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    Dap326 Dap326 Presentation Transcript

    • Developmentally Appropriate Practice DAP Principles
    • What is Developmentally Appropriate Practice?
      • Teachers must meet children where they are
        • Teachers must get to know them well—and
        • Help them reach goals that are both challenging and achievable.
      • Teaching practices
        • Must be appropriate to children’s age and developmental status
        • Must respect children as unique individuals
        • Must be responsive to the social and cultural contexts in which they live.
    • Developmentally Appropriate Practice
      • Does not mean making things easier for children.
      • Goals and experiences are suited to the child’s learning and development
      • Goals and experiences are challenging enough to promote their progress and interest
    • Critical Issues Today
      • Shortage of good care for infants and toddlers
      • Steady growth in the number of immigrant families and children in our population
      • More children with special needs (including those with disabilities, those at risk for disabilities, and those with challenging behaviors)
      • Difficulty developing and maintaining a qualified teaching force
      • More children living in poverty.
      • Public is more aware of the importance of the early childhood years in shaping children’s futures
    • Disparities in Performance
      • Low- income and African American and Hispanic students lag significantly behind their peers on standardized comparisons of academic achievement throughout the school years
      • Mismatch between the “school” culture and children’s cultural backgrounds
      • Lower level language skills particularly in vocabulary and oral language development
    • How do We Reduce Learning Gaps?
      • Early social and emotional, cognitive, physical, and academic competencies enable young children to develop and learn to their full potential.
      • Ensure that children who have learning difficulties or disabilities receive the early intervention services they need to learn and function well in the classroom.
    • Predictors for Children’s Success in School
      • Dependent on oral language/literacy, vocabulary and mathematics
      • Dimensions of social and emotional competence help with self regulation
    • What do Teachers Need to Know?
      • Must know about child development and learning
        • Age-related characteristics that permit general predictions about what experiences are likely to best promote children’s learning and development
      • Must know about each child as an individual
        • How best to adapt and be responsive to that individual variation
    • Social and Cultural Contexts
      • What is expected of teachers?
        • Must understand values, expectations, and behavioral and linguistic conventions that shape children’s lives at home and in their communities
        • Must ensure that learning experiences in the program or school are meaningful, relevant, and respectful for each child and family.
    • Need Goals for Children
      • Challenging and Achievable Goals
      • New experiences build on what a child already knows and is able to do and when those learning experiences
      • Reflects on what goals should come next after the child reaches that new level of mastery in skill or understanding
      • Advance children’s learning in a developmentally appropriate way
    • Intentional Teachers
      • Purposeful and thoughtful about the actions they take
      • Provide developmentally appropriate environment and curriculum
      • Direct their teaching toward the goals the program is trying to help children reach
      • Use intentionality to:
        • Set up the classroom
        • Plan curriculum
        • Make use of various teaching strategies
        • Assess children
        • Interact with children
        • Work with families.
    •  
    • DAP Principle #1
      • All the domains of development and learning—physical, social and emotional, and cognitive—are important and closely interrelated.
      • Children’s development and learning in one domain influence and are influenced by what takes place in other domains.
    • Principle #1 Research Ideas
      • Social and emotional competence affects academic achievement
      • Language development affects personal and social relationships
    • DAP Principle #2
      • Many aspects of children’s learning and development follow well documented sequences, with later abilities, skills, and knowledge building on those already acquired
    • Principle #2 Research ideas
      • Expanding knowledge of how children typically develop and learn
      • Understanding sequences in which children gain specific concepts, skills, and abilities, building on prior development and learning.
    • DAP Principle #3
      • Development and learning proceed at varying rates from child to child, as well as at uneven rates across different areas of a child’s individual functioning.
    • Principle #3 Research Ideas
      • Variability around the typical or normative course of development
      • Uniqueness of each child as an individual
      • Variation in children’s temperament, personality, and aptitudes
      • Differing family and social-cultural contexts that shape children’s experiences.
      • Need for individualized instruction
    • DAP Principle #4
      • Development and learning result from a dynamic and continuous interaction of biological maturation and experience.
