Adapted by Carla Piper for EDSU533 from Original Presentation by Mary Fong Accommodations and Modifications: Creating an Effective Learning Environment for all Students
Section 504 of the American Disabilities Act.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act ( IDEIA ) is the federal law that guarantees a better educational outcome for children with special needs. It ensures that each child receives an Individualized Educational Program ( IEP ) for a free, appropriate public education ( FAPE ).
I.D.E.I.A. 2004 ... each teacher and provider is informed of his or her specific responsibilities related to implementing the child’s IEP and the specific accommodations, modifications, and supports that must be provided for the child.
Section 504 protects the rights of students with disabilities
Under Section 504 , a student may be considered disabled if he or she:
Has a mental or physical impairment which substantially limits one or more of such person's major life activities.
Has a record of such an impairment.
Is regarded as having such an impairment.
Adaptations Accommodations Do not fundamentally alter or lower expectations or standards in instructional level, content or performance criteria. Changes are made in order to provide equal access to learning and equal opportunity to demonstrate what is known. Grading is same Modifications Do fundamentally alter or lower expectations or standards in instructional level, content or performance criteria. Changes are made to provide student meaningful & productive learning experiences based on individual needs & abilities. Grading is different
What kinds of accommodations do our students need? J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
What are the Goals of Accommodations?
To remove barriers
To demonstrate mastery
Standards remain the same
Outcomes will vary
Reading/Writing/Math Skill Deficits
Cognitive/Conceptual Skill Differences
Sensory Input Challenge
What is accommodated with accommodations?
What is Modified with Modifications?
Physical and social access to a full array of IEP team-determined appropriate classrooms and peers.
Individualized goals are developed.
Skills taught and measured through either standard assessments with modifications (mild disabilities) or through alternate assessments (moderate to severe disabilities).
The Goal of the Activity
Implications of Modifications
High school diploma may or may not be earned.
What is taught and assessed is individualized.
Achievement is not compared to peers.
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Quantity Time Level of Support Input Alternate Goals Difficulty Participation Output Substitute Curriculum Adapt the way instruction is delivered to the learner. For example: Use different visual aids, enlarge text, plan more concrete examples, provide hands-on activities, place students in cooperative groups, pre-teach key concepts or terms before the lesson Adapt the number of items that the learner is expected to learn or complete. For example: Reduce the number of social studies terms a learner must learn at any one time. Add more activiies or worksheets. Adapt the time allotted and allowed for learning, task completion, or testing. For example: Individualize a timeline for completing a task; pace learning differently (increase or decrease) for some learners. Increase the amount of personal assistance to keep the student on task or to reinforce or prompt use of specific skills; use physical space and environmental structure. For example: Assign peer buddies, teaching assistants, peer tutors, or cross age tutors. Adapt the skill level, problem type, or the rules on how the learner may approach the work. For example: Allow the use of a calculator to figure math problems; simplify task directions; change rules to accommodate learner needs. Adapt how the student can respond to instruction. For example : Instead of answering questions in writing, allow a verbal response, use a communication book for some students, allow students to show knowledge with hands on materials. Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively involved in the task. For example: A student who has difficulty presenting in front of a class could be given the option of presenting to just the teacher. Adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the same materials. When routinely utilized, this is only for students with moderate to severe disabilities. For example: In social studies, expect a student to be able to locate the colors of the states on a map, while other students learn to locate each state and name each capital. Provide different instruction and materials to meet a learner’s individual goals. When routinely utilized, this is only for students with moderate to severe disabilities. For example : During a math test, a student is working on an eye-hand coordination activity.
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Quantity Adapt the number of items that the learner is expected to learn or number of activities student will complete prior to assessment for mastery. Example: Reduce the number of vocabulary words a learner must learn at any one time. Add vocabulary words at intervals.
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Time Adapt the time allotted and allowed for learning, task completion, or testing. Example: Increase or decrease the learning pace for some students.
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Level of Support Increase the amount of personal assistance to keep the student on task or to reinforce or prompt use of specific skills; use physical space and environmental structure. Examples: peer buddies, peer tutors, cross-age tutors, educational paraprofessionals
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Input Adapt the way instruction is delivered to the learner. Examples: Use different visual aids, enlarge text, plan more concrete examples, provide hands-on activities, place students in cooperative groups, pre-teach key concepts or terms before the lesson.
A service or support to help fully access the subject matter and instruction.
Reduces information processing demands
Diagrams, models, concept maps
Media presented during instruction.
Activate prior knowledge during instruction.
Questions presented prior to a discussion or reading assignment
Vocabulary words presented on the board or a handout.
Verbal statements by the teacher designed to activate knowledge prior to instruction.
