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    Development Development Presentation Transcript

    • Observations and Developmental Domains EDUU325 Child Development Review Prepared by Dr. Piper
    • Child Development
      • Four areas or domains of development
        • Physical domain
        • Cognitive domain
        • Social domain
        • Emotional domain
      • Each child develops along a continuum in within each domain
    • Development Continuum
      • Not all children develop at the same “speed”
      • Most children develop in the same sequence
      • No two children are the same
    • Physical Domain
      • The physical domain includes various measures of physical growth
        • Height and weight
        • Development of muscle coordination
        • Fine Motor Skills
        • Gross Motor Skills
    • Cognitive Domain
      • The way children’s thinking processes develop
      • How children learn to reason and solve problems.
    • Social Domain
      • The social domain is about
        • How children relate to others
        • How children make moral decisions
    • Emotional Domain
      • H ow children learn to trust
      • How children recognize and express their feelings
      • How children understand and accept who they are
    • Factors Influencing Development
      • Maturation
        • The growth of a child determined in large part by genetics or heredity
        • Ongoing process of “the unfolding” of a child’s potential
        • Not all children mature at the same rate!
      • Experience
        • a child’s interaction with the environment, the world
        • what happens to a child in the world.
        • Not all children have had the same experiences
      • Culture
        • Cultural experiences may influence child’s development.
      • Over time a child normally develops increasingly confident and complex reactions to what happens around him/her.
    • Experiences
      • S ome experiences can inhibit, delay, damage, or stop a child’s development
      • Poor nutrition
      • Serious illness
      • Lack of opportunity to explore
      • Abusiveness
      • We have to observe children to find out where they are before we plan activities for them.
    • Predictable Patterns in Development
      • Development is sequential
        • One thing has to happen before the next thing can. For example
        • Examples
          • A student cannot learn to hop until after learning to walk.
          • A student can write only after learning how to hold a pencil in a way to control it.
      • Development is cumulative
        • Development builds on itself
        • Each new skill strengthens the foundation that supports the whole child
        • What a child can do and understand today is the basis for future development.
        • New experience build upon previous experiences
        • We should be sure a child is ready before we try to teach him/her something new.
    • Child Development
      • A child’s chronological age is only approximately related to his/her stage of development.
      • Not all children have had the same experiences
      • All children do not mature at the same rate.
      • We have to observe children to find out where they are before we plan activities for them.
    • What is Physical Development?
      • Gradually gaining control over large and small muscles.
      • Gross Motor Skills
        • sitting, crawling, walking, running, throwing
      • Fine Motor Skills
        • holding, pinching, flexing fingers and toes
      • Coordination
        • Coordinate large and small muscles
        • Using senses - sight, sound, and touch
    • A Child’s First Three Years
      • Learn to control body muscles
      • Practice physical skills they will use for the rest of their lives
      • Need opportunities to learn and practice
      • Use senses to understand the world around them – sight, sound, touch
      • Important for developing self-esteem.
    • Caregivers Role
      • Schedule time for active play everyday
      • Help and encourage children when they are learning new skills.
      • Encourage children to use large and small muscles in a coordinated way
      • Help develop awareness of rhythm for coordination
      • Encourage children to use all senses to explore size, shape, volume, etc.
      • Give children time to practice new skills.
      • Set up room so infants have freedom and opportunities to explore safely
      • Use materials and equipment that require children to use large muscles
      • Play indoor and outdoor non-competitive games with children
      • Encourage development of self-help skills
      • Plan increasingly difficult activities using large muscles – moving objects, furniture
      Environment
      • Use materials that require children to use small muscles
      • Give infants opportunities to develop small muscles like grasping, pulling, dropping, fingering
      • Encourage self-help skills – dressing, eating
      • Plan activities – fingerplays, cooking, etc.
      Fine Motor
    • Young Infants
      • Do not have control over how they move
      • Some kicking, squirming, wiggling is random, without purpose
      • Reflexive movements – automatic
      • Begin to gain control over how they move
      • Develop at different rates
      • Follow head to toe general pattern
      • Gross motor skills come before fine motor skills
      Lift Head Sit Crawl Walk
    • From Newborn to 18 Months
      • Eye-hand coordination
        • Bringing hands to mouth
        • Reaching for things
        • Letting go of things
        • Moving a toy from one hand to another
        • Grasping things with fingers and thumbs
      • Make physical contact with a piece of their world
        • A sight and sound of a rattle, bell, book
        • Crawlers feel soft rug, hard floor, sponge pillows
        • New walkers discover places, things, toys
    • Toddlers
      • Wide range of large and small muscle skills
      • Walk, run, climb, and squat
      • Move about without their hands to support themselves
      • Begin to throw and catch
      • Hop and jump
      • Gain control of bladder and bowel muscles
    • Toddler Fine Motor Skills
      • Fit pieces into simple puzzle
      • Build with blocks
      • Pour juice from a pitcher
      • Hands free to touch, lift, grasp, push, etc.
