Comparative education


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Comparative education

  1. 1. Comparative Education Exploring Issues in International Context Kubow & Fossum Prepared by Carla Piper, Ed.D.
  2. 2. Difference between Texts <ul><li>Kubow & Fossum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on issues or important themes in education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues seen as dilemmas – not problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues are looked at as cross-cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses analytic framework to view issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broaden one’s perspective in light of differing cultural, social, and political contexts in each country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mazurek & Winzer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey of 16 educational systems - curricula, programs, lessons learned, strengths, challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the nature of interdisciplinary field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate value of other country’s systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand how comparative studies are conducted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encyclopedic resource </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Countries Examined in Each Text <ul><li>Kubow & Fossum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mazurek & Winzer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Educational Concerns <ul><li>Egalitarian – need for equality and opportunity for all </li></ul><ul><li>Economic – prepare for future competency and skill in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Civic – educate citizens who can participate in public life </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic – develop the whole person for lifelong education </li></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, p. 3)
  5. 5. Technology and Mass Communication <ul><li>Challenges national boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Changes economic relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters great interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges citizens to reconsider their loyalites and identities </li></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, p. 4)
  6. 6. Rationale for Studying Comparative Education <ul><li>Broaden one’s perspective and sharpen one’s focus </li></ul><ul><li>Understand issues from different perspectives in different contexts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to understand the theoretical and philosophical assumptions of each country </li></ul><ul><li>Can then begin to understand each country’s educational practices. </li></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, p. 5)
  7. 7. What is Comparative Education? <ul><li>Draws on multiple disciplines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examine the role education plays in the individual and national development </li></ul><ul><li>Examine how societal values influence attitudes about how we educate </li></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, p. 6)
  8. 8. What is the Purpose of Education? <ul><li>Is education a benevolent agent of change? </li></ul><ul><li>Is education a mirror of the larger society, manifesting through its structure, curriculum, and pedagogy inherent inequalities? </li></ul><ul><li>Do educational practices maintain social status quo? </li></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, p. 6)
  9. 9. Education and Culture <ul><li>Education plays an important role in national progress and globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative education provides an opportunity to study foreign cultures and their educational systems </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative education allows you to examine and appraise your own culture and educational system </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze home cultures/systems and compare with others </li></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, p. 6)
  10. 10. Comparative Education as a Field <ul><li>Comparative education is a field – not a discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline dedicated to a specific set of rules and standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field draws on varous disciplines to understand the complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extends and deepens our understanding of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Helps educators decide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What issues are important? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What factors should be considered to improve education? </li></ul></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, p. 7)
  11. 11. Historical Stages of Development <ul><li>Travelers’ tales – observatons of cultural practices and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Educational borrowing – 19 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations of foreign school systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify useful techniques/practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systematic scientific study – 20 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine forces shaping foreign educational systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use quantitative methods to explain education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Period of international cooperation – today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary for world harmony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve the quality of citizens’ lives </li></ul></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, p. 9)
  12. 12. A Multidisciplinary Field of Inquiry <ul><li>Anthropology concept of culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do cultural values of ethnically diverse students mediate against the dominant values within the school? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sociology - group affiliation and subcultures, social norms and mores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do the conformists differ from non-conformists in a school setting? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which student groups are in power and which ones are not? </li></ul></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, pp. 19-20)
  13. 13. A Multidisciplinary Field of Inquiry <ul><li>Philosophical commitment to school and society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does schooling develop democratic values and allow student participation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic perspective – class, markets, human resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do schools prepare students for work and financial reward? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historical - interpreting the past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How have schools changed? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychology – mind-sets and values of society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we counteract school violence? </li></ul></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, pp. 19-20)
  14. 14. Perspectives <ul><li>Interpretive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on concepts and theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain educational phenomena by considering cultural, philosophical, and historical context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine differing value positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop own values about education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop ability to question contradictions and inconsistencies in educational beliefs, policies, and practices. </li></ul></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, p. 21)
  15. 15. Issues Approach <ul><li>Group projects for this course will be based on issues/tensions/dilemmas presented in the Kubow & Fossum </li></ul><ul><li>Issues Addressed in Textbook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of Schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Access and Opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education Accountability and authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher Professionalism </li></ul></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, pp. 22-23)
  16. 16. Comparative Perspective Taking <ul><li>Expand understanding beyond own localized perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Make sense out of the new or unknown by comparing to own frame of reference </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple interpretation of the issues </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid dichotomous thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Widen conceptual lenses </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the critical thinking skills of a global citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic critique and reflection must accompany curiousity </li></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, pp. 26-27)
  17. 17. Value of Comparative Education <ul><li>Alerts students to enduring social questions </li></ul><ul><li>Helps teachers function as citizens of the U.S. as well as citizens of a global society </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage a sprit of exploration transcending local boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness that educators in different parts of the world are wrestling with similar issues </li></ul><ul><li>Educators are part of a global professional community </li></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, pp. 26-27)
  18. 18. Benefits <ul><li>View educaton from multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to social change and educational process </li></ul><ul><li>Foster international understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for global cooperation and critique </li></ul>(Kubow & Fossum, p. 27)