Events Versus ProjectsProjects have been similarly defined to events. A project is ‘a temporaryendeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service’ (PMI,2008)Events and projects are both : Events unlike projects are: Executed and consumed simultaneouslyTemporary Salem et al., 2004)Unique outputs Co-created with participants and adjustments are made during executionExecuted by teams (Tum, 2006)Outcome based. Executed on specific dates that cannot be adjusted
Using Project Management for Event Management (1) Managing events encompasses:Coordination & Improving accountability &Communication external audit • Event Managers are• Events require the coordination increasingly called upon to of a group of stakeholders, account for their activities each with distinct needs (Ali- (Adema and Roehl, 2009) Knight et al., 2009) • Standards and guidelines are• Project management can used to minimize the impact of activities and to ensure provide a robust set of tools for sustainability integrating and disseminating event information and supports • By adopting formal processes, documentation can be coordination processes generated that record actions taken and their rationale
Using Project Management for Event Management(2)Event Managers have the task of ensuringthat the event meets expectations and thatprocesses are efficient and transparent• This is determined by: 1. Achievement of event objectives : • Event objectives shape all subsequent activity Event goals 2. Utilizing event management processes that ensure efficiency and effectiveness (Baccarini, 1999): • Management of event characteristics - cost, time and quality
Event Project Management Model Feasibility Viability Determined by: Determined by:- Components of Stakeholder -Budget the event constraints Expectations -Desired level of -Expected profit Must be managed performance returns) and incorporated-Means of supply into the event outcome Desirability -Builds enthusiasm for stakeholders involved - Differentiates the event from competitors
Event Project Cycle (Silvers and Nelson, 2009) Initiation Planning Mobilizing Staging Closing Input •Event Input Input Input Input Environment •Resource •Resource •Resource •Resource • Stakeholder Commitment for Commitment for Commitment for Commitment for Needs Planning Implementation Executing Closure•Event Knowledge •Event Description • Plans •Run Sheet Database •Business Case Process Process Process Process Process •Generate •Resource •Mobilize •Execute Event •Summarize event Alternatives Planning Resources Activities lessons learned •Select Event •