    • Review the confidentiality policies of your program