Development

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Development

  1. 1. Observations and Developmental Domains EDUU325 Child Development Review Prepared by Dr. Piper
  2. 2. Child Development <ul><li>Four areas or domains of development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional domain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each child develops along a continuum in within each domain </li></ul>
  3. 3. Development Continuum <ul><li>Not all children develop at the same “speed” </li></ul><ul><li>Most children develop in the same sequence </li></ul><ul><li>No two children are the same </li></ul>
  4. 4. Physical Domain <ul><li>The physical domain includes various measures of physical growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Height and weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of muscle coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine Motor Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross Motor Skills </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Cognitive Domain <ul><li>The way children’s thinking processes develop </li></ul><ul><li>How children learn to reason and solve problems. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Social Domain <ul><li>The social domain is about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How children relate to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How children make moral decisions </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Emotional Domain <ul><li>H ow children learn to trust </li></ul><ul><li>How children recognize and express their feelings </li></ul><ul><li>How children understand and accept who they are </li></ul>
  8. 8. Factors Influencing Development <ul><li>Maturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The growth of a child determined in large part by genetics or heredity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing process of “the unfolding” of a child’s potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all children mature at the same rate! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a child’s interaction with the environment, the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what happens to a child in the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all children have had the same experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural experiences may influence child’s development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over time a child normally develops increasingly confident and complex reactions to what happens around him/her. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Experiences <ul><li>S ome experiences can inhibit, delay, damage, or stop a child’s development </li></ul><ul><li>Poor nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Serious illness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of opportunity to explore </li></ul><ul><li>Abusiveness </li></ul><ul><li>We have to observe children to find out where they are before we plan activities for them. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Predictable Patterns in Development <ul><li>Development is sequential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One thing has to happen before the next thing can. For example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A student cannot learn to hop until after learning to walk. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A student can write only after learning how to hold a pencil in a way to control it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Development is cumulative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development builds on itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each new skill strengthens the foundation that supports the whole child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What a child can do and understand today is the basis for future development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New experience build upon previous experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We should be sure a child is ready before we try to teach him/her something new. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Child Development <ul><li>A child’s chronological age is only approximately related to his/her stage of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all children have had the same experiences </li></ul><ul><li>All children do not mature at the same rate. </li></ul><ul><li>We have to observe children to find out where they are before we plan activities for them. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What is Physical Development? <ul><li>Gradually gaining control over large and small muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Gross Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sitting, crawling, walking, running, throwing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fine Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>holding, pinching, flexing fingers and toes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate large and small muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using senses - sight, sound, and touch </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. A Child’s First Three Years <ul><li>Learn to control body muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Practice physical skills they will use for the rest of their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Need opportunities to learn and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Use senses to understand the world around them – sight, sound, touch </li></ul><ul><li>Important for developing self-esteem. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Caregivers Role <ul><li>Schedule time for active play everyday </li></ul><ul><li>Help and encourage children when they are learning new skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage children to use large and small muscles in a coordinated way </li></ul><ul><li>Help develop awareness of rhythm for coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage children to use all senses to explore size, shape, volume, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Give children time to practice new skills. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Set up room so infants have freedom and opportunities to explore safely </li></ul><ul><li>Use materials and equipment that require children to use large muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Play indoor and outdoor non-competitive games with children </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage development of self-help skills </li></ul><ul><li>Plan increasingly difficult activities using large muscles – moving objects, furniture </li></ul>Environment
  16. 16. <ul><li>Use materials that require children to use small muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Give infants opportunities to develop small muscles like grasping, pulling, dropping, fingering </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage self-help skills – dressing, eating </li></ul><ul><li>Plan activities – fingerplays, cooking, etc. </li></ul>Fine Motor
  17. 17. Young Infants <ul><li>Do not have control over how they move </li></ul><ul><li>Some kicking, squirming, wiggling is random, without purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive movements – automatic </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to gain control over how they move </li></ul><ul><li>Develop at different rates </li></ul><ul><li>Follow head to toe general pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Gross motor skills come before fine motor skills </li></ul>Lift Head Sit Crawl Walk
