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Causes Of Ww2
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Causes Of Ww2

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Causes Of Ww2 Causes Of Ww2 Presentation Transcript

  • Between the Wars Photo from: wwIIremembered.com Photo from: jsharf.com/view/archives/2004
  • POSTWAR ISSUES
    • UNEMPLOYMENT – RETURNING VETS
    • DEBT – NATIONS
    • FEAR OF COMMUNISM
    • GRUMBLINGS - VERSAILLES TREATY
    • AMERICANS DIVIDED (LEAGUE OF NATIONS)
  • Effects of Treaty of Versailles
    • Disarmament
    • Reparations
    • Loss of land, colonies
    • Accept blame
    • Many blamed government for signing
    • “Lost generation” of WWI vets
  • Weimar Republic
    • 1919 – German leaders sign V. T. under protest
    • Set up democratic gov’t
      • Women vote and bill of rights
    • Blamed gov’t -“war-guilt clause” and reparations
    • Bitterness = scapegoats
      • Many blamed German-Jews
    • 1923 – Inflation = economic turmoil
    • France occupies Ruhr region of Germany
      • Reparation payments were late
      • Workers refused to work
      • Gov’t supports = prints more money
        • The Mark = virtually worthless
        • (Inflation) 100 marks = ~950,000 marks
      • American loans helped Germany recover
    • Great Depression sends them back to misery
  • 1920’S
    • AMERICAN ECONOMY BASED ON 3 C’S
    • CARS
    • CONSTRUCTION
    • CREDIT
  • PROBLEMS
    • 1920’S
    • FEW BECAME WEALTHY
    • MANY COULD NOT EARN A LIVING
    • STRUGGLING INDUSTRIES
      • FARMERS
      • RAILROAD INDUSTRY
      • MINING
    • UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH
  • PROBLEMS
    • 1929 – HOOVER PRESIDENT
    • DURING 1920’S – STOCK PRICES ROSE
    • BUYING ON SPECULATION
      • BOUGHT STOCKS & BONDS ON A CHANCE OF GETTING RICH QUICK
    • BUYING ON MARGIN
      • SMALL DOWN PAYMENT – BORROWING REST
    • TUESDAY, OCTOBER 29, 1929- STOCK MARKET CRASH
      • BLACK TUESDAY
      • SIGNALED GREAT DEPRESSION
    • PANIC
      • WITHDREW MONEY FROM BANKS
      • MANY BANKS INVESTED IN STOCKS
      • OVER ½ U.S. BANKS CLOSED
    • FELT WORLD-WIDE
    Photo from: http://www.authentichistory.com/1930s/fdr/images/1929_panic_on_wall_street.html
  • POLITICS OF 1920’S
    • 1921 – WARREN G. HARDING PRESIDENT
    • 1923-1929 CALVIN COOLIDGE
    • SHOULD THE U.S. GET INVOLVED IN WORLD AFFAIRS?
  • ISOLATIONISM
    • AVOID INVOLVEMENT WITH OTHER NATIONS
    • 1920’S – GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS BELIEVED IN THIS
    • FEAR OF INVOLVEMENT – KEPT U.S. OUT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
  • INTERNATIONALISM
    • U.S. – SHOULD NOT “DIVORCE” ITSELF FROM WORLD AFFAIRS
    • “GREAT POWER” – ASSUME RESPONSIBILITIES FOR EVENTS ABROAD
    • “WE MUST DEAL WITH THE WORLD AND THE WORLD MUST DEAL WITH US”
    • PROMOTE PEACE
  • TOTALITARIAN STATES
    • GOVERNMENT CONTROLS ALL ASPECTS OF A PERSON’S LIFE
  • JOSEPH STALIN
    • RUSSIA
    • MAN OF STEEL (TOUGH)
    • 1924-1953
    • CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA – ESTABLISHED A COMMUNIST STATE – SOVIET UNION
    • PRIVATE BUSINESS / AGRICULTURE – GOVERNMENT OWNED
    • FIVE YEAR PLANS
    • 1937 – SOVIET UNION 2 ND LARGEST INDUSTRIAL POWER
    • GREAT PURGE : 8-13 MILLION DEAD
  • STALIN Photo from: http://www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Joseph_Stalin /
  • BENITO MUSSOLINI
    • ITALY
    • PROBLEM CHILD
      • KICKED OUT OF CHURCH (PINCHING – STONE THROWING)
      • EXPELLED SCHOOL – STABBING STUDENT
    • SOLDIER IN WWI
    • FASCIST PARTY – 1921 (1 ST EVER TOT. STATE)
    • INTERESTS OF THE COUNTRY BEFORE INDIVIDUAL
    • 1922 – MARCH ON ROME
    • KING OF ITALY APPOINTED HIM HEAD OF GOVERNMENT (TO AVOID CIVIL WAR)
  • MUSSOLINI Photo from: http://www.rhul.ac.uk/messages/press/message.asp?ref_no=393
  • FASCISM
    • AUTHORITARIAN GOV. THAT IS NOT COMMUNIST
    • EXTREME NATIONALISM
    • NATION COMES FIRST
    • GLORIFY ACTION, VIOLENCE, DISCIPLINE
    • PURSUE AGGRESSIVE EXPANSION
    • BASIC FEATURES (PAGE 760)
  • ADOLF HITLER
    • BORN IN AUSTRIA 1889
    • JEWISH GRANDFATHER?
