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  1. 2. Constructivism for Hands-On Learning <ul><li>Knowledge is constructed by learner </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher guides learner to construct knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher provides rich context </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher provides learner centered environment </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher facilitates, learner controls </li></ul>
  2. 3. Constructivism in the Classroom <ul><li>Students construct new ideas by incorporating new material into the concepts and thought processes already in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow student thinking to drive lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Ask thoughtful, open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage metacognition - thinking about how they are learning </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to interact with each other and YOU – Cooperate and Collaborate. </li></ul>Reflect and Predict!
  3. 4. Goals for Students <ul><li>Develop higher level critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Understand causes or effects of ideas or actions </li></ul><ul><li>Become engaged in their own learning </li></ul><ul><li>Become active and not passive learners </li></ul><ul><li>Student initiative accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Student ideas respected and encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Independent thinking encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Students engage in dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Students apply knowledge in authentic problem-solving tasks </li></ul>Brahler & Johnson Remember Bloom’s Taxonomy!
  4. 5. Goals for Teachers <ul><li>Ask open-ended questions and allow wait time for responses </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage student autonomy, initiative, and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Uses raw data and primary material sources </li></ul><ul><li>Provides authentic learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Guide and facilitate learning </li></ul>Brahler & Johnson
  5. 6. Constructivist Classroom: Teachers May Experience Difficulties with Classroom Management <ul><li>Teacher loses some control over what learners will learn </li></ul><ul><li>May take longer to cover certain topics </li></ul><ul><li>Testing is more difficult because learning is less structured </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized testing relies on factual recall and lower level thinking </li></ul>
  6. 7. Constructivist Activities for Students <ul><li>Solve complex and realistic problems </li></ul><ul><li>Work together to solve those problems </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the problems from multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Take ownership of the learning process (rather than being passive recipients of instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Become aware of their own role in the knowledge construction process </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in authentic learning tasks that reflect the complexity of the real-world environment in which learners will be using the skills they are learning </li></ul>
  7. 8. Dale’s Carnegie’s Cone of Learning How do we typically learn best?
  8. 9. Three Traditional Learning Styles <ul><li>Auditory learners: benefit most from traditional teaching techniques. Auditory learners succeed when  information is presented and requested verbally.  </li></ul><ul><li>Visual learners:   Some students rely upon a visual learning style: &quot;Show me and I'll understand.&quot; Visual learners benefit from diagrams, charts, pictures, films, and written directions.  </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic learners:   Most students excel through kinesthetic means: touching, feeling, experiencing something with hands-on activities.   </li></ul>
  9. 10. Kinesthetic Learners in Secondary Schools <ul><li>Kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Children enter kindergarten as kinesthetic and tactual learners, moving and touching everything as they learn.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many adults, especially males, maintain kinesthetic and tactual strengths throughout their lives.&quot; (Rita Stafford and Kenneth J. Dunn; Allyn and Bacon, 1993).  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic learners are most successful when totally engaged with the learning activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They acquire information fastest when participating in a science lab, drama presentation, skit, field trip, dance, or other active activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of the high numbers of kinesthetic learners, education is shifting toward a more hands-on approach; manipulatives and other &quot;props&quot; are incorporated into almost every school subject, from physical education to language arts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on teaching techniques are gaining recognition because they address the challenging needs of kinesthetic learners, as well as the diverse needs of auditory and visual learners. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual - By second or third grade, some students have become visual learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory - During the late elementary years some students, primarily females, become auditory learners. </li></ul>Teaching Secondary Students Through Their Individual Learning Styles
  10. 11. Project-Based Learning: PBL <ul><li>Allows for a variety of learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Real&quot; world oriented - learning has value beyond the demonstrated competence of the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-free environment - provides positive feedback and allow choice </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages the use of higher order thinking skills and learning concepts as well as basic facts </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes hands-on approaches </li></ul>Kraft -
  11. 12. Project-Based Learning: PBL <ul><li>Provides for in-depth understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible for all learners </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes various modes of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment is congruent with instruction - performance-based </li></ul><ul><li>Students are responsible for their own learning </li></ul><ul><li>Students have ownership of their learning within the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Projects promote meaningful learning, connecting new learning to students' past performances </li></ul>Kraft -
