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Developing language

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    Developing language Developing language Presentation Transcript

    • Developing Children’s Cognitive Readiness in Literacy What is cognitive development? How do we develop literacy? Prepared by Dr. Carla Piper
    • What is Cognitive Development?
      • The process of learning to think and reason
      • How do children develop thinking skills?
        • Actively explore their world
        • Try out new ideas
        • Observe what happens
    • Jean Piaget
      • The Study of Knowledge and Development
      • Three Types of Knowledge
        • Physical
        • Social
        • Logical
      1896 - 1980 Cognition Creativity
    • Piaget Quotes
      • Equilibrium - balance between the structure of the mind and the environment
      • "The principle goal of education is to create men [women] who are capable of doing new things, not simply of repeating what other generations have done – men [women] who are creative, inventive and discoverers.“ 
    • Developmental Concept Learning
      • Assimilation – what makes sense in child’s environment
      • Accommodation – new in context with known
      • Adaptation – adjusts to the environment and learns the consequences of specific actions
      • Organization – integrates schemata and develop more complex logic
    • Sensorimotor Stage
      • Birth to two
      • Objects exist outside of their visual field - object permanence
      • Learn strictly through sensory experience within their environment -
    • Pre-operational Stage
      • Ages 2 - 7
      • Period of Language Development
      • Egocentrism - only see self perceptions
      • Categorize by single obvious feature
    • Concrete Operational Stage
      • Ages 7 – 12
      • Develop ability to handle complex logic and make comparisons
      • Hypothesize and reason ONLY about things they’ve experienced themselves
    • Formal Operational Stage
      • Age 12 – Adult
      • Abstract thinking ability
      • Offer interpretations and draw conclusions
      • Formulate hypotheses
    • Piagetian Stages From http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html
    • Lev Vygotsky
      • Advocate of preschool programs that meet the needs of the whole child
      • Children need to acquire a set of fundamental competencies that shape their minds for further learning:
        • Cognitive
        • Linguistic
        • Social-emotional
      • Lifelong process of development dependent on social interaction with adults and peers
      1896-1934
    • Explicit Instruction
      • Skills for preschoolers need explicit instruction:
        • Oral language
        • Deliberate memory
        • Focused attention
        • Self regulation
      • Preschool thinking is reactive – immediate response to what children see and feel
      • Preschoolers ability to learn depends on:
        • repetition or
        • an experience that is personally meaningful
      Bodrova and Leong, 2005 Vygotsky
    • Goals of Preschool Education
      • Children move from reactive thinking to the ability to think before they act .
      • Children are able to reflect and draw on past experience to engage in thoughtful behaviors.
      Bodrova and Leong, 2005 Vygotsky “ Children who do not develop the ability to regulate their attention and their behavior before they enter kindergarten face a higher risk of falling behind academically.”
      • Changes in cognitive skills are related to intellectual growth and age
      • Child’s behavior not just result of external stimuli – but also internal stimuli
      • Social learning actually leads to cognitive development
      • Individual differences in children should be recognized and addressed
      Cognitive Development
    • Lev Vygotsky’s Theories
      • Children learn best through social interactions with children and adults
      • Adults provide mental scaffolding
        • Give children a framework for understanding
        • Gives children support so they can use their own cognitive skills
      • Adults are guides or facilitators who help children understand their world
    • Fostering Cognitive Growth
      • What do children need?
        • Self-confidence and skills to explore their world
        • To try out new ideas
        • To make mistakes
        • To solve problems on their own
        • Take on new challenges
      • What can the teacher do?
        • Build on child’s natural curiosity
        • Create an environment for exploration
        • Ask questions and talk with children
        • Give children a chance to construct their own knowledge
    • A Child’s First Three Years
      • Provide children with opportunities to use all of their senses to explore the environment.
      • Allow children to see how things work
      • Build on children’s natural curiosity
      • Help them feel good about expressing ideas and solving problems on their own.
      • Help them develop new concepts and acquire thinking skills
      • Learn through everyday experiences
      • Think through daily routines
      • Explore through mouthing, dropping, banging, squeezing, etc.
