Curriculum
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Curriculum

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Curriculum Curriculum Presentation Transcript

  • The Curriculum Part I From “Who Am I in the Lives of Children?” Feeny, Christensen, Moravcik Prepared by Dr. Carla Piper EDUU465
  • Three Elements of Curriculum
    • “ WHO?”
      • The Learner
    • “ WHAT?”
      • The Content
      • Subject Matter
    • “ HOW?”
      • The Process
      • Kinds of Planned Learning Opportunities
    WHO? WHAT? HOW?
  • Based on Vision of Society
    • Vision translated into Learning Experiences
    • What do you believe is worth knowing?
    • What do you know about the learners and their development?
    • What do you know about subject matter?
  • Curriculum is a Product of Time
    • Influenced by social and political forces
    • Early 20 th century
      • European immigrants arrived
      • Emphasized acquisition of American language, customs, values
    • Today’s curriculum
      • Mirrors cultural diversity of current society
      • Reflects importance of families and culture in children’s learning
      • Echoes concerns with violence and values
  • Educational Pendulum
    • Emphasis on nature and interests of the learner vs.
    • Emphasis on the subject matter to be taught
    • Importance for you as an educator
      • Stand firm for what you believe in
      • Emphasis on developmentally appropriate practice
      • Backlash shifts focus to less child-sensitive practice
  • Friedrich Froebel
    • “ Play is the highest expression of human development in childhood for it alone is the free expression of what is in a child’s soul.”
  • The Natural Process of Learning
    • Curriculum for young children
      • Focused on providing an appropriate environment for learning
      • Gives children freedom to choose activities
    • Opportunities to develop naturally in all areas
      • Socially
      • Emotionally
      • Intellectually
      • Physically
    Children learn all the time!
  • Curriculum
    • Experienced Curriculum
      • “ Curriculum is what happens.”
      • What the child experiences and perceives during the day
      • Planned or unplanned
    • Planned Curriculum
      • Planned learning experiences
      • Know what to teach – CONTENT
      • Know how to teach it - PEDAGOGY
  • Child Development Domains Emotional Physical Intellectual Social Science Math Sensory Small Muscle Large Muscle Music Art Language Literacy Creative Movement Social Studies Literature Nutrition, Health, Safety
  • High Quality Program for Infants and Toddlers
    • The program based on accepted theories of child development .
      • Social
      • Emotional
      • Physical
      • Cognitive
    • Build responsive relationships with important adults in their lives
    • Pair child with a primary caregiver throughout the first three years of their lives
    Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers Dombro, Colker, Trister Dodge, 2000
  • Individualized Program
    • The program is individualized to meet the needs of every child.
    • Learn through interactions and observations
    • Gather information from working with children and talking with their families.
    • Build on your intimate knowledge of each child's 
      • Temperament
      • Interests
      • Culture
      • Emerging capabilities
      • Preferred learning styles
  • Parent and Family
    • Each family's culture is respected and family members are encouraged to participate in the program.
    • Parents are natural partners in promoting children's growth and development.
    • Make families feel welcome
  • Physical Environment
    • The physical environment is safe, healthy, and contains a variety of toys and materials that are both stimulating and familiar .
    • Need warm, engaging, and comfortable environments
    • Need to build trusting relationships.
    • Indoor and outdoor environments that are safe, attractive, and stimulating.
    • Reflect children's culture, interests, and skill levels.
    • Stirs child’s imagination
  • Activities and Materials
    • Children select activities and materials that interest them, and they learn by being actively involved.
    • "The more you provide opportunities for children to follow their own interests, the more they learn from experience, and the greater the chances that they will continue to be successful learners throughout their lives“ (p. 5).
  • Adults Show Respect
    • Adults show respect for children and interact with them in caring ways.
    • Research indicates that the caring nature of adult-child interactions is the most important factor defining quality in early childhood education programs. (p. 5)
    • Adults respond immediately and appropriately to meet child's needs
    • Adults need to be sensitive and responsive in communication, verbally and nonverbally.
    • Caregivers reflection emotions and experience with the child the excitement of new discoveries.
  • Staff Training
    • Staff and providers have specialized training in child development and appropriate programming.
    • "High quality programs are planned, implemented, and continually revised by trained professionals who have the knowledge and skills to oversee a program that is developmentally appropriate" (p. 5).
  • Planning Curriculum
    • Steps to Writing the Outline of the Activity or Lesson Plan
    • What is the activity?
    • What curriculum subject area?
    • Who will participate?
    • What is the overall purpose of the lesson?
