Cellular respiration 2012
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Cellular respiration 2012

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  • 1. g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. Mitochondria consist of a matrix where three-carbon fragments originating from carbohydrates are broken down (to CO2 and water) and of the cristae where ATP is produced. Cell respiration occurs in a series of reactions in which fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP, a substance that powers most cell activities. 1. i.* Students know how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP production. Enzymes called ATP synthase, located within the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts and cristae membranes in mitochondria, synthesize most ATP within cells. The thylakoid and cristae membranes are impermeable to protons except at pores that are coupled with the ATP synthase. The potential energy of the proton concentration gradient drives ATP synthesis as the protons move through the ATP synthase pores. The proton gradient is established by energy furnished by a flow of electrons passing through the electron transport system located within these membranes.
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  • 1. g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. Mitochondria consist of a matrix where three-carbon fragments originating from carbohydrates are broken down (to CO2 and water) and of the cristae where ATP is produced. Cell respiration occurs in a series of reactions in which fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP, a substance that powers most cell activities. 1. i.* Students know how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP production. Enzymes called ATP synthase, located within the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts and cristae membranes in mitochondria, synthesize most ATP within cells. The thylakoid and cristae membranes are impermeable to protons except at pores that are coupled with the ATP synthase. The potential energy of the proton concentration gradient drives ATP synthesis as the protons move through the ATP synthase pores. The proton gradient is established by energy furnished by a flow of electrons passing through the electron transport system located within these membranes.
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Cellular respiration 2012 Cellular respiration 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • Item Activities that Energy How the item does Source Energy Is Released?AutomobileDogsFlashlightFlowersHumans
  • Cellular Respiration Objectives: (1) Define metabolism and give its significance to YOU (2) Identify the parts of mitochondria and give the function of each (3) Draw the complete equation of cellular respiration and its opposite reaction (4) Summarize how glucose is broken down in the first stage of cellular respiration.
  • Cellular Respiration Objectives: (5)Describe how ATP is made in the stages of cellular respiration. (6) Identify the role of and importance of fermentation in the second stage of cellular respiration. (7) Evaluate the importance of oxygen in aerobic respiration.
  •  is a series of reactions where fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to make CO2, water, and energy (ATP).
  •  Cellular Respiration is a metabolic process like burning fuel  Releases much of the energy in food to make ATP  This ATP provides cells with the energy they need to carry out the activities of life.  C6H12O6+O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
  • Glucose Breakdown: Summary Reaction Oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy glucose Reduction Electronsare removed from substrates and received by oxygen, which combines with H+ to become water. Glucose is oxidized and O2 is reduced 8
  • Cristae: location of the electron transport chain (ETC) Matrix: locationOuter membrane of the prep reaction and the Inner membrane citric acid cycleIntermembrane space matrix cristae 45,000 © Dr. Donald Fawcett and Dr. Porter/Visuals Unlimited
  • FOODCarbohydrates Fats ProteinsSimple sugars Fatty acids Amino acids and glycerol stages of CELLULAR RESPIRATION
  • fuels stages of CELLULAR RESPIRATION Simple Fatty Aminosugars acids acids and glycerol
  •  Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP ATP is a substance that powers most cell activities.
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. glucose Cytoplasm glycolysis 2 ATP net NADH 2 4 or 6 ATP 2 pyruvate Electron transport chain 2 NADH 6 ATP 2 acetyl CoA Mitochondrion 2 CO2 6 NADH 18 ATP Citric acid cycle 2 ATP 2 FADH2 4 ATPP 4 CO2 6 O2 6 H2 O subtotal subtotal 4 ATP 32 ATP or 34 36 or 38 ATP total16
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  • Cellular RespirationStage One: Breakdown of Glucose•GlycolysisGlucose isbroken downto pyruvatemaking 2 ATP.
  • Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.19
  • Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.22
  • FERMENTATION•the anaerobic conversion ofsugar to carbon dioxide andalcohol/acid• Alcoholic Fermentation - yeasts• Lactic Acid Fermentation - humans, fungi, and bacteria
  • FERMENTATIONAlcoholic Fermentatione.g. yeastsproduce alcohol and CO2• bread, beer, wine
  • Lactic Acid Fermentatione.g. humans, some bacteria & fungimuscle tissue ferments lactic acid when O2 is not delivered to cellsLactate producing bacteria – used in the production of cheese, yogurt, sauerkraut.other products: acetic acid, butyric acid, isopropanol etc.
  •  Where in the cell does  Cytoplasm gylcolysis occur? Fate of glucose in the  Fructose (isomer) beginning of gylcolysis?  Invest 2 ATP get 4 Explain “it takes energy to make energy”?  Net= 2 ATP How much net ATP is  CO2 + NADH made?  Lactate or alcohol What else is made? 2 types of fermentation?