      • Learn “object permanence” – Object exists even when it’s out of sight
      • Begin to understand cause and effect
      • Learn how to use one object to get another
      Infants
    • Toddlers
      • Learning all the time!
      • As they develop, the same experiences take on new meanings
      • Just beginning to understand how things and events relate to each other – in, out, under
      • Think concretely and understand words very literally
      • Can anticipate what will happen next and learn order in daily routines and schedules
      • Beginning to understand cause and effect.
      • Active participants in the learning process
      • Like detectives – trying to make sense of their experiences
      • Constructivism
        • Learning takes place within the child
        • Child’s mind is not an empty slate that we fill with knowledge
        • Children construct their own knowledge
        • They apply what they already know
        • Actively explore through the senses
        • Build on prior experiences
      Preschool Children
    • How do Preschool Children Learn?
      • Interact and teach each other
        • Playing with water
        • Building with blocks
        • Finger painting
        • Engaging in dramatic play
        • Talking and sharing information
        • Giving advice and correcting one another
      • Learn by doing – not by sitting and listening
      • Learn by observing, hearing, and putting their own ideas into word
    • Learning through play!
      • Functional play
        • Examine physical properties of materials and objects
        • Handling, experimenting, observing, etc.
      • Constructive play
        • Use materials to create a representation of something
        • Build a farm with blocks, paint a picture, make something
      • Socio-dramatic play
        • Make believe and pretend
        • Re-enact experiences, use props, role play
      • Games with rules
        • Board games or active games
        • Learn to understand rules and control their behavior
    • Constantly Asking Questions
      • Why?
        • Want to know the purpose of things.
        • “ Why does a car need gas?”
      • What?
        • Want to learn the name of things.
        • “ What is that and what do you do with it?”
      • How?
        • Want to understand processes and relationships.
        • “ How does that work?”
    • Learning Language
      • Need to be able to communicate
        • To understand the world
        • To function in the world
      • Language unites people
      • Talking and Listening
      • Literacy – reading and writing
      • Literature – the art form that uses language
    • Learning Language
      • Significant accomplishment of early childhood
      • All children learn language in all cultures at about the same time
      • “Caught, not taught!”
      • Language is tool:
        • Communication
        • Self Expression
        • Learning
    • Goal of Communication Curriculum
      • Help children become enthusiastic and competent users of spoken and written language
      • Foster children’s natural desire, ability, and pleasure in communication
    • The Educator’s Job
      • Provide relationships full of language
      • Speak honestly and respectfully
      • Listen attentively
      • Use language
        • To mediate problems
        • Communicate information
        • Share feelings and ideas
        • Demonstrate usefulness and value of oral language
    • Value of Written Language
      • Demonstrate to children the value
        • Write a note
        • Prepare a grocery list
        • Read a recipe
        • Read a story, poem, book
      • Demonstrate value of good literature
        • Read well-written books
        • Help children appreciate all kinds of literature
    • Learn Customs from Home
      • Learn to select speech for the setting and the people
      • Learn to use nonverbal features in communication
        • Body position
        • Gestures
        • Facial expression
        • Intonation in speaking
        • Need to be sensitive to cultural customs – some cultures do not use eye contact
    • Developmental Stages
      • Children learn complex structure, rules, and meanings of language
      • Normal development - develop ability to create speech
      • Taught through “language-rich” relationships
        • Learn through conversations
        • Learn through play
        • Learn through planned activities
          • Games, stories, songs, rhymes
          • Taught through structured group activities
    • Conversations
      • How to talk to children:
        • Allow children to express ideas, tell about things they know
        • Help children make sense of their experiences
        • Allow children to take the lead
        • Follow their topics and show interest
        • Encourage them to continue the conversation
        • Allow time for them to speak and respond
        • Limit questioning (may seem like a test)
        • Be patient
    • Literacy
      • Interconnected processes of reading and writing
      • Emergent literacy
        • Evolving process by which children become literate
        • Between birth and when the children reads and writes in conventional ways
        • Literacy begins at birth – experiences in infancy with language, books, reading