      • Research Ideas
        • Individualized interventions
        • High expectations and learning
        • Using knowledge, ingenuity, and persistence to find ways to help every child succeed.
        • Multiple intelligences
    • DAP Principle #5
      • Early experiences have profound effects, both cumulative and delayed, on a child’s development and learning
      • Optimal periods exist for certain types of development and learning to occur.
    • Principle #5 Research Ideas
      • Early intervention
      • Cumulative effect of early experiences, whether positive or negative.
      • Brain development and neural connections resulting from early stimulation Intervention and support
      • Prevention of reading difficulties
    • DAP Principle #6
      • Development proceeds toward greater complexity, self-regulation, and symbolic or representational capacities.
    • Principle #6 Research Ideas
      • Increasingly complex functioning with
        • language
        • social interaction
        • physical movement
        • problem solving
      • Simple routines that can develop into more complex strategies with increased organization and memory capacity in the brain
      • Self-regulation - capacity to manage strong emotions and keep one’s attention focused.
      • Moving from sensory or behavioral responses to symbolic or representational knowledge
    • DAP Principle #7
      • Children develop best when they have secure, consistent relationships with responsive adults and opportunities for positive relationships with peers.
    • Principle #7 Research Ideas
      • Key areas of children’s development
        • Empathy cooperation
        • Self-regulation
        • Cultural socialization
        • Language and communication
        • Peer relationships
        • Identity formation
    • DAP Principle #8
      • Development and learning occur in and are influenced by multiple social and cultural contexts.
    • Principle #8 Research Ideas
      • Sociocultural context of family, educational setting, and community, as well as within the broader society
      • Culture - customary beliefs and patterns of behavior, both explicit and implicit, that are inculcated by the society—or by a social, religious, or ethnic group within the
      • How our own cultural experience shapes our perspective
      • Multiple perspectives must be considered in decisions about children’s development and learning.
      • Additive process of acquiring a new language rather than causing the displacement of the child’s first language and culture
    • DAP Principle #9
      • Children are always mentally active in seeking to understand the world around them
      • Children learn in a variety of ways
      • A wide range of teaching strategies and interactions are effective in supporting all these kinds of learning.
    • Principle #9 Research Ideas
      • Cognitive development from the constructivist, interactive perspective
      • Using multiple teaching strategies to meet children’s different learning needs
    • DAP Principle #10
      • Play is an important vehicle for developing self-regulation as well as for promoting language, cognition, and social competence.
    • Principle #10 Research Ideas
      • Links between play and foundational capacities such as memory, self-regulation, oral language abilities, social skills, and success in school
      • High-level dramatic play produces documented cognitive, social, and emotional benefits
      • Developing self-regulation through play
      • Play supports abilities that underlie learning and thus to promote school success.
    • DAP Principle #11
      • Development and learning advance when children are challenged to achieve at a level just beyond their current mastery, and also when they have many opportunities to practice newly acquired skills.
    • Principle #11 Research Ideas
      • Rich learning environments promote children’s undertaking and mastering of new and progressively more advanced challenges
      • Provide scaffolding for learning
      • Provide opportunities to practice and consolidate new skills and concepts essential in order for children to reach the threshold of mastery
      • Set achievable goals for young children
    • DAP Principle #12
      • Children’s experiences shape their motivation and approaches to learning (persistence, initiative, and flexibility)
      • These dispositions and behaviors affect their learning and development.
    • Principle #12 Research Ideas
      • Focus on how rather than the what of learning
      • Involving children’s feelings about learning (interest, pleasure, and motivation to learn) and children’s behavior when learning (attention, persistence, flexibility, and self-regulation)
      • Children who start school more eager to learn tend to do better in reading and mathematics than do less motivated children
      • Children with more positive learning behaviors, such as initiative, attention, and persistence, later develop stronger language skills.
      • Children with greater self-regulation and other “learning-related skills” in kindergarten are more skilled in reading and mathematics in later grades.
    • NAEYC Developmentally Appropriate Practice (2009)
      • http://www.naeyc.org/positionstatements/dap
      • Complete Position Statement - http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSDAP.pdf
      • Key Messages - http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/KeyMessages.pdf