      • May show preference for right/left hand
      • Reach for objects
      • Use eating utensils
      • Turn pages of book
      • Pretend to write
      • Draw and paint
    • Three-Year-Olds Gross Motor Skills
      • Usually sure and nimble on their feet
      • Walk, run, turn sharp corners with ease
      • Often hold arms out to their sides for balance
      • Walk up stairs using alternate feet
      • Jump from stairs and land on both feet
      • Gallop and dance to music
      • Hop several times in a row on one foot
      • Walk along a line made of tape
      • Push and pedal tricycles and swing
      • Throw, catch, and kick large balls
    • Three-Year-Olds Fine Motor Skills
      • Prefer gross motor activities
      • Gaining control of fingers, hands, wrists
      • Family-style meals good for active participation – using spoons to serve, etc.
      • Have learned to dress themselves
      • Can wash own hands
      • String beads, build towers with blocks, play with puzzles, use scissors,
      • Hold crayons and scribble
      • Explore through playdough, sand, water, clay
    • Four-Year Olds Gross Motor Skills
      • Greater control over their large muscles
      • Able to start and stop suddenly
      • Hopping which leads to skipping
      • Balancing on a walking board
      • Throwing balls overhand
      • Climbing ladders and play equipment
      • Can pedal, steer, and turn corners on tricycles
    • Four-Year Olds Fine Motor Skills
      • More refined small muscle movements and eye-hand coordination
      • Cut easily with scissors
      • Begin to draw pictures that represent real things
      • May write recognizable letters and numbers
      • Can lace shoes, zip and snap
      • Can pour from small pitchers
      • Serve and eat with knife and fork
      • Build detailed block constructions
      • Use tools in their hands
      • Form shapes with playdough and clay
    • Five-Year Olds Gross Motor Skills
      • Refining existing physical skills
      • Run faster
      • Ride tricycles with greater speed and distance
      • Skip alternating feet
      • Walk full-length of a balance beam
      • Enjoy ball games, catching, kicking, throwing
      • Some jump rope, do somersaults, and use the overhead ladder on a climber
    • Five-Year Olds Fine Motor Skills
      • Most have well-developed fine motor skills
      • Drawings and paintings represent real objects and include detail
      • Use utensils properly in eating
      • Have little difficulty with dressing and undressing themselves
      • Can handle buttons, snaps, zippers, and buckles
      • Learning to tie shoes
      • Most can draw some letters and numbers and possibly name
    • What is Cognitive Development?
      • The process of learning to think and reason
      • How do children develop thinking skills?
        • Actively explore their world
        • Try out new ideas
        • Observe what happens
    • Jean Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development
      • Sensorimotor Stage
        • Birth to two
        • Objects exist outside of their visual field - object permanence
        • Learn strictly through sensory experience within their environment
        • KINESTHETIC
    • Jean Piaget Pre-operational Stage
      • Ages 2 - 7
      • Period of language development
      • Egocentrism - only see self perceptions
      • Categorize by single obvious feature
    • Concrete Operational Stage
        • Develop ability to handle complex logic and make comparisons
        • Hypothesize and reason ONLY about things they’ve experienced themselves
        • Ages 7 - 12
    • Formal Operational Stage
      • Age 12 – Adult
      • Abstract thinking ability
      • Offer interpretations
      • Draw conclusions
      • Formulate hypotheses
    • Lev Vygotsky’s Theories
      • Children learn best through social interactions with children and adults
      • Adults provide mental scaffolding
        • Give children a framework for understanding
        • Gives children support so they can use their own cognitive skills
      • Adults are guides or facilitators who help children understand their world
    • Fostering Cognitive Growth
      • What do children need?
        • Self-confidence and skills to explore their world
        • To try out new ideas
        • To make mistakes
        • To solve problems on their own
        • Take on new challenges
      • What can the teacher do?
