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World Energy Outlook 2010
 

World Energy Outlook 2010

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International Energy Agency

International Energy Agency

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    World Energy Outlook 2010 World Energy Outlook 2010 Presentation Transcript

    • World Energy Outlook 2010Washington, D.C.3 December 2010 © OECD/IEA 2010
    • The context:a time of unprecedented uncertainty The worst of the global economic crisis appears to be over – but is the recovery sustainable? Oil demand & supply are becoming less sensitive to price – what does this mean for future price movements? Natural gas markets are in the midst of a revolution – will it herald a golden era for gas? Copenhagen Accord & G-20 subsidy reforms are key advances – but do they go far enough & will they be fully implemented? China & other emerging economies will shape the global energy future – where will their policy decisions lead us? © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Recent policy commitments,if implemented, would make a difference World primary energy demand by region in the New Policies Scenario 18 000 Mtoe Rest of world 16 000 China 14 000 OECD 12 000 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 Global energy use grows by 36%, with non-OECD countries – led by China, where demand surges by 75% – accounting for almost all of the increase © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Emerging economies dominatethe growth in demand for all fuels Incremental primary energy demand in the New Policies Scenario, 2008-2035 OECD Coal China Oil Rest of world Gas Nuclear Hydro Other renewables - 600 - 300 0 300 600 900 1 200 1 500 Mtoe Demand for all types of energy increases in non-OECD countries, while demand for coal & oil declines in the OECD © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Fossil-Fossil-fuel subsidies are distortingprice signals Economic value of fossil-fuel consumption subsidies by country, 2009 70 ElectricityBillion dollars (generated from 60 fossil fuels) Gas 50 Oil Coal 40 30 20 10 0 Turkmenistan Uzbekistan South Africa Bangladesh Kazakhstan Venezuela Saudi Arabia Indonesia Argentina Thailand Pakistan Malaysia Mexico Ukraine Algeria Kuwait Russia Egypt China India Qatar Libya UAE Iran Iraq Fossil-fuel consumption subsidies amounted to $312 billion in 2009, down from $558 billion in 2008, with the bulk of the fall due to lower international prices © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Booming demand for mobility in theemerging economies drives up oil use Passenger vehicles in the New Policies Scenario 1 600 Million China 1 400 Other non-OECD 1 200 United States 1 000 Other OECD 800 600 400 200 0 1980 1990 2000 2008 2020 2035 The global car fleet will continue to surge as more & more people in China & other emerging economies buy a car, overshadowing modest growth in the OECD © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Oil production becomes less crude World oil production by type in the New Policies Scenario 100 mb/d Unconventional oil 80 Natural gas liquids Crude oil - fields yet 60 to be developed or found Crude oil – currently 40 producing fields Total crude oil 20 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 Global oil production reaches 96 mb/d in 2035 on the back of rising output of natural gas liquids & unconventional oil, as crude oil production plateaus © OECD/IEA 2010
    • More oil from fewer producers Incremental oil production by key country in the New Policies Scenario, 2009-2035 Saudi Arabia OPEC Iraq Non-OPEC Brazil Kazakhstan Canada Venezuela UAE Kuwait Iran Qatar Nigeria Libya Algeria 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 mb/dProduction rises most in Saudi Arabia & Iraq, helping to push OPEC’s market share from 41% today to 52% by 2035, a level last seen prior to the first oil shock of 1973-1974 © OECD/IEA 2010
    • A golden age for gas? Gas is set to play a key role in meeting the world’s energy needs > demand rises by 44% to 2035, led by China & Middle East Unconventional gas accounts for 35% of the increase in global supply to 2035, with new non-US producers emerging Gas glut will peak soon, but may dissipate only very slowly The glut will keep pressure on gas exporters to move away from oil-price indexation, notably in Europe Lower prices could lead to stronger demand for gas, backing out renewables & coal in power generation © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Coal remains the backbone of globalelectricity generation Coal-fired electricity generation by region in the New Policies Scenario 12 000 TWh China 10 000 India Other non-OECD 8 000 OECD 6 000 4 000 2 000 0 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2035A drop in coal-fired generation in the OECD is offset by big increases elsewhere, especiallyChina, where 600 GW of new capacity exceeds the current capacity of the US, EU & Japan © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Renewables enter the mainstream…. Renewable primary energy demand in the New Policies Scenario OECD Pacific 2008 Africa 2035 India Brazil China United States European Union 0 100 200 300 400 Mtoe The use of renewable energy triples between 2008 & 2035, driven by the power sector where their share in electricity supply rises from 19% in 2008 to 32% in 2035 © OECD/IEA 2010