    • ARTIST IN VIENNA (20’S)
    • HOMELESS SHELTER
    • MOVED TO MUNICH
    • SOLDIER IN WWI
  • HITLER
    • NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS PARTY (NAZI PARTY)
    • POWERFUL PUBLIC SPEAKER
    • 1923 – BEER HALL PUTSCH
    • MEIN KAMPF – IDEAS AND BELIEFS FOR GERMANY’S FUTURE
    • BLAMED JEWS
    • GREAT DEPRESSION
    • LEADER OF THE “3RD REICH”
  • Hitler established a common enemy/outside threat
    • Jewish population
      • Blamed for Germany’s economic crisis
      • Blamed for spread of communism
      • Hitler played on existing anti-Semitism
    • Threat of communism
      • 1917 Russian Rev. established communism in Russia
  • Hitler’s personality & charisma
    • Brought Germany out of its depression
      • Gave people hope
      • Many joined Nazi party for employment
    • Nationalistic (Aryans vs sub-humans)
      • Encouraged German superiority, pride
  • Propaganda
    • “Aim it at the stupidity of the masses, rather than the intellectuals.” – Adolf Hitler
    • Common themes and forms
      • Anti Semitism/Communism
      • Loyalty to state and Hitler
      • Accomplishments of German state
      • Mass rallies, literature,
      • education, films
    • Depression played into Hitler’s hands
    • Division in gov’t – Communist vs. Conservative
      • Conservatives turn to Hitler
      • Thought they could control him (oops!)
    • 1933 – elected chancellor
      • Gestapo- Secret police – rooted out opposition
      • Large public works programs
      • Re-arm Germany – (violated Versailles)
  • Social Policies
    • Women’s roles limited
    • Hitler Youth
      • Lost upper level jobs, college opportunities
      • Rewarded “Aryan” mothers
      • for having children
    • Culture Purge
      • Education – molded minds
      • Book burning
      • Modern art and jazz – denounced (Wagner)
      • Replace religion with his racial creed
    • Nuremberg Laws
      • Jews can’t marry non-Jews
      • Can’t attend or teach at German schools
      • No publishing books
      • No law or medicine
    • Kristallnacht (“Night of Broken Glass”)
  • FRANCISCO FRANCO
    • SPAIN
    • 1936 – SPANISH CIVIL WAR
    • U.S. SENT 3000 TROOPS
    • HITLER / MUSSOLINI – SUPPORTED FRANCO’S REBELLION
    • SOVIETS – SENT EQUIPMENT TO SUPPORT U.S.
    • U.S. WITHDREW
  • JAPAN
    • MILITARISTS – OVERTHREW IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT
    • 1926-1945: HIROHITO (EMPEROR)
    • HIDEKI TOJO – GENERAL
    • (PRIME MINISTER 1941-1945)
    • ATTACKED MANCHURIA – 1931 (LEAGUE OF NATIONS)
  • Sources
    • The History Channel
      • http://www.history.com/
    • Cayton, Andrew; Perry, Elisabeth; Reed, Linda; Winkler, Allan. Prentice Hall. America: Pathways to the Present- Modern American History . c. 2000.