  18. 18. From Newborn to 18 Months <ul><li>Eye-hand coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing hands to mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaching for things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letting go of things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving a toy from one hand to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasping things with fingers and thumbs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make physical contact with a piece of their world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sight and sound of a rattle, bell, book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crawlers feel soft rug, hard floor, sponge pillows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New walkers discover places, things, toys </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Toddlers <ul><li>Wide range of large and small muscle skills </li></ul><ul><li>Walk, run, climb, and squat </li></ul><ul><li>Move about without their hands to support themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to throw and catch </li></ul><ul><li>Hop and jump </li></ul><ul><li>Gain control of bladder and bowel muscles </li></ul>
  20. 20. Toddler Fine Motor Skills <ul><li>Fit pieces into simple puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>Build with blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Pour juice from a pitcher </li></ul><ul><li>Hands free to touch, lift, grasp, push, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>May show preference for right/left hand </li></ul><ul><li>Reach for objects </li></ul><ul><li>Use eating utensils </li></ul><ul><li>Turn pages of book </li></ul><ul><li>Pretend to write </li></ul><ul><li>Draw and paint </li></ul>
  21. 21. Three-Year-Olds Gross Motor Skills <ul><li>Usually sure and nimble on their feet </li></ul><ul><li>Walk, run, turn sharp corners with ease </li></ul><ul><li>Often hold arms out to their sides for balance </li></ul><ul><li>Walk up stairs using alternate feet </li></ul><ul><li>Jump from stairs and land on both feet </li></ul><ul><li>Gallop and dance to music </li></ul><ul><li>Hop several times in a row on one foot </li></ul><ul><li>Walk along a line made of tape </li></ul><ul><li>Push and pedal tricycles and swing </li></ul><ul><li>Throw, catch, and kick large balls </li></ul>
  22. 22. Three-Year-Olds Fine Motor Skills <ul><li>Prefer gross motor activities </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining control of fingers, hands, wrists </li></ul><ul><li>Family-style meals good for active participation – using spoons to serve, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Have learned to dress themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Can wash own hands </li></ul><ul><li>String beads, build towers with blocks, play with puzzles, use scissors, </li></ul><ul><li>Hold crayons and scribble </li></ul><ul><li>Explore through playdough, sand, water, clay </li></ul>
  23. 23. Four-Year Olds Gross Motor Skills <ul><li>Greater control over their large muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Able to start and stop suddenly </li></ul><ul><li>Hopping which leads to skipping </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing on a walking board </li></ul><ul><li>Throwing balls overhand </li></ul><ul><li>Climbing ladders and play equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Can pedal, steer, and turn corners on tricycles </li></ul>
  24. 24. Four-Year Olds Fine Motor Skills <ul><li>More refined small muscle movements and eye-hand coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Cut easily with scissors </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to draw pictures that represent real things </li></ul><ul><li>May write recognizable letters and numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Can lace shoes, zip and snap </li></ul><ul><li>Can pour from small pitchers </li></ul><ul><li>Serve and eat with knife and fork </li></ul><ul><li>Build detailed block constructions </li></ul><ul><li>Use tools in their hands </li></ul><ul><li>Form shapes with playdough and clay </li></ul>
  25. 25. Five-Year Olds Gross Motor Skills <ul><li>Refining existing physical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Run faster </li></ul><ul><li>Ride tricycles with greater speed and distance </li></ul><ul><li>Skip alternating feet </li></ul><ul><li>Walk full-length of a balance beam </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy ball games, catching, kicking, throwing </li></ul><ul><li>Some jump rope, do somersaults, and use the overhead ladder on a climber </li></ul>
  26. 26. Five-Year Olds Fine Motor Skills <ul><li>Most have well-developed fine motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>Drawings and paintings represent real objects and include detail </li></ul><ul><li>Use utensils properly in eating </li></ul><ul><li>Have little difficulty with dressing and undressing themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Can handle buttons, snaps, zippers, and buckles </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to tie shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Most can draw some letters and numbers and possibly name </li></ul>
  27. 27. What is Cognitive Development? <ul><li>The process of learning to think and reason </li></ul><ul><li>How do children develop thinking skills? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively explore their world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try out new ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe what happens </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Jean Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Sensorimotor Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth to two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects exist outside of their visual field - object permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn strictly through sensory experience within their environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KINESTHETIC </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Jean Piaget Pre-operational Stage <ul><li>Ages 2 - 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Period of language development </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentrism - only see self perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Categorize by single obvious feature </li></ul>
  30. 30. Concrete Operational Stage <ul><ul><li>Develop ability to handle complex logic and make comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesize and reason ONLY about things they’ve experienced themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ages 7 - 12 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Formal Operational Stage <ul><li>Age 12 – Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract thinking ability </li></ul><ul><li>Offer interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate hypotheses </li></ul>
  32. 32. Lev Vygotsky’s Theories <ul><li>Children learn best through social interactions with children and adults </li></ul><ul><li>Adults provide mental scaffolding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give children a framework for understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives children support so they can use their own cognitive skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adults are guides or facilitators who help children understand their world </li></ul>
  33. 33. Fostering Cognitive Growth <ul><li>What do children need? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-confidence and skills to explore their world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To try out new ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To solve problems on their own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take on new challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What can the teacher do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build on child’s natural curiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an environment for exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions and talk with children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give children a chance to construct their own knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. A Child’s First Three Years <ul><li>Provide children with opportunities to use all of their senses to explore the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow children to see how things work </li></ul><ul><li>Build on children’s natural curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Help them feel good about expressing ideas and solving problems on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Help them develop new concepts and acquire thinking skills </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Learn through everyday experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Think through daily routines </li></ul><ul><li>Explore through mouthing, dropping, banging, squeezing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn “object permanence” – Object exists even when it’s out of sight </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to understand cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to use one object to get another </li></ul>Infants