        • Build on child’s natural curiosity
        • Create an environment for exploration
        • Ask questions and talk with children
        • Give children a chance to construct their own knowledge
    • A Child’s First Three Years
      • Provide children with opportunities to use all of their senses to explore the environment.
      • Allow children to see how things work
      • Build on children’s natural curiosity
      • Help them feel good about expressing ideas and solving problems on their own.
      • Help them develop new concepts and acquire thinking skills
      • Learn through everyday experiences
      • Think through daily routines
      • Explore through mouthing, dropping, banging, squeezing, etc.
      • Learn “object permanence” – Object exists even when it’s out of sight
      • Begin to understand cause and effect
      • Learn how to use one object to get another
      Infants
    • Toddlers
      • Learning all the time!
      • As they develop, the same experiences take on new meanings
      • Just beginning to understand how things and events relate to each other – in, out, under
      • Think concretely and understand words very literally
      • Can anticipate what will happen next and learn order in daily routines and schedules
      • Beginning to understand cause and effect.
      • Active participants in the learning process
      • Like detectives – trying to make sense of their experiences
      • Constructivism
        • Learning takes place within the child
        • Child’s mind is not an empty slate that we fill with knowledge
        • Children construct their own knowledge
        • They apply what they already know
        • Actively explore through the senses
        • Build on prior experiences
      Preschool Children
    • How do Preschool Children Learn?
      • Interact and teach each other
        • Playing with water
        • Building with blocks
        • Finger painting
        • Engaging in dramatic play
        • Talking and sharing information
        • Giving advice and correcting one another
      • Learn by doing – not by sitting and listening
      • Learn by observing, hearing, and putting their own ideas into word
    • Learning through play!
      • Functional play
        • Examine physical properties of materials and objects
        • Handling, experimenting, observing, etc.
      • Constructive play
        • Use materials to create a representation of something
        • Build a farm with blocks, paint a picture, make something
      • Socio-dramatic play
        • Make believe and pretend
        • Re-enact experiences, use props, role play
      • Games with rules
        • Board games or active games
        • Learn to understand rules and control their behavior
    • Social Development
      • Helping children learn to get along with others
      • Helping children understand and express their feelings and respect those of others
      • Providing an environment and experiences that help children develop social skills
    • Influences
      • Increased knowledge about self and others
      • Influenced by
        • Experiences and relationships that child have with significant adults in their lives
        • Cognitive development
    • Cognition Effects Social Development
      • Move from being egocentric – seeing the world from one’s one perspective
      • Growing ability to understand how other people think and feel
      • Increased understanding of cause and effect – connections between actions and consequences
      • Change from concrete thinking to abstract thinking
      • Understanding complex concepts like multiple relationships (mother is wife, daughter, aunt, etc.)
    • Social Competence: Infants
      • Forges strong bonds with adults
      • Develops trust
      • Develops connection to secure attachment figure
      • Begins to orient to people in the environment
      • Becomes socially responsive
      • Participates in games like peekaboo
      • Becomes selective about who they response to
      • Responds to another’s distress some of the time.
    • Social Competence: Toddlers
      • Concerned about the presence of principal attachment figure
      • Prefers to play along with the exclusive attention of favorite adults (solitary play)
      • Begins to enjoy nearby company of other children in play (parallel play)
      • Tries to do something for a distressed person – patting
      • Makes vocal exchanges in social play – turn-taking, social imitation, conflicts over toys
      • Begins to develop genuine friendship
    • Social Competence: Preschool
      • More flexible, able to separate from significant adults
      • At 3 enjoys adult but plays with other children (associative play)
      • At 4-5 prefers peers
        • Learning to cooperate, share, and negotiate with other children
        • Has friendships depending on proximity and shared activities
      • At 3 expresses aggression physically
      • Growing ability to recognize needs and wishes of others
      • Prosocial behavior increasing
        • At 4 – bases decisions on self interest
        • At 5 – sees conflict between what they want and external rules
      • Moral judgments based on the amount of damage done rather than intentions.
    • Social Knowledge and Understanding
      • Social knowledge is needed to form friendships.
      • Children should have knowledge of norms and customs
      • Involves having the ability to predict and anticipate other’s preferences.
      • Children should be able to express feelings openly.
      • Involves children being able to understand other’s feelings as well.
    • Social Competence
      • The ability to initiate and maintain satisfying, reciprocal relationships with peers and adults.