Includes a set of statements or questions to focus the student’s attention and cognitive resources on key information to be learned.
Completed or partially completed outlines.
Defined: Techniques to aid storage and recall of declarative knowledge
May be verbal or pictorial.
May be provided by the teacher
or developed collaboratively by
teacher and the student.
Can be key words, pictures , or symbols
The key to differentiated instruction:
Use guided practice
They accommodate diverse learners
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Difficulty Adapt the skill level, problem type, or the rules on how the learner may approach the work. For example: Allow the use of a calculator to figure math problems; simplify task directions
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Output Adapt how the student can respond to instruction. For Example: Allow a verbal rather than written response, allow students to show knowledge with hands on materials.
Altered methods of demonstrating mastery.
Measures what the student learned, not the student’s disability or characteristics.
Multiple choice vs. essay.
Verbal responses vs. writing.
Typing vs. handwriting.
Demonstrating vs. writing.
What’s the Difference?
Standard Accommodation vs. Non-Standard Accommodations
Test publishers’ language as to whether what is being measured has been altered beyond the ability to compare this student’s performance to his/her peers
Accommodations vs. Modifications
Check educators language as to whether what is being taught and measured is substantially altered from what is expected: The grade level standards.
What is an Accommodation? Standardized Tests
Any variation in the assessment environment or process that does not fundamentally alter what the exam measures or affect the comparability of exam scores.
Examples of accommodations for the CAHSEE include
using a Braille transcription
having the mathematics part of the test read to the student or orally presented on a CD
having extra time beyond the school day to complete the exam.
What is a Modification?
Any variation in the assessment environment or process that fundamentally alters what the exam measures or affects the comparability of exam scores.
Examples of modifications for the CAHSEE include:
using a calculator on the math part of the exam
having the English-language arts part of the exam read to the student or orally presented on a CD
using Manually Coded English or American Sign Language to present the test questions to the student
Testing Output Changes
How do you know which output change is which type of adaptation?
High Stakes Testing
The test publisher tells you about norm-referencing and “substantial alterations.”
Compare goal/objective of the instruction with the curriculum standard and determine if change substantially alters what is being taught.
a service or support to help fully access the subject matter and instruction.
a service or support to help validly demonstrate knowledge.
What is clearly an “accommodation” for a learning characteristic instruction during classroom instruction, may be defined as a “modification/non-standard accommodation” on a high stakes test
Input - e.g., reading the text or chapter test in social studies is an accommodation, reading the high stakes test likely defined as a modification.
Output - e.g., writing the dictated essay may be an accommodation in social studies, but be a modification on standardized assessment.
Are entitled to removal of barriers to accessing and progressing in
Students with IEPs
If an accommodation is on the IEP to level the playing field/remove the barrier, even if it is defined as a modification on a high stakes test, the student is entitled to that modification if necessary, regardless of the effects on “aggregating data.”
To do otherwise would be discriminatory.
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Participation
Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively involved in the task.
A seat assignment in the general classroom does not create or ensure learning. When students are isolated from peers, or the classroom tasks are completed for them (including choice making), students are passively involved in your classroom Students must actively participate in classroom activities, communication with teachers, and interaction with peers.
Participation or “engagement”
In geography, have a student hold the globe, while others point out locations.
Ask the student to lead a group.
Students cue you they are attending (“eyes on me”).
Provide thinking time.
Signal group response.
Teacher assigns - provide a label/role “1’s tell 2’s.”
Alternate ranking for partnering.
Individual responses (only AFTER practice on the new skill)
Randomly call on individuals to share.
Specific topics/jobs; no one is passive.
Participation and INPUT
Differentiating instruction during whole class instruction
Support (e.g., partially filled out, partner dialogue).
Projects — individual & small group
Key is organization/structure
Rubrics - touch points along the way.
Input & Participation Enhancement
Comprehension instruction: PALS
Stronger reader reads a paragraph.
Weaker reader prompts.
Input & Participation Enhancement
Weaker reader prompts stronger reader to:
1. Name the Who or What.
2. Tell the most important thing(s) about the Who or What.
3. Paraphrase in 10 words or less
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Alternate Goals Adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the same materials. When routinely utilized, this is only for students with moderate to severe disabilities. For example: In a social studies lesson, expect a student to be able to locate the colors of the states on a map, while other students learn to locate each state and name the capital.
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Substitute Curriculum Sometimes called “functional curriculum” Provide different instruction and materials to meet a learner’s individual goals. When routinely utilized, this is only for students with moderate to severe disabilities. For example: During a language lesson a student is learning toileting skills with an aide.
Teachers react in different ways to accommodations and modifications
Why would a teacher NOT want to do accommodate and modify instruction?