  12. 13. Project-Based Learning: PBL <ul><li>Learning utilizes real time data - investigating data and drawing conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>The learning process is valued as well as the learning project </li></ul><ul><li>Learning cuts across curricular areas - multidisciplinary in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is a facilitator of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Student self-assessment of learning is encouraged </li></ul>Kraft -
  13. 14. Project Learning: Edutopia <ul><li>According to research: Project Learning is a dynamic approach to teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Explore real-world problems and challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Develop cross-curriculum skills </li></ul><ul><li>Work in small collaborative groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters active and engaged learning </li></ul><ul><li>Inspires students to obtain a deeper knowledge of the subjects they're studying. </li></ul><ul><li>View Video at: </li></ul>
  14. 15. Project Learning: Edutopia <ul><li>Develop confidence and self-direction through both team-based and independent work. </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to retain the knowledge gained through this approach far more readily than through traditional textbook-centered learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Read Intro at: </li></ul><ul><li>Read World Issues Motivate Students - </li></ul>
  15. 16. Planning a Project: I <ul><li>Pose an essential question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the topic relevant? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it connected to the real world? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is where you begin your in-depth investigation . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish a plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which content standards will be addressed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers and students brainstorm activities that support the inquiry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve students in the planning and project-building process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create a schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design a timeline for project components. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will your benchmarks be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep it simple and age-appropriate. </li></ul></ul>Mike Bower
  16. 17. Planning a Project: II <ul><li>Monitor student progress and work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a good facilitator and keep things moving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have students refer to their rubric to keep them on task. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assess the project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you assess the project? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use rubrics that address content, process, and timeline. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate and reflect on your success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have individuals and groups present their report. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect on what went well and what could be improved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share ideas that will lead to new projects. </li></ul></ul>Mike Bower
  17. 18. Rubric Assessment for Project-Based Lessons <ul><li>Rubric - a scoring guide for evaluating student performance </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for a variety of criteria or categories to be evaluated on a sliding rating scale (not subject to one final percentage score as in testing) </li></ul><ul><li>A way to measure real-life, authentic learning experiences in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a guide for students in determining expectations of assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Shows students and parents how the teacher is judging student performance </li></ul>
  18. 19. Rubric for Assessment <ul><li>Allows teacher to focus on what expectations he/she have for student work </li></ul><ul><li>Provides alternative grading system for performance assessment, portfolios, projects, web assignments, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can measure a variety of categories in any content area </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher can determine criteria and scale - rather than be subject to standardized testing scores. </li></ul>
  19. 20. PALS Five Features of Good Performance Assessment <ul><li>Clear targets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide clear descriptions of specific achievement expectations to be assessed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure one or more of the four achievement expectations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assure that evaluators understand and remain aware of what they are assessing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focused purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify the intended uses of the assessment results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify whose information needs the assessment will meet: teachers, curriculum developers, and policymakers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proper method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use an assessment method that is suited to the assessment goals (such as essays, direct communication, selected response or extended investigations). </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. PALS Five Features of Good Performance Assessment <ul><li>Sound Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a representative sample of all the questions that can be asked. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce results of maximum quality at minimum cost in time and effort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yield confident inferences about how the respondent would have done given all possible exercises. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accurate assessment free of bias and distortion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present sources of inference and error that may have affected the development and implementation of the assessment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate sources of bias that can create ambiguity in results. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. References <ul><li>Edutopia: </li></ul><ul><li>Project Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>PBL: Project Based Learning - </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Based Learning Checklists - </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Based Learning Online Resource - </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pedagogy: A Primer on Education Theory for Technical Professionals” – Brahler & Johnson. Washington State University – Download from Microsoft Higher Education Website </li></ul><ul><li>“ Multiple Intelligences and Technology” – Edwards (no longer available) </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism - </li></ul><ul><li>Bower, Mike: Instructor – Modesto Campus </li></ul>