Cognitive and language development


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Cognitive and language development

  1. 1. Cognitive and Language Development<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations (2009)<br />Teaching Strategies, CDA Training (1999)<br />Feeny, Christensen, Moravcik (2001) Who Am I in the Lives of Children<br />
  2. 2. What is Cognitive Development?<br />The process of learning to think and reason<br />How do children develop thinking skills?<br />Actively explore their world<br />Try out new ideas<br />Observe what happens<br />
  3. 3. Jean Piaget<br /><ul><li>The Study of Knowledge and Development
  4. 4. Three Types of Knowledge
  5. 5. Physical
  6. 6. Social
  7. 7. Logical</li></ul>1896 - 1980 <br />Cognition<br />Creativity<br />
  8. 8. Sensorimotor Stage<br /><ul><li>Birth to two
  9. 9. Objects exist outside of their visual field - object permanence
  10. 10. Learn strictly through sensory experience within their environment -</li></li></ul><li>Pre-operational Stage <br />Ages 2 - 7<br />Period of Language Development<br />Egocentrism - only see self perceptions<br />Categorize by single obvious feature<br />
  11. 11. Concrete Operational Stage <br /><ul><li>Ages 7 – 12
  12. 12. Develop ability to handle complex logic and make comparisons
  13. 13. Hypothesize and reason ONLY about things they’ve experienced themselves</li></li></ul><li>Formal Operational Stage <br />Age 12 – Adult<br />Abstract thinking ability<br />Offer interpretations and draw conclusions<br />Formulate hypotheses<br />
  14. 14. Lev Vygotsky<br />1896-1934<br />Advocate of early childhood programs that meet the needs of the whole child<br />Children need to acquire a set of fundamental competencies that shape their minds for further learning:<br />Cognitive<br />Linguistic<br />Social-Emotional<br />Lifelong process of development dependent on social interaction with adults and peers<br />
  15. 15. Lev Vygotsky’s Theories<br />Children learn best through social interactions with children and adults<br />Adults provide mental scaffolding <br />Give children a framework for understanding<br />Gives children support so they can use their own cognitive skills <br />Adults are guides or facilitators who help children understand their world<br />
  16. 16. Cognitive Development<br /><ul><li>Changes in cognitive skills are related to intellectual growth and age
  17. 17. Child’s behavior not just result of external stimuli – but also internal stimuli
  18. 18. Social learning leads to cognitive development
  19. 19. Individual differences in children should be recognized and addressed</li></li></ul><li>Infants<br />Learn through everyday experiences<br />Think through daily routines<br />Explore through mouthing, dropping, banging, squeezing, etc.<br />Learn “object permanence” – Object exists even when it’s out of sight<br />Begin to understand cause and effect<br />Learn how to use one object to get another<br />
  20. 20. Toddlers<br />Learning all the time!<br />As they develop, the same experiences take on new meanings<br />Just beginning to understand how things and events relate to each other – in, out, under<br />Think concretely and understand words very literally<br />Can anticipate what will happen next and learn order in daily routines and schedules<br />Beginning to understand cause and effect.<br />
  21. 21. Fostering Cognitive Growth<br />What do children need?<br />Self-confidence and skills to explore their world<br />To try out new ideas<br />To make mistakes<br />To solve problems on their own<br />Take on new challenges<br />What can the teacher do?<br />Build on child’s natural curiosity<br />Create an environment for exploration<br />Ask questions and talk with children<br />Give children a chance to construct their own knowledge<br />
  22. 22. Cognitive Development definition<br />The process of growth and change in intellectual/mental abilities:<br />Thinking<br />Reasoning<br />Understanding<br />Children draw on experiences through all domains:<br />Social-Emotional<br />Language<br />Motor<br />Perceptual<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  23. 23. Role of adults<br />Vital role in supporting cognitive development of infants<br />Must provide the “base from which infants engage in behaviors and interactions that promote learning.”<br />Serve as prime source for imitation<br />Provide the cultural context and determine what knowledge is valuable<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  24. 24. Infant Foundations<br />Cause-and-Effect<br />The developing understanding that one event brings about another<br />Spatial Relationships<br />The developing understanding of how things move and fit in space<br />Problem Solving<br />The developing ability to engage in a purposeful effort to reach a goal or figure out how something works<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  25. 