We have all experienced a time when we were so “into” the book we could almost taste, smell, and feel the physical sensations we would actually have if we were in that situation. We almost get lost in the book and may sometimes be startled if someone interrupts us while reading. In these situations, as you read, you imagine the situation about which you are reading, and you infer things the author has not told you in the text. You infer why things happen, why characters behave the way they do, and how characters are feeling. You enter the world created by the author, and you create images and inferences based on what the author tells you and on your own knowledge and beliefs about that world.
Ellin Keene also shares that, “Images from reading frequently become part of the reader’s writing. Images from a reader’s personal experience frequently become part of his/her comprehension.”
1. Making Inferences & Drawing Conclusions
2. Questioning Making Connections Background Knowledge (schema) Predictions Imagination/ Visualization Analysis of Text: Interpretation/ Judgment Drawing Conclusions
3. <ul><li>Readers are able to think inferentially when they connect their background of information, ideas, and experiences with the text. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important for the reader to have background knowledge about a text they are reading if they are expected to read inferentially. </li></ul>Inferring through ~ Making Connections
4. Inferring through ~ Imagination/Visualization “ When you read, you use all your senses. You see things in your ‘mind’s eye’ and hear the sounds you connect to that about which you are reading.” ~ Guided Reading the Four Blocks Way
5. <ul><li>“ Proficient readers use images to draw conclusions, to create distinct and unique interpretations of the text, to recall details significant to the text, and to recall a text after it has been read.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Ellin Keene </li></ul>Inferring through ~ Imagination/Visualization
6. <ul><li>“ Inferring is the process of taking that which is stated in text and extrapolating it to one’s life to create a wholly original interpretation that, in turn, becomes part of one’s beliefs or knowledge.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Ellin Keene </li></ul>Inferring through ~ Analysis of Text: Interpretation/Judgment
7. <ul><li>All the processes work together. Each works in concert with the others to aid the reader in comprehending text. </li></ul>Inferring
8. <ul><li>Anaphoric Inferences: A pronoun or noun- phrase that refers to a previous text constituent or to an entity already introduced in the mental model. </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging Inferences: These are any inferences that a reader needs to systematically or conceptually relate the sentence being read with the previous content. These are sometimes called backward inferences. </li></ul>Classes of Inferences Relevant to Expository Text
9. <ul><li>Explanation Based Inferences: The event being read </li></ul><ul><li>about is explained by a causal chain or network of previous </li></ul><ul><li>events. These are sometimes called causal antecedent </li></ul><ul><li>inferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal Inferences: The reader infers that an agent has a </li></ul><ul><li>motive that explains an intentional action. </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborative Inferences: These are properties of </li></ul><ul><li>entities, facts, and other associations that are not explained </li></ul><ul><li>by causal mechanisms. </li></ul>More Inferences...
10. <ul><li>Predictive Inferences: The reader forecasts what events will causally unfold after the current event that is being read. These are sometimes called causal consequences or forward references. </li></ul><ul><li>Process Inferences: These inferences specify the detailed steps, manner, or dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics of an event as it unfolds. </li></ul>More Inferences...