  • Writing Lesson Objectives
    • By participating in this activity children will:
    • Learn about…?
    • Gain greater understanding of…?
    • Practice…?
    • Develop an awareness of…?
    • Express understanding of…?
    • Develop skill in…?
    • Begin to be able to…?
  • Lesson Planning
    • What do you need?
      • Materials
      • Space
      • Time
    • What do you do?
      • Introduction – How do you get them interested?
      • Procedure – What will you do and say (step-by-step guide)
      • Closure – How will you help children make a transition to the next activity?
  • Assessment and Reflection
    • Assessment
      • What will children say or do to show you objectives were met?
      • What will you collect to show children’s learning (portfolios, observations, work samples, photographs, etc.)
    • Reflection on your teaching
      • What will you do differently next time?
      • How could you extend this activity for another lesson?
  • Components of Curriculum
  • Play is Serious Business!
    • Play is very important for children’s development.
    • Structure play activities in each of the four domains of development:
      • Physical Development
      • Social Development
      • Emotional Development
      • Cognitive Development
    • Structure our activities so children have adequate opportunities to play
    • Plays is physical, verbal, or mental engagement with people, objects, or ideas
  • The Nature of Play
    • Seven characteristics of Play
      • Intrinsically Motivated – Children want to play!
      • Freely Chosen – Can’t force a child to play!
      • Pleasurable, Enjoyable, and Engaging
      • Process Oriented
      • Active
      • Self-Oriented rather than Object Oriented
      • Often Non Literal or Pretend
  • Stages of Play
    • Piaget’s Sensori-motor Stage
      • Practice Play
      • Symbolic Play
      • Games with Rules
    • Exploring objects and the use of their own muscles
    • Handling, touching, feeling, etc. are part of this process
  • Language and Learning
    • Cognitive Development
      • Understanding and using language is crucial
      • Learning depends on child’s ability to make meaning out of words.
    • Social development
      • Depends on language
      • Forming friendships requires ability to express yourself
    • Emotional development
      • Language is important factor
      • Gain confidence when you can use words to communicate your feelings.
  • Communication and Language
    • Ability to express and share ideas with others
      • Verbal Communication
      • Nonverbal Communication
    • Children develop communication skills:
      • Listening
      • Comprehending
      • Speaking
      • Reading
      • Writing
  • Infant Communication
    • Natural drive to communicate begins at birth
    • Newborn cries are a reflex.
    • Infants learn that crying lets someone know of their needs.
    • Infants communicate with smiles and cooing when they see a familiar face.
    • Infants learn about the give and take in conversation when caregivers respond to them.
    • Infants begin to make sounds when they point to objects or when they want to be picked up.
  • Toddlers and Preschoolers
    • Develop the ability to understand and use language
    • Learn to say thousands of words and understand what words mean.
    • Learn the rules for using words simply by being around adults
    • Adults listen to children, talk to them, and introduce them to reading and writing.
    • Emerging literacy skills develop naturally when adults encourage and respond to children’s communication.
  • The Teacher’s Role
    • Listen and respond to children’s thought and feelings
    • Engage children in conversations
    • Encourage children to use words to tell others what they want.
    • Serve as a language model for children.
    • Use words to describe what a child is doing.
  • Listening and Speaking
    • Accept a child’s way of speaking while you serve as a model for standard use of language.
    • Help children express their ideas clearly.
    • Make comments and ask questions to show you are interested in what they have to say.
    • Help children learn to take turns in a conversation.
    • Stop while reading a story to ask questions about the characters and what they are doing.
    • Learn words in children’s home languages.
  • Ways to Help Children Use Language
    • Tape picture and word labels to containers and shelves.
    • Record children’s words.
    • Post signs at children’s eye-level.
    • Help children make their own signs and books about topics that interest them.
    • Show children how adults use reading and writing to learn or do a task.
  • Materials and Experiences
    • Need a well-lit, carpeted, library area with books and comfortable places to sit.
    • Create a writing area stocked with reading and writing materials.
    • Provide props and dress-up clothes.
    • Teach children short poems, songs, and finger plays.
    • Display books – some in home languages.
    • Read to children at story time.
    • Encourage family reading and writing by lending books and sharing writing supplies.
