In 1851,an official population survey was carried out for the first time,showing that only 60 percent of the population went to church. In 1846 ,Peel ,a Tory did not wish but he was forced to let Catholics in Parliament. Population and politics
In 1823 Lord Canning,used the navy to prevent Spain sending troops to her rebellious colonies in South America.
The British were glad to see the liberation movement led by Simon Bolivar.This was partly for an economic reason.
Canning had also been responsible for helping the Greeks achieve.He did this partly in order to satisfy romantic liberalism in Britain. Canning knew that Russia like Greece an orthodox country,might take control of Greece itself.
After Palmerston’s death in1865 a much stricter “two party “system developed Tory and Liberal.After the Reform of 1832 a much larger number of people vote.In 1860 Jews were for the first time given equal rights with other citizens.
In 1872 voting was carried out in secret for the first time .People can vote freely and without fear.Democracy grew quickly.In 1884 a ,,Co-operative Movement” was started.It self-help was a powerful way in which the working class gained self-confidence in spite of its weak position.
In 1868 the first congress of trade unions met in Manchester, representing 118,000 members.The trade unions mixture of worker struggle and desire to work democratically within Parliament led eventually to the foundation of the Labour Party.
The machinery of modern government was set up.The army was reorganised.Local government in towns and counties was reorganised to make sure of good government and proper services for the people.In 1867 the first move was made to introduce free and compulsory education for children.
There had been a "middle class" in Britain for hundreds of years. During the eighteen and nineteenth century the middle class had increase, including greater differences of wealth, social position, kind of work and also including the commercial classes. Alongside the businessmen associated with the growth of manufacturing, the period saw the increased numbers of small entrepreneurs.
During the 18 th and 19 th century, Britain fought several wars in order to protect its trade routes and occupy new territories. It fought wars all over the world, managing to form colonies in Africa, America and the Sudan.
From the 1830s there had been growing concern at the rapidly increasing population of Britain. As a result, there was marked increase in settlement in Canada, Australia and New Zealand from the 1840s onwards.
By the end of the 19 th century, Britain controlled the oceans and much of the land areas of the world. But in the end of 20 th century the empire had started to become a heavy load ,when the colonies had begun to demand their freedom .
One important step back to popularity was de publication in 1868 of the Queen’s book “Our life in the Highlands” which was the queen’s own diary, with drawings ,of her life with Prince Albert at Balmoral , her castle in the Scottish Highlands.
Wales had fewer problems than either Scotland or Ireland. Its population grew from half a million in 1800 to over two million by 1900.In south Wales there were rich coal mines. A huge number of people, between two-thirds and three-quarters of the total Welsh population, moved into the southeast corner of the country.
The parliamentary reforms of the nineteenth century gave Wales a new voice. As soon as they were allowed to vote, the Welsh workers got rid of the Tories and the landowning families who had represented them for 300 years.
Scotland was also divided between a new industrialised area, around Glasgow and Edinburgh, and the Highland and Lowland areas. The clearances in the Highlands continued. Many old clan lands were sold to new landowners who had no previous connection with the Highlands.
But while this feeling was growing, Ireland suffered the worst disaster in its entire history. For three years, 1845, 1846 and 1847, the potato crop, which was the main food of the poor, failed. In these three years 1.5 million died from hunger. The government in London failed to realise the seriousness of the problem.
Charles Parnell, a Protestant Irish Mp, demanded fuller rights for the Irish people. When most Irish were able to vote fro the first time in 1885, eighty-six members of Parnell’s Irish party were elected to Parliament.