Exame de qualificação Phd Carla Luguetti 19/06


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Exame de qualificação Phd Carla Luguetti 19/06

  1. 1. 27/06/2013 1 MOVING FROM WHAT IS TO WHAT MIGHT BE: DEVELOPING A PEDAGOGICAL MODEL OF SPORT ADDRESSED TO YOUTH FROM SOCIALLY VULNERABLE BACKGROUNDS IN BRAZIL Carla Luguetti First supervisor: PROF. DR. LUIZ EDUARDO PINTO B. T. DANTAS Second supervisor: PROF. DR. DAVID KIRK Methodology “First View” Introduction Pedagogical Models (Almeida, 2000; Misztal, 2011; Sandford & Duncombe, 2011) unemployment poor skills low income poor housing bad health family breakdown high crime environment combination of linked problems (Abramovay et al., 2002)
  2. 2. 27/06/2013 2 (Abramovay et al., 2002; Vignoli, 2001) This might happen because there is a lack of motivation and opportunity for youth who miss valuable social contacts and look for compensation Stigmatisation, discrimination, self- perception of incompetence, low ambition, lack of achieved success (Abramovay et al., 2002; Vignoli, 2001) disadvantaged underserved at-risk disaffected marginalized (Haudenhuyse et al., 2012). “youth from socially vulnerable backgrounds”
  3. 3. 27/06/2013 3 (Abramovay et al., 2002) Sport, art, music and literature might be a vehicle for critically understanding the reality in which these young people live and maybe minimize the distorted relationship between youth and institutions of society Sport presents a very powerful tool for engaging young people from socially vulnerable backgrounds in organised context. (Haudenhuyse et al., 2012; Sport England, 2005) (Coalter, 2005; McEvoy, MacPhail, & Enright, 2012) positive youth development community regeneration development of human social capital potential to decrease incidences of crime and anti-social behavior (Haudenhuyse et al., 2012).
  4. 4. 27/06/2013 4 Gap between curriculum policy formulation and practice (Spaaij & Jeanes, 2012); Few programs have been developed with the participation of young people or the community (Lawson, 2005) (Haudenhuyse, Theeboom, & Coalter, 2012) Most programs show a positivist/reductive vision of sport Few programs with a critical social approach (Spaaij & Jeanes, 2012) Although it is observed an increase of public policies addressed to social transformation through sports, there is a lack of empirical evidence in this area as well as a development of quality programs that enable social outcomes to be achieved.
  5. 5. 27/06/2013 5 This study seeks to formalize a pedagogical model that enables an investigation about the sport as an opportunity to youths’ engagement through processes of empowerment. By adopting a Freirean perspective, it is argued that sport could be a tool to alleviate the distorted relationships of young people and society. Sport can help youth to become critical analysts of the communities in which they live and maybe develop strategies to manage those risk situations by looking for alternatives and opportunities beyond their current situations. (Haerens, Kirk, Cardon, & De Bourdeaudhuij, 2011; Kirk, 2013; Metzler, 2011) Each model provides a design specification for teaching and learning, thus has a potential that can be confirmed empirically Pedagogical Models Pedagogical Models Pedagogical models Objectives Sport Education (Sport Ed) (Siedentop, Hastie, & Mars, 2011), Learning to become a competent, literate and enthusiastic sportsperson Sport Empowerment (Hastie & Buchanan, 2000) Allows for achievement competence, social responsibility, and personal empowerment. Sport for Peace (Ennis, 1999) Focus on conflict negotiation, caring for other students, and social responsibility Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) (Hellison, 2011) helping students take personal and social responsibility. Cultural Studies in Physical Education and Sport (Kinchin & O’Sullivan, 2003) Students