  • Environment
    • Create a language-rich environment
    • Label cubbies and make signs
    • Write down children’s dictated stories
    • Encourage children to play and talk with each other
    • Provide a variety of books and written materials
    • Respond to children’s cultures, interests, experience, and skills
    • Include paper and writing tools in each area
    • Storytelling, poems, finger plays, and songs
  • Physical Curriculum
    • The body is a young child’s connection to the world
    • Sensory and motor development have to come first
      • Sensory Development
      • Large Muscle Development
      • Small Muscle Development
  • Sensory Development
    • Kinesthetic sense: movement and position
    • Auditory sense: hearing
    • Sense of touch
      • Skin - Organ of touch
      • Need human touch
    • Sense of Smell
    • Sense of Taste
  • Sensory Experiences
    • Painting
    • Manipulating clay and dough
    • Play in sand, mud, water
    • Feel shape, weight, texture of blocks
    • Feel fur, heartbeat
    • Move to music
    • Cook and taste food
    • Listen to stories
    • Observing fish
  • Large Muscle Movement
    • Gross motor skills
    • Development of arms, legs, and torso
    • Develop strength and endurance
    • Retain flexibility
    • Develop coordination and agility
    Large Muscle Movement
  • Large Muscle Movement
    • Provide pleasurable play situations
    • Play with children
    • Explain rules of games
    • Creative movement
    • Exercise
    • Emphasize cooperative games that do not focus on winning or losing
    • Provide balls, equipment, materials, and activities for ALL children
  • Small Muscle Movement
    • Infants – feel, grasp, and manipulate
    • Leads to competent use of tools
    • Fine motor activities
    • Build control, agility, strength, coordination
      • hands
      • fingers
      • wrists
      • arms
  • Small Muscle Movement
    • Time, practice, and experience required
    • Sensory and muscular interplay
    • Hand-eye coordination
    • Coordination of two hands
    • Controlled use of hands and fingers
    • Sensitive to individual differences
    • Cutting, writing, drawing, hole punches, tongs, tweezers, staplers, etc.
  • Creative Arts Curriculum
    • Help children:
      • Recognize and express their feelings
      • Communicate ideas in new forms
      • Develop their senses
      • Develop creativity and originality
    • Arts are a vehicle for all kinds of learning:
      • Art
      • Music
      • Creative Movement
      • Aesthetics
  • Arts Experiences
    • Help children:
    • Feel good about themselves as individuals
    • Develop ability to observe and respond sensitively
    • Develop skill, creativity, imagination
    • Develop beginning understanding of the arts
    • Become appreciative of music, art, and dance from their own and other cultures, times, and places.
    • Purpose to enhance artistic and creative development
    • Develop motor control and perceptual discrimination
    • Use language and learn vocabulary
    • Develop problem-solving strategies
    • Enhance social skills
    • Develop aesthetic awareness and appreciation for arts
    Art
    • Studio Art
      • Children explore and create
      • Use different art media
      • Use processes – drawing, painting, print making, collage, construction, modeling, sculpting.
    • Discipline-based Art
      • Children encounter, discuss, and think about art
      • Children understand and appreciate how art is created
      • Exposed to artists from their own and other cultures and times
    Art Curriculum Allow for child's own creative expression! Avoid Pattern Books!
  • Music
    • Sounds of the city – traffic, footsteps, voices
    • Sound of the country – birds, wind, water
    • Before we are born – music of the heartbeat
    • Called the universal language
    • Powerful link to emotions – happy, sad, excited, calm, patriotic, love, empathy
    • Sharing music shares culture
    • Music provides a path to other kinds of learning – problem-solving, language, memory
  • Music Curriculum
    • Singing
      • Short songs with distinct rhythm
      • Need repertoire of songs with different moods, subjects, tempos, styles
    • Playing instruments
      • Start with rhythm instruments
    • Composing and improvising – creating music
    • Listening to and appreciating all kinds of music
    • Performing
    • Provide a creative climate where music is always present.
  • Creative Movement
    • Children:
    • Interpret and follow suggestions
    • Find their own personal, creative, and innovative ways of moving
    • Express ideas with their bodies
    • Develop a repertoire of movement possibilities
    • Develop imagination and positive self-concept
    • Learn to move with respect to the group
    • Begin to appreciate the creativity of others
  • Planning Movement Activities
    • Establish rules for safety
    • Maintain attitude of respect for individual interpretations and skill levels
    • Match the physical and language development of the children
    • Never force children to participate
    • Use complex movement tasks – moving single body part in isolation
    • Represent something like blossoming flower
    • Choreograph a song or story
  • Aesthetics – Love of Beauty
    • Develop sensitivity to beauty and the heritage of the arts
    • View works of fine artists
    • Listen to beautiful music of all kinds
    • Create an artistic environment
      • Display art, flowers, sculpture
      • Discuss children’s literature illustrations
      • Reflect on patterns, colors, textures in nature and all around you