      • Children who lack social competence are at risk
        • academic failure
        • dropping out of school
        • delinquency
        • mental health problems
    • Emotional Development
      • Develop as individuals who have:
        • Characteristic needs
        • Ways of expressing feelings
        • Perceptions of themselves
      • Develop a sense of
        • Indentity
        • Self esteem
        • Impulse control
        • Capacity for autonomous responses
      • Influenced by experience
    • Milestones of Emotional Development - Infant
      • Signals need with crying and gazing
      • Establishes attachment to primary caregiver
      • Expresses a wide range of emtions through body movements and facial expressions
      • Cannot tolerate frustration or control impluses
      • Develops stranger anxiety between 6-9 months
      • Amiable from 1 year
    • Emotional Development: Toddlers
      • Vociferous and demanding at 2
      • Calmer and more sociable at 3
      • Begins to assert self strongly
      • Can seem stubbornly self-centered and resistant to change
      • Has little control of impulses
      • Easily frustrated
    • Emotional Development: Preschool
      • Beginning to tolerate frustration
      • Developing self control
      • Developing humor
      • Tends to be curious
      • Generally positive in disposition by 3
      • Seems to display a different personality from minute to minute at 4
      • Becomes more aware of the effects of behavior on others by 4-5
    • Lev Vygotsky
      • Advocate of preschool programs that meet the needs of the whole child
      • Children need to acquire a set of fundamental competencies that shape their minds for further learning:
        • Cognitive
        • Linguistic
        • Social-emotional
      • Lifelong process of development dependent on social interaction with adults and peers
      1896-1934
    • Explicit Instruction
      • Skills for preschoolers need explicit instruction:
        • Oral language
        • Deliberate memory
        • Focused attention
        • Self regulation
      • Preschool thinking is reactive – immediate response to what children see and feel
      • Preschoolers ability to learn depends on:
        • repetition or
        • an experience that is personally meaningful
      Bodrova and Leong, 2005 Vygotsky
    • Self Regulation
      • Goal of Preschool Education
      • Children move from reactive thinking to the ability to think before they act.
      • Children are able to reflect and draw on past experience to engage in thoughtful behaviors.
      Bodrova and Leong, 2005 Vygotsky “ Children who do not develop the ability to regulate their attention and their behavior before they enter kindergarten face a higher risk of falling behind academically.”
    • Positive Self Esteem
      • Develop a positive and supportive relationship with each child
      • Help children accept and appreciate themselves and others
      • Provide opportunities for children to be successful and feel confident
    • Observation
      • How professionals learn about children by watching what children do
      • The word “observation” comes from the Latin.
        • to watch or be present without participating.
        • being detached from what you are observing so you do not influence what is going on.
    • Observation Based on Knowledge and Understanding
      • Draw on knowledge of child development
      • Use that knowledge to make careful observations and assessments of children
        • Support healthy development.
        • Make interventions when necessary
        • Communicate to other professionals and parents as needed.
        • Enhance the lives of children under their care.
    • Maintain Detachment
      • Do not let your own biases, prejudices, and points of view interfere with seeing what is actually going on with children.
      • Recording continues the process of detachment.
      • Records reflect what actually happened, not any interpretation of what happened.
    • Gathering Information
      • Monitor children’s development and progress
      • Choose and evaluate teaching strategies and equipment
      • Plan appropriate learning experiences
      • Learn about and solve problems
      • Have informed discussions with family members and other professionals
      • Make informed decisions about seeking other sources of help for children
    • Interpreting Observations
      • Key to good judgments about what is best for children
      • Judgments should be based on documented evidence.
      • Judgments should reflect your professionalism
    • Three Stages of Observation
      • Observing
        • The detached process of watching without participating
      • Recording
        • Making reproducible records of what you have seen
      • Interpreting
        • Final step after observing and recording
        • Based on professional knowledge and expertise
    • Processes and Procedures
      • Legal and ethical practice established by daycare or preschool administration
      • Often need parental permission to administer tests.
      • Need to become familiar with the instruments that your program uses and the process for administering them
    • Reporting Information
      • How do you working with parents share information about their children
        • Focus on the facts (observations) and your common concern about the well-being of the children
        • Review this information and make decisions about children with your director and childhood study team.
      • Maintain professional focus
    • Confidentiality
      • Maintain confidentiality of the information about children and families
      • Use “Need to know” criteria whenever telling anyone something about children and/or families
      • Legal and ethical considerations
      • Review the confidentiality policies of your program