are informed, watchful, and have the knowledge, skills, and confidence to critique physical activity provision and presentation on local and national levels. community context individual empowerment individual empowerment individual empowerment Listening and responding student voice youth from socially vulnerable backgrounds social critique pedagogy approaches for listening and responding young people’s voices RQ1: What is the key theme, learning outcomes and critical elements of a prototype pedagogical model? RQ2: What processes take place in the collaborative construction of the key theme, learning outcomes and critical elements? RQ3: What are the challenges and enablers in the process of collaborative constructing the key theme, learning outcomes and critical elements? RQ4: Can coaches use the critical elements to construct a program suited to the local context of implementation? Research questions
  6. 6. 27/06/2013 6 Why is it relevant? • Although some studies have focused on youth participation in the curriculum design in physical education classes, little attention was given to sport context; • Although some studies evaluate sport programs from a social critique perspective, few studies have sought to develop programs (e.g. pedagogical models) with those critical social ideas as a foundation. • It might be considered that this thesis will be a starting point for the search for real social outcomes through sport programs which might have a direct impact in public policy addressed to youth from socially vulnerable backgrounds. Methodology “First View” Introduction Pedagogical models In the traditional everyday practice of PE and sport, we see teaching and learning of sport techniques de-contextualised (Kirk, 2011, 2013) 1994 2004 2011 1995 2010 1978 2004 2010 1986
  7. 7. 27/06/2013 7 These writers consider that physical education has the potential to achievement of a range of outcomes. (Haerens et al., 2011) (Casey & Dyson, 2009; Casey, 2012; Haerens et al., 2011; Jewett et al., 1995; Kirk, 2011, 2013; Lund & Tannehill, 2005; Metzler, 2011; Tannehill, Mars, & Ann MacPhail, 2013). Nowadays, many authors argue that the pedagogical model is a way to overcome traditional teacher-led practice (Kirk, 2011) it has the potential to contribute to the achievement of a range of educational outcomes for students, across a range of domains it has a potential that can be confirmed empirically Use of the term ‘pedagogical’ highlights the interdependence and irreducibility of learning, teaching, subject matter and context (Haerens, et al 2011; Kirk, 2010, Kirk, 2013) Models-based practice Pedagogical model Instructional models (Metzler, 2011) Model-Based Instruction (Lund et al., 2008) Main-theme curriculum models (Tannehill, Mars, & MacPhail, 2013) Curriculum Models (Jewett et al., 1995) (Haerens, et al 2011; Jewett et al., 1995; Kirk, 2013; Metzler, 2011) Outcomes Instruction Assessment Criteria Content Assessment Techniques pedagogical models Keytheme learningoutcomes criticalelements
  8. 8. 27/06/2013 8 Pre-prototype pedagogical model Using sport as a vehicle to empower youth from socially vulnerable backgrounds to advise their own strategies to manage the community risks and take opportunities s An aware sportsperson has a critical cognitive understanding of forces and barriers that operates in relation to his/her sport opportunities in local, school and community context (drugs trafficking, violence, poverty, and others) A sportsperson who ‘looks outside the box’ develops strategies to manage those risks situations, looking for alternatives and opportunities to his/her development and specifically, sport development. A responsible sportsperson shows a range of personal and social skills to manage emotions and work collectively in order to promote a democratic environment and social justice in sport context.
