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History 141 - California: A History

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  1. 1. California: A History (Chapters 6 & 10) By Paul Carino
  2. 2. The Higher Provincialism (1/3) <ul><li>Josiah Royce published Race Questions, Provincialism, and Other American Problems in 1908. The theoretical core of Royce’s book was the essay “Provincialism,” in which he extolled regional life as something profoundly serving the human need for community. </li></ul><ul><li>Royce’s favorite province for analysis was California, which became the subject of another essay in the book, “The Pacific Coast: A Psychological Study of the Relations of Climate and Civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>He argued California’s topography and climate was in the process of fostering a Higher Provincial version of American civilization that promoted simultaneously an independence of mind, individualism, and open simplicity of manner that might justifiably be described as Homeric. </li></ul><ul><li>Such factors were making California a distinctive instance of American Civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Royce felt California was not an afterthought of the nation, an isolated society cut off from the centers of power, money and thought in the East, but rather a prism through which the larger American identity could be glimpsed. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Higher Provincialism (2/3) <ul><li>San Francisco would flourish as a solitary Pacific Coast epicenter of urbanism and artistic creativity throughout the 1860s. </li></ul><ul><li>Anton Roman, a German-born book seller, established a publishing house in 1860. It would go on to publish the works of Francis Bret Harte ( Outcroppings ), Charles Warren Stoddard. </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish-born naturalist John Muir arrived in San Francisco in 1868, and, over the course of 50 years, would establish a reputation as a nature writer, covering the Yosemite Valley, the mountains of California, and the glacial formations of Alaska. </li></ul><ul><li>Hubert Howe Bancroft, a former Ohioan who came to California from Buffalo, New York, assembled the beginnings of a research library that would over the next two decades support the publication of a multivolume history of the Pacific Coast. </li></ul><ul><li>The literature of California in the 1850s was characterized by humor, history, and memoir; in the 1860s, by local color, literary journalism, and poetry. The late 1870s and 1880s saw an efflorescence of historical writing, promotional literature, and the first instances of long fiction, as opposed to the sketch or short story. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Higher Provincialism (3/3) <ul><li>Agriculturally, Northern California witnessed the triumph of wheat in the 1870s and 1880s. California would lead the nation in wheat production until surpassed by Minnesota in the early 1890s. </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat ranching was agribusiness on a heroic scale, with gangs of hired men planting and harvesting across vast landscapes behind equipment drawn by mules. </li></ul><ul><li>In Southern California, citrus, vineyards, and other forms of intensive agriculture brought California a new kind of agriculturist—the intensive farmer, educated, middle class, capable of making a living on forty acres. </li></ul><ul><li>California produce could reach Eastern markets within a week by the 1890s thanks to refrigerated rail cars. </li></ul><ul><li>By the early 1900s, a veritable sea of citrus groves ran from the interior counties of Riverside and San Bernardino into Los Angeles, heading for the coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Horticulturalists were planting the pervasively barren landscape of Southern California with trees of every sort. </li></ul>
  5. 5. O Brave New World! (1/3) <ul><li>Through engineering and technology, California invented itself as an American Place. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of mining technology led to the Pelton turbine, a California invention, which in turn brought hydroelectricity to California, which in turn made possible an industrial infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Aviation would be adopted and perfected when it arrived to California. </li></ul><ul><li>Californians took the lead in smashing the atom by the 1930s. California was also leading the nation in biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>California emerged as a society friendly to the search for utopia through science and technology. </li></ul>
  6. 6. O Brave New World! (2/3) <ul><li>On August 28, 1883, on the edge of the Otay mesa south of San Diego on land once belonging to the Rancho Tia Juana, the brothers John and James Montgomery assembled a 38-pound glider made out of wood and fabric that John had designed. </li></ul><ul><li>That very day would be the first recorded heavier-than-air flight in human history, which took place in California. </li></ul><ul><li>Air travel was totally commensurate with the Californian identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Californians were speculating about the possibility of dirigible balloon flights to California from the East Coast as early as the Gold Rush. Californians were experimenting with various forms of flight by the 1860s. </li></ul><ul><li>California would shape aviation, and aviation would shape California over the next century. </li></ul>
  7. 7. O Brave New World! (3/3) <ul><li>Across the span of 150 years, aspiring Californians had adopted nature as the primary symbol of what they hoped to achieve as a society. </li></ul><ul><li>Californians had harnessed electromagnetic waves to transmit sound and images; had helped release the power of the atom; had devised chips and circuits storing in formation in quantities. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of one millennium and the beginning of the next, they had begun to appropriate into science, medicine, and industry the genetic building blocks and structure of nature herself. </li></ul><ul><li>California supported the rise of a homegrown religion, the Church of Scientology, founded in Los Angeles in 1954. </li></ul><ul><li>In November 2004, Proposition 71 asserted California as a nation-state enamored of seeking utopia through science and technology, which had become a way of life. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sources – California: A History <ul><li>The Higher Provincialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 133, paragraph 1-2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 134, paragraph 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 138, paragraph 1-2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 139, paragraph 1-2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 150, paragraph 2-3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 151, paragraph 1-2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>O Brave New World! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 247, paragraph 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 252, paragraph 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 253, paragraph 1-2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 260, paragraph 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 261, paragraph 1 </li></ul></ul>