Presented by:Carinne Karlick Gopu Kiron Kevin Jones
It is important to understand the terminology and acronyms associated with ESL. Many of these terms are misused or improperly used interchangeably.ESL-English as a Second LanguageELL-English Language LearnerL1- First LanguageL2-Second Language or Target LanguageLEP- Limited English ProficiencyNEP- Non-English ProficientNES- Non English SpeakingNNS- Non-Native SpeakerSLA- Second Language Acquisition
Realia- props or other physical items which are used to increase the realism of role plays. Ex: menus, contracts, forms, pictures, tickets, schedules, souvenirs, advertisements and articles costumes. Affective Filter- is an imaginary wall that is placed between a learner and language input. If the filter is on, the learner is blocking out input. The filter turns on when anxiety is high, self-esteem is low, or motivation is low. Therefore, low anxiety classes are better for language acquisition. Interlanguage- is the language a learner uses before mastering the L2. Interlanguage may contain features of the L1 and the L2. Culture- is a collection of the beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, habits and customs of a group of people. It is highly recommended that teachers research their students’ cultures.
BICS- Basic Interpersonal Communication SkillsLanguage skills in social situations usually developed between 6 months and 2 years after arrival in the U.S. CALP- Cognitive Academic Language ProficiencyFormal academic learning involving listening, speaking, reading and writing. Proficiency takes on average 5 to 7 years! Teachers must understand that good social English (BICS) does not indicate academic proficiency in the language (CALP).
WIDA stands for World-Class InstructionalDesign and Assessment. Your ELLs will beassessed in a number of ways. The WIDAwebsite offers teachers resources such as:The CAN DO descriptors which are used by teachers to differentiate instruction for ELLs. They can also be usedto plan lessons or observe students progress.The English Language Proficiency (ELP) Standards
ACCESS for ELLs: is the WIDA Consortiums secure, No Child Left Behind-compliant, assessment of English language proficiency. W-APT: is WIDAs original placement test used to identify and place students in program support. Alternate ACCESS for ELLs: is an impartial English language proficiency assessment for students with significant cognitive disabilities. WIDA MODEL: is a kit used to assess of English language proficiency that can be used as a benchmark assessment once or twice during the school year to student monitor growth.
These are suggestions…it is imperative that you understand yourstudents’ levels and refer to the CANDO descriptors to guide you.Do not use true and false questions.Do limit multiple choice options to 2 or 3.Do not as questions such as: Which of these is NOT and exampleof…..?Do not give “All of the Above” “None of the Above” “Both A andB” etc. as multiple choice options.Do provide pictures, allow students to point, and/or read aloudtest questions and choices.Do give extended time.Do consider culture when teaching and assessing.Do use grade level appropriate materials.
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibits discrimination on basis of race, color, or national origin Department of Education expanded this through May 25, 1970 Memorandum “where inability to speak and understand the English language excludes national-origin-minority group children from effective participation in the educational program offered by a school district, the district must take affirmative steps to rectify the language deficiency in order to open the instructional program to the students.”
Details about the Memorandum: Students should not be deprived of a strong educational experience because of a poor command of the English language. Special education is not an appropriate setting for minority students who struggle with English. The primary goal of ESL programs is to transition the student to learning in English
Have a district policy for identifying students as potential ELLs Have a process for gauging the level of ESL support a student needs Have ESL experts in the district who can develop effective programs Have the necessary staff, materials, and facilities required for effective programs. Have a plan to transition students out of the program as skills improve Have a review process for improving the ESL program periodically
Co-Teaching Situation when general education and special education teachers work together to instruct students of all levels of ability Often found to be associated with other educational models like: Inclusion Classrooms featuring both general education and special education students Differentiated Instruction Teachers creating lesson plans that are tailored to each student’s ability level
These models are adapted from a presentation by L. Feligno and D. Stathopoulos There are many different ways that a general education teacher and a special education teacher can work together1. One Teaching/One Observing2. One Teaching/One Circulating3. Station/Center Teaching4. Parallel Teaching/Split Class5. Large Group/Small Group Pull Out6. Team Teaching
Station/Center Teaching Students would rotate from one station to another, so that each instructor manages one group of students Parallel Teaching/Split Class The model where general education students are taught by the general education teacher, while ESL students are taught by the ESL teacher in the same class. Both teachers collaborate to provide the same lesson plan.
Large Group/Small Group Pull Out The second instructor would work with a small group of students who are having trouble understanding a given topic. This saves valuable time in the classroom. Team Teaching When both teachers teach a class together. It is important that both instructors have similar teaching styles. Helps to balance strengths and weaknesses
Social and Instructional language English language learners communicate for Social and Instructional purposes within the school setting
Language of Language Arts English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies
Standard of Mathematics English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics
Language of Science English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science
Language of Social Studies English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies.
Association of Mexican American Educators(AMAE)…advises state/local boards and legislators, administrators and faculty The National Association for Bilingual Education…representing both English language learners and bilingual education professionals. National Association for Multicultural Education…variety of resources, multicultural education research and policy information. National Capital Language Resource Center…offers online lesson plans and publications.
National Council for Teachers of English…forum for the profession Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL).…ensuring quality education for English language learners. American Association of University Supervisors and Coordinators of Foreign Language Programs (AAUSC)…for language program coordinators. American Classical League (ACL).…information and links of interest to teachers and students of Latin and Greek.
For more information about terminologyPHP Directory. (2009). ESL glossary and acronyms.Retrieved from:http://thelanguagedirectory.com/articles/esl-glossary-and-acronyms-4.htmlWikipedia. (2012). Glossary of language educationterms. Retrieved from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_language-teaching_terms_and_ideasFor more information about legal responsibilitiesDeveloping programs for english language learners: Legal background .(2005, March 16). Retrieved fromhttp://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/ell/legal.htmlWhat legal obligations do schools have to english language learners .(2006). Retrieved from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/faqs/view/6
For more information about co-teaching:Feligno, L., & Stathopoulos, D. (n.d.). Collaborativeco-teaching concepts. Retrieved from http://www-pub.naz.edu:9000/~include/pdfs/poster/Collaborative Co-Teaching Models.pdfFor more information about assessmentWIDA Consortium. (2011). Assessment.Retrieved from: http://www.wida.us/index.aspx
For more information about professional organizations: Levine, Marty. (2002). Retrieved from: http://www.csun.edu/~hcedu013/eslprof.html Literacyworks. Retrieved from http://literacynet.org/esl/organizations.html TESOL. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.tesol.org/ Weta. (2011). Colorin colorado. Retrieved from: http://www.colorincolorado.org/web_resources/b y_type_of_organization/professional_organizatio ns/