  9. 9. 27/06/2013 9 A motor competent sportsperson has enough skills to participate in sport satisfactorily. Objectives Learning outcomes 1. Aware Sportsperson 1.1 youths critically analyse the social factors that influence the participation in sport in their community (e.g. socio-economic status, violence, drugs employment, education) 1.2 youths critically analyse the difference between high level sport and community sports as well as their role and opportunities in each place. 1.3 youths critically analyse the benefits of leadership and volunteer work for development of sport in their community. 2. Sportsperson who “looks outside the box” 2.1 youths formulates goals and applies strategies together to enhance participation in lifelong sport in their community context 2.2 youths identify sport inequities in their community and propose actions to address them (e.g. improve the quality of public facilities, higher opportunities to play sport, sports address to girls) Objectives Learning outcomes 3. Responsible Sportsperson 3.1 youths demonstrate fair play behaviours and attitudes when participating in sport (e.g., respect for self and others, respect for rules and appropriate emotional responses) 3.2 youths develop collective strategies to manage feelings, emotions in sport context as well as identify the factors that contribute to positive relationships with others 3.3 youths demonstrate positive behaviours in sport that show respect for individual abilities, interests, gender, and cultural backgrounds (promote social justice) 4. Motor competent Sportsperson 4.1 youths demonstrate a range of movement skills across environments and participate in a range of sport activities 4.2 youths adapting appropriate rules, routines, and procedures while involved in new and familiar sport activities Critical element Description Young people’s choice and voice Youths have choice and voice in the program Listening and responding students’ voice Coaches must listen and respond to students’ ideas Awareness of the culture hegemony Coaches and youths must talk about culture hegemony of sports in their context (see beyond the obvious) Community of sports (clubs) Coaches and youths must preserve a democratic sport environment, enhancing community involvement Leadership Coaches must guarantee opportunities and spaces for leadership Methodology “First View” Pedagogical Models Introduction Pre-prototype pedagogical model PHASE 1 - Me as researcher with coaches will collaboratively create the key theme, learning outcomes and critical elements of a prototype pedagogical model by considering young’s people voice PHASE 2 - Coaches will use a prototype pedagogical model to construct the programs suited to their local context
  10. 10. 27/06/2013 10 • Participatory action research (PAR) or Activist research • PAR is explicitly political premised on the notion that marginalized people can transform their realities through education, research, action and reflection • Youth in PAR is encouraged to be critical analysts of the communities and societies in which they live. Methodology Participatory Action research (Enright & O’Sullivan, 2010; Fine,2007; Oliver, 2010). Methodology Setting • 250 children and young people (aged between 6 and 15 years old - mixed gender classes) • This football project, called ‘Fundação SETTAPORT’, has existed since 2008 and is a non-governmental organization Methodology Setting Group 4 (13 to 15 years old) Group 1 (6 to 8 years old) Group 2 (9 to 10 years old) Group 3 (11 to 12 years old) Figure: Areas of social vulnerability in Santos city Figure: Areas of social vulnerability in Guarujá city Phase 1: Creating a key theme, learning outcomes and critical elements of the prototype pedagogical model Methodology Design COACHES’ WORK SESSIONS YOUTHS’ WORK SESSIONS 30 youths between 13 and 15 years old - Saboó site Tuesdays – classes will be extended 45 minutes 3 coaches and a Pedagogic coordinator Fridays – 1 hour
  11. 11. 27/06/2013 11 Student Centered Inquiry as Curriculum What Facilitated and Hindered •Interests • Motivation •Learning Building the Foundation Analyzing the Responses Listening to Respond Through Debriefing with High School and College Students Planning Responding to Students Reflect Reflect Analyze Data Teach/ Observe (Oliver et al., 2009; Oliver & Hamzeh, 2010; Oliver & Oesterreich, 2012; Oliver, 2012) Youth’s biographies Youth’s barriers and facilities to do sport in the sport project, in the neighborhood and the community context Youth’s perceptions about football lessons Methodology PHASE 1 Phase 2: Coaches use the key theme, learning outcomes and critical elements to construct a program suited to the local context Methodology PHASE 2 Saboó Vila Nova Estuário Jardim Conceiçãozinha Methodology DATA COLLECTION The purpose of this study is to develop a prototype pedagogical model for working with socially vulnerable young people RQ1: What is the key theme, learning outcomes and critical elements of a prototype for a pedagogical model? RQ2: What processes take place in the collaborative construction of the key theme, learning outcomes and critical elements? RQ3: What are the challenges and enablers in the process of collaboratively constructing the key theme, learning outcomes and critical elements? RQ4: Can coaches use the critical elements to construct a program suited to the local context of implementation? PHASE 1 (RQ: 1,2,3) PHASE 2 (RQ: 2,3,4) Field journal/observation Field journal/observation Audio record youths’ work sessions Audio record coaches’ work sessions Audio record coaches’ work sessions Individual coaches’ interviews Individual coaches’ interviews Coaches’ lessons reflection All of student generated work Video recorded Lessons Table: Research Questions (RQs) and instruments, respectively • inductive analysis and constant comparison will be used (Lincoln & Guba 1985). Methodology Analysis