  36. 36. Toddlers <ul><li>Learning all the time! </li></ul><ul><li>As they develop, the same experiences take on new meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Just beginning to understand how things and events relate to each other – in, out, under </li></ul><ul><li>Think concretely and understand words very literally </li></ul><ul><li>Can anticipate what will happen next and learn order in daily routines and schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning to understand cause and effect. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Active participants in the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Like detectives – trying to make sense of their experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning takes place within the child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s mind is not an empty slate that we fill with knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children construct their own knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They apply what they already know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively explore through the senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build on prior experiences </li></ul></ul>Preschool Children
  38. 38. How do Preschool Children Learn? <ul><li>Interact and teach each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing with water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building with blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finger painting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging in dramatic play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking and sharing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving advice and correcting one another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learn by doing – not by sitting and listening </li></ul><ul><li>Learn by observing, hearing, and putting their own ideas into word </li></ul>
  39. 39. Learning through play! <ul><li>Functional play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine physical properties of materials and objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling, experimenting, observing, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructive play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use materials to create a representation of something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a farm with blocks, paint a picture, make something </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socio-dramatic play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make believe and pretend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-enact experiences, use props, role play </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Games with rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Board games or active games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn to understand rules and control their behavior </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Social Development <ul><li>Helping children learn to get along with others </li></ul><ul><li>Helping children understand and express their feelings and respect those of others </li></ul><ul><li>Providing an environment and experiences that help children develop social skills </li></ul>
  41. 41. Influences <ul><li>Increased knowledge about self and others </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences and relationships that child have with significant adults in their lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive development </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Cognition Effects Social Development <ul><li>Move from being egocentric – seeing the world from one’s one perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Growing ability to understand how other people think and feel </li></ul><ul><li>Increased understanding of cause and effect – connections between actions and consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Change from concrete thinking to abstract thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding complex concepts like multiple relationships (mother is wife, daughter, aunt, etc.) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Social Competence: Infants <ul><li>Forges strong bonds with adults </li></ul><ul><li>Develops trust </li></ul><ul><li>Develops connection to secure attachment figure </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to orient to people in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes socially responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Participates in games like peekaboo </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes selective about who they response to </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to another’s distress some of the time. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Social Competence: Toddlers <ul><li>Concerned about the presence of principal attachment figure </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers to play along with the exclusive attention of favorite adults (solitary play) </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to enjoy nearby company of other children in play (parallel play) </li></ul><ul><li>Tries to do something for a distressed person – patting </li></ul><ul><li>Makes vocal exchanges in social play – turn-taking, social imitation, conflicts over toys </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to develop genuine friendship </li></ul>
  45. 45. Social Competence: Preschool <ul><li>More flexible, able to separate from significant adults </li></ul><ul><li>At 3 enjoys adult but plays with other children (associative play) </li></ul><ul><li>At 4-5 prefers peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to cooperate, share, and negotiate with other children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has friendships depending on proximity and shared activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At 3 expresses aggression physically </li></ul><ul><li>Growing ability to recognize needs and wishes of others </li></ul><ul><li>Prosocial behavior increasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At 4 – bases decisions on self interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 5 – sees conflict between what they want and external rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moral judgments based on the amount of damage done rather than intentions. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Social Knowledge and Understanding <ul><li>Social knowledge is needed to form friendships. </li></ul><ul><li>Children should have knowledge of norms and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Involves having the ability to predict and anticipate other’s preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Children should be able to express feelings openly. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves children being able to understand other’s feelings as well. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Social Competence <ul><li>The ability to initiate and maintain satisfying, reciprocal relationships with peers and adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who lack social competence are at risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>academic failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dropping out of school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delinquency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mental health problems </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Emotional Development <ul><li>Develop as individuals who have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristic needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways of expressing feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions of themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop a sense of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indentity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulse control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity for autonomous responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influenced by experience </li></ul>
