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The Victorian Age

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  • Classe VA Liceo Linguistico a.S 2009-2010

The Victorian Age The Victorian Age Presentation Transcript

  • The Victorian Age (1837-1901) The Age of Empire
  • Economy and Society
    • The long reign of Queen Victoria was a period of..
    • rapid expansion (both economically and territorially)
    • great technological innovations (railway development, telephone)
  • Reforms
    • The First reform Bill (1832) extended the power to vote to the middle class
    • The People’s charter (1839) was developed by the working-class chartist movement and rejected three times.
    • All the chartist demands became law much later between 1860 and 1914. Women had to wait untill 1928 before they were able to vote
    • Education Act (1870) provided for mass education
    • Trade Union Act (1871) legalised workers’ union
  • The Transformation of Labour
    • From an agriculturally-based economy to an industrial economy through mechanization
    • Productivity increased
    • Starvation among agricultural workers (The Corn Laws)
    • The Irish famine (massive emigration)
    • Children and women were exploited (The Poor Laws)
    • Appalling living conditions of the urban poor (overcrowded slums)
  • The British Empire
    • The Victorian period saw the massive expansion of the British Empire
    • In 1877 Queen Victoria became Empress of India (The East India Company had been taken over by the British government after the Indian Mutiny in 1857)
    • Britain annexed South Africa, Egypt, Burma, Malaysia, Afghanistan and Oceania
  • Victorian values
    • duty
    • hard work
    • respectability
    • charity
    • family
    •  a mixture of both morality and hypocrisy, severity and conformity to social standards.
  • The Victorian compromise
    • Abolition of slavery vs segregation and ideas about racial superiority (colonian expansion = a mission, ’Jingoism’)
    • Education Act vs. workhouses
    • Evangelicalism (humanitarian causes) vs. Utilitarism
    • Empiricism (Dickens) - progress from mental energy- the importance of reforms
    • Darwinism and scientific descoveries: moral and religious certainties were shaken
  • America
    • The Gold Rush , California, 1848
    • 1861-1865 The Civil War between North and South ended with the abolition of slavery
    • Great technological development followed
    • The Pacific Railroad, from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean, was completed
  • The American Renaissance
    • The beginning of a truly American literature with its own themes and style
    • THE SCARLET LETTER
    • MOBY DICK
    • LEAVES OF GRASS
    •  Contact with nature to reach truth