        • Foster awareness of print-filled world
        • Foundations start long before child learns to read
    • Children’s Defense Fund Report
      • The State of America’s Yearbook - 1999
      • 40% of nation’s fourth graders could not read at a basic level
      • A child who can’t read well by 3 rd grade is seriously disadvantaged
      • Early childhood experiences are critical
    • Curriculum for Literacy
      • Must be individualized
      • Include experience with books
      • Each child needs to be read to
      • Even the youngest children must have books and words throughout their environment
      • Stimulate interest in children
        • Point to print
        • Retell story
        • Discuss meanings of signs and labels
        • Write child’s name
    • Concepts About Print
      • Comment on print by pointing out words, punctuation, parts of a book
      • Do silly things – turn it upside down and discuss why it can’t be read
      • Label shelves, containers, puzzles, games, charts, posters
      • Have permanent and temporary classroom signs
    • More Concepts About Print
      • Encourage children to write or dictate stories that they can illustrate and bind
      • Provide time and accept “free” writing, including scribble-writing or pretend writing
      • Keep favorite books in classroom
      • Reread favorite stories
      • Read so child can see the print
      • Read individually as well as for the group
      • Allow child to turn the pages
    • Literature
      • Children experience both language and art
      • Children learn about the world and relationships
      • Provides information
      • Motivates exploration, creativity, and a concern for others
      • Stimulates a love of reading
    • Classroom Books
      • Need a variety of different kinds of books
      • Create a sense of adventure with new books
      • All books must respect childhood and children’s lives
      • Fiction
        • Should create memorable, believable characters
        • Give an illusion of reality in time and place
        • Plot encourages children to understand reasons behind events
    • Fiction
      • Fantasy – Rules remain true for the story
      • Folklore
        • Themes and questions have universal appeal
        • Universal similarity – magic, good and evil, joy and sorrow, origins of the world, people and animals
      • Realistic fiction
        • Affectionate, unsentimental voice
        • Make all children feel included
        • Support appreciation of common humanity
        • Provide range of diverse characters
    • Books
      • Informational books
        • Broaden children’s understanding
        • Must be accurate
        • Illustrations convey more than words alone
      • Mood and concept books
        • Sensitize children to ideas, feelings, and awareness
        • Include wordless books
        • Organizing concepts – alphabet books
        • Provide a sense of joy and wonder in the world
    • Poetry
      • Natural response to rhythm and rhyme
      • Nursery rhymes
      • Present mood and melody in language
      • Help children develop sensitivity to language
      • Collections of rhymes and poems belong in every program
    • Literature-Rich Environment
      • Extensive collection of high quality books
      • Books presented in ways that connect – “friendship”
      • Time and space provided for children to interact with books
      • Daily story reading important part of schedule
      • Learn to read to children with skill and responsiveness
    • Criteria for Good Literature
      • Shows respect for the reader
      • Not condescending or stereotyped
      • Has integrity – honesty and truthfulness within the story
      • Uses aesthetic language
      • Helps the reader understand and feel more deeply
      • Teaches by example (not preach)
      • Has illustrations
        • Enhance and enlarge the text
        • Show craftsmanship
    • Suggestions for Reading to a Group of Young Children
      • Practice in front of a mirror
      • Sit on low stool so children can see
      • Make sure children are settled before you begin
      • Focus children’s attention through fingerplays, looking at the cover of the book, reading title and author
      • Read in natural tone of voice
      • Match your tempo, volume, pauses, and facial expressions to the content of the story
    • More Suggestions
      • Try adding different voices for different characters
      • Regularly look at the children and read their body language to see if they are interested
      • Don’t interrupt the story by asking lots of questions
      • Quit while you’re ahead (only read one or two stories at a time)
      • If children aren’t paying attention, try making a comment or asking a question to focus interest
    • Resources
      • Who am I in the Lives of Children?
        • Feeny, Christensen, Moravcik
        • Pages 310-314
      • Teaching Strategies
        • Caring for Infants and Toddlers
        • Caring for Preschool Children - from CDA Module Five (1999 & 2000)
      • Developmental Websites
        • NNCC Child Development Charts
        • Developmental Sequence
      • Educational Leadership
        • Bodrova and Leong, 2005
        • September 2005 : The Whole Child