    • ….but only if there is enoughgovernment support Annual global support for renewables in the New Policies Scenario 210 Billion dollars (2009) Biofuels 180 Renewables-based electricity 150 120 n 90 60 30 0 2007 2008 2009 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035Government support remains the key driver – rising from $57 billion in 2009 to $205 billion in 2035 – but higher fossil-fuel prices & declining investment costs also spur growth © OECD/IEA 2010
    • China becomes the market leaderin low-carbon technologies low- China’s share of cumulative global additions to 2035 for selected technologies 30% Capacity additions 105 GW Passenger car sales 335 GW 20% 8.5 million 85 GW vehicles h l 10% 0% Solar PV Wind Nuclear Electric & plug-in hybrids Given the sheer scale of China’s market, its push to expand the role of low-carbon energytechnologies is poised to play a key role in driving down costs, to the benefit of all countries © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Caspian energy riches could enhanceglobal energy security Caspian oil & gas outlook in the New Policies Scenario 6 350 bcmmb/d 5 300 250 4 200 3 150 2 100 1 50 0 0 2000 2009 2020 2035 2000 2009 2020 2035 Oil net exports Inland oil consumption Gas net exports Inland gas consumption Kazakhstan drives an increase in Caspian oil production to 5.2 mb/d by 2035, while Turkmenistan & Azerbaijan push up gas production to over 310 bcm © OECD/IEA 2010
    • The 450 Scenario:a roadmap from 3.5°C to 2°C 3.5° 2° The 450 Scenario sets out an energy pathway consistent with limiting the increase in temperature to 2°C Assumes vigorous implementation of Copenhagen Accord pledges to 2020 & much stronger action thereafter The failure of the Copenhagen Accord pledges: pledges > As many lack transparency, there is 3.9 Gt of uncertainty over the level of abatement pledged to 2020 > As many lack ambition, the cost of achieving the 2° C goal has increased by $1 trillion in 2010-2030 compared with WEO-2009 © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Achieving the 2°C goal will require rapid 2°decarbonisation of global energy Average annual change in CO2 intensity in the 450 scenario 1990-2008 2008-2020 2020-2035 0% -1% -2% 2% -3% -4% A four-fold increase needed -5% -6%Carbon intensity would have to fall at twice the rate of 1990-2008 in the period 2008-2020 & almost four times faster in 2020-2035 © OECD/IEA 2010
    • A fundamental change is neededin power generation Share of world electricity generation by type and scenario 100% Low-carbon generation in the NPS 80% Additional low-carbon generation in the 450 Scenario 60% Fossil-fuel fired generation g in the 450 Scenario 40% 20% 0% 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035Low-carbon technologies account for over three-quarters of global power generation by 2035 in the 450 Scenario, a four-fold increase on today © OECD/IEA 2010
    • … and also in transport Sales of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles in the 450 Scenario Million 70 Plug-in hybrids 60 Electric vehicles 50 40 30 20 10 0 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035Plug-in hybrids & electric vehicles reach 39% of new sales by 2035, making a big contribution to emissions abatement – China becomes the top advanced car manufacturer © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Climate policies can improve oil security World oil demand by scenario 100 New Policies Scenario mb/d 96 450 Scenario 92 88 84 80 2009 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 Oil demand peaks at 88 mb/d before 2020 & falls to 81 mb/d in 2035, with a plunge in OECD demand more than offsetting continuing growth in non-OECD demand © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Number of people without access to electricity(million) 1.4 billion people lack access to electricity – achieving universal modern energy access requires investment of only $36 billion per year over the next two decades © OECD/IEA 2010
    • Concluding remarks Recently announced policies can make a difference, but fall well short of what is needed for a secure & sustainable energy future  Lack of ambition in Copenhagen has increased the cost of achieving the 2°C goal & made it less likely to happen The age of cheap oil is over, though policy action could bring lower international prices than would otherwise be the case Stronger penetration of natural gas can have profound implications for energy markets and environment Renewables are entering the mainstream, but long-term support is needed to boost their competitiveness Getting the prices right, by phasing-out fossil-fuel subsidies, is a crucial measure to cut energy demand © OECD/IEA 2010