  •  Pyruvate is a pivotal metabolite in cellular respiration If O2 is not available to the cell, fermentation, an anaerobic process, occurs in the cytoplasm.  During fermentation, glucose is incompletely metabolized to lactate, or to CO2 and alcohol (depending on the organism). If O2 is available to the cell, pyruvate enters the mitochondria for aerobic respiration.27
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc./Bruce M. Johnson, photographer28
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc./Bruce M. Johnson, photographer29
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc./Bruce M. Johnson, photographer30
  •  Advantages  Provides a quick burst of ATP energy for muscular activity. Disadvantages  Lactate and alcohol are toxic to cells.  Lactate changes pH and causes muscles to fatigue. ▪ Oxygen debt  Yeast die from the alcohol they produce by fermentation Efficiency of Fermentation  Two ATP produced per glucose of molecule during fermentation is equivalent to 14.6 kcal.  Complete oxidation of glucose can yield 686 kcal.  Only 2 ATP per glucose are produced, compared to 36 or 38 ATP molecules per glucose produced by cellular respiration.31
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fermentation inputs outputs glucose 2 lactate or 2 alcohol and 2 CO2 2 ADP + 2 P 2 ATP net gain32
  • Pyruvate enters mitochondrion (matrix)It is oxidized to 2 carbon acetyl groupsNADH is formedCO2 is removed (waste product)
  •  Connects glycolysis to the citric acid cycle End product of glycolysis, pyruvate, enters the mitochondrial matrix Pyruvate is converted to a 2-carbon acetyl group  Attached to Coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA  Electron are picked up (as hydrogen atom) by NAD +  CO2 is released and transported out of mitochondria into34 the cytoplasm
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2 NAD+ 2 NADH O OH C CoA 2 C O + 2 CoA 2 C O + 2 CO2 CH3 CH 3 carbon pyruvate acetyl CoA dioxide 2 pyruvate + 2 CoA 2 acetyl CoA + 2 carbon dioxide35
  • Cellular RespirationStage Two: Production of ATP •Krebs Cycle is a series of reactions that produce energy-storing molecules during aerobic respiration.
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  •  Completes the breakdown of glucose  Takes the pyruvate (3-carbons) and breaks it down, the carbon and oxygen atoms end up in CO2 and H2O  Hydrogens and electrons are stripped and loaded onto NAD+ and FAD to produce NADH and FADH2 Production of only 2 more ATP but loads up the coenzymes with H+ and electrons which move to the 3rd stage
  • CO2 & H2ONADH & FADH2 more ATP
  •  What are the reactants?  Pyruvate (C3) What is produced?  2 ATP, CO2, NADH, FADH What is NADH? FADH?  Energy carriers What is CoA and why is it important?  Escort molecule to Krebs cycle
  • Goal: to break down NADH and FADH2, pumping H+ into the outer compartment of the mitochondriaWhere: Cristae of the mitochondriaElectron Transport Phosphorylation typically produces 32 ATPs
  •  Electron carriers loaded with electrons and protons from the Kreb’s cycle move to this chain-like a series of steps (staircase). As electrons drop down stairs, energy released to form a total of 32 ATP Oxygen waits at bottom of staircase, picks up electrons and protons and in doing so becomes water
  •  ATP is generated as H+ moves down its concentration gradient through a special enzyme called ATP synthase
  • Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.47
  •  Glycolysis: 2 ATP Krebs Cycle: 2 ATP Electron Transport Phosphorylation: 32 ATP  Each NADH produced in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl COA and Krebs Cycle is worth 3 ATP (8 x 3 = 24)  Each FADH2 is worth 2 ATP (2 x 2 = 4)  4 + 24 + 4 = 32 Net Energy Production:
  •  Net yield per glucose:  From glycolysis – 2 ATP  From citric acid cycle – 2 ATP  From electron transport chain – 32 or 34 ATP Energy content:  Reactant (glucose) 686 kcal  Energy yield (36 ATP) 263 kcal  Efficiency is 39%  The rest of the energy from glucose is lost as heat50
  •  36 ATP for aerobic vs. 2 ATP for anaerobic  Glycolysis 2 ATP  Kreb’s 2 ATP  Electron Transport 32 0r 34 ATP 36 or 38 ATP
  •  Occurs in the chlorophyll-bearing cells of plants Needs the presence of light Water and carbon dioxide are used Oxygen is given off as a waste product Food is built or synthesized The weight of the plant is increased Energy is stored
  •  I. Draw and label the parts of a mitochondrion. Give the function of each part. II. Complete the table below on cellular respiration.
  • I. Draw and label the parts of a mitochondrion. Give the function of each part. II. Complete the table below on cellular respiration. PHASE/PROCESS LOCATION PRODUCTS ATP PRODUCED NADHs,___________________ matrix 2FADH2s, acetyl coA and 2 CO2 ________________ _______________ Glycolysis 2 ________________ _________________ Water, NADH, _____________ FADH _________________ NADH and _____________Preparatory reaction releases CO2 *Organism involve Fermentation ________________ Alcohol & CO2 _________ ________________ _______________ Net total of ATP produced/glucose molecule = __________
  •  1. In aerobic respiration carbohydrates are ultimately broken down into: A. acetyl-CoA B. CO2 C. H2O D. O2 2. In the process of catabolism, protein is broken into A. sugar B. amino acids C. glucose D. fatty acids 3. Which process of aerobic respiration takes place in the cytoplasm and NOT in the mitochondria? A. glycolysis B. Krebs cycle C. fermentation D. ATP synthesis
  •  4. In the presence of oxygen, all cells synthesize ATP via the process of glycolysis. Many cells also can metabolize pyruvate if oxygen is not present, via the process of: A. fermentation B. oxidative phosphorylation C. aerobic respiration D. photophosphorylation 5. The final electron acceptor in cellular respiration is A. ATP. D. NADPH. B. oxygen. E. carbon dioxide. C. glyceraldehyde-3-phospate (G3P)
  •  6. Which of the following does not occur in fermentation? A. carbon dioxide is produced B. sugar is broken down C oxygen is formed D. energy is released 7. What is the net total of ATP produced during aerobic respiration A. 2 ATP C. 36 ATP B. 32 ATP D. 39 ATP
  •  8. Which process of aerobic respiration takes place in the cristae of mitochondria? A. Glycolysis B. Citric Acid Cycle cycle C. Preparatory reaction D. Electron Transport Chain 9. All of the following are common to respiration and fermentation except one A. energy is released B. carbon dioxide is produced C. sugar molecules are broken down D. alcohol is formed