  49. 49. Milestones of Emotional Development - Infant <ul><li>Signals need with crying and gazing </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes attachment to primary caregiver </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses a wide range of emtions through body movements and facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot tolerate frustration or control impluses </li></ul><ul><li>Develops stranger anxiety between 6-9 months </li></ul><ul><li>Amiable from 1 year </li></ul>
  50. 50. Emotional Development: Toddlers <ul><li>Vociferous and demanding at 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Calmer and more sociable at 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to assert self strongly </li></ul><ul><li>Can seem stubbornly self-centered and resistant to change </li></ul><ul><li>Has little control of impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Easily frustrated </li></ul>
  51. 51. Emotional Development: Preschool <ul><li>Beginning to tolerate frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Developing self control </li></ul><ul><li>Developing humor </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to be curious </li></ul><ul><li>Generally positive in disposition by 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Seems to display a different personality from minute to minute at 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes more aware of the effects of behavior on others by 4-5 </li></ul>
  52. 52. Lev Vygotsky <ul><li>Advocate of preschool programs that meet the needs of the whole child </li></ul><ul><li>Children need to acquire a set of fundamental competencies that shape their minds for further learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social-emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifelong process of development dependent on social interaction with adults and peers </li></ul>1896-1934
  53. 53. Explicit Instruction <ul><li>Skills for preschoolers need explicit instruction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preschool thinking is reactive – immediate response to what children see and feel </li></ul><ul><li>Preschoolers ability to learn depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repetition or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an experience that is personally meaningful </li></ul></ul>Bodrova and Leong, 2005 Vygotsky
  54. 54. Self Regulation <ul><li>Goal of Preschool Education </li></ul><ul><li>Children move from reactive thinking to the ability to think before they act. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are able to reflect and draw on past experience to engage in thoughtful behaviors. </li></ul>Bodrova and Leong, 2005 Vygotsky “ Children who do not develop the ability to regulate their attention and their behavior before they enter kindergarten face a higher risk of falling behind academically.”
  55. 55. Positive Self Esteem <ul><li>Develop a positive and supportive relationship with each child </li></ul><ul><li>Help children accept and appreciate themselves and others </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for children to be successful and feel confident </li></ul>
  56. 56. Observation <ul><li>How professionals learn about children by watching what children do </li></ul><ul><li>The word “observation” comes from the Latin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to watch or be present without participating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>being detached from what you are observing so you do not influence what is going on. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Observation Based on Knowledge and Understanding <ul><li>Draw on knowledge of child development </li></ul><ul><li>Use that knowledge to make careful observations and assessments of children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support healthy development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make interventions when necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate to other professionals and parents as needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance the lives of children under their care. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Maintain Detachment <ul><li>Do not let your own biases, prejudices, and points of view interfere with seeing what is actually going on with children. </li></ul><ul><li>Recording continues the process of detachment. </li></ul><ul><li>Records reflect what actually happened, not any interpretation of what happened. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Gathering Information <ul><li>Monitor children’s development and progress </li></ul><ul><li>Choose and evaluate teaching strategies and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Plan appropriate learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about and solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Have informed discussions with family members and other professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Make informed decisions about seeking other sources of help for children </li></ul>
  60. 60. Interpreting Observations <ul><li>Key to good judgments about what is best for children </li></ul><ul><li>Judgments should be based on documented evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Judgments should reflect your professionalism </li></ul>
  61. 61. Three Stages of Observation <ul><li>Observing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The detached process of watching without participating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recording </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making reproducible records of what you have seen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpreting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Final step after observing and recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on professional knowledge and expertise </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Processes and Procedures <ul><li>Legal and ethical practice established by daycare or preschool administration </li></ul><ul><li>Often need parental permission to administer tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to become familiar with the instruments that your program uses and the process for administering them </li></ul>
  63. 63. Reporting Information <ul><li>How do you working with parents share information about their children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the facts (observations) and your common concern about the well-being of the children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review this information and make decisions about children with your director and childhood study team. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintain professional focus </li></ul>
  64. 64. Confidentiality <ul><li>Maintain confidentiality of the information about children and families </li></ul><ul><li>Use “Need to know” criteria whenever telling anyone something about children and/or families </li></ul><ul><li>Legal and ethical considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Review the confidentiality policies of your program </li></ul>
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