25. Foundations<br />Imitation<br />The developing ability to mirror, repeat, and practice the actions of others, either immediately or later<br />Memory<br />The developing ability to store and later retrieve information about past experiences<br />Number Sense<br />The developing understanding of number and quantity<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  26. 26. Infant Toddler Foundations<br />Classification<br />The developing ability to group, sort, categorize, connect, and have expectations of objects and people according to their attributes<br />Symbolic Play<br />The developing ability to use actions, objects, or ideas to represent other actions, objects, or ideas<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  27. 27. Infant Toddler Foundations<br />Attention Maintenance<br />The developing ability to attend to people and things while interacting with others and exploring the environment and play materials.<br />Understanding of Personal Care Routines<br />The developing ability to understand and participate in personal care routines.<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  28. 28. Learning Language<br />Need to be able to communicate<br />To understand the world <br />To function in the world<br />Language unites people<br />Talking and listening<br />Literacy – reading and writing<br />Literature – the art form that uses language<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  29. 29. Learning Language<br />Significant accomplishment of early childhood<br />All children learn language in all cultures at about the same time<br />“Caught, not taught!”<br />Language is tool:<br />Communication<br />Self Expression<br />Learning<br />
  30. 30. The teacher’s Job<br />Provide relationships full of language<br />Speak honestly and respectfully<br />Listen attentively<br />Use language<br />To mediate problems<br />Communicate information<br />Share feelings and ideas<br />Demonstrate usefulness and value of oral language<br />
  31. 31. Learn Customs from Home<br />Learn to select speech for the setting and the people<br />Learn to use nonverbal features in communication<br />Body position<br />Gestures<br />Facial expression<br />Intonation in speaking<br />Need to be sensitive to cultural customs – some cultures do not use eye contact<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  32. 32. Developmental Stages<br />Children learn complex structure, rules, and meanings of language<br />Normal development - develop ability to create speech<br />Taught through “language-rich” relationships<br />Learn through conversations<br />Learn through play<br />Learn through planned activities<br />Games, stories, songs, rhymes<br />Taught through structured group activities<br />
  33. 33. Literacy<br />Evolving process by which children become literate<br />Literacy begins at birth – experiences in infancy with language, books, reading<br />Foster awareness of print-filled world<br />Foundations start long before child learns to read<br />Include experience with books<br />Each child needs to be read to<br />Even the youngest children must have books and words throughout their environment<br />
  34. 34. Language development foundations<br />From babbling at six months to full sentences by the end of three<br />Newborns prefer: <br />Sounds of their mothers’ voices<br />The language spoken by their mother during pregnancy<br />Motherese or parentese – <br />Infant-directed speech<br />Pitch and tone qualities<br />Sing-song rhythm<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  35. 35. Developing language<br />Preverbal infants communicate through:<br />Eye contact<br />Facial expressions<br />Gestures<br />Sounds<br />Infants understand the social processes involved in communication<br />Learn turn-taking behavior<br />Learn back and forth conversation-like responses<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  36. 36. Perceptual processes and language development<br />Infants develop ability to perceive inter-sensory relations in auditory visual events<br />Experience effects language development<br />Infants’ perceptual and perceptual-motor systems are altered by linguistic experience<br />Phonetic experience change through native-language patterns<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  37. 37. Language foundations<br />Receptive language<br />The developing ability to understand words and increasingly complex utterances<br />Expressive language<br />The developing ability to produce the sounds of language and use vocabulary and increasingly complex utterances<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  38. 38. Language foundations<br />Communication skills and knowledge<br />The developing ability to communicate nonverbally and verbally.<br />Interest in print<br />The developing interest in engaging with print in books and in the environment.<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009<br />
  39. 39. Resources<br />California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations (2009). <br /><ul><li>Feeny, Christensen, & Moravcik (2001). Who am I in the Lives of Children?</li></ul>Teaching Strategies (1999). Caring for Infants and Toddlers<br /><ul><li>Bodrova & Leong, 2005, The Whole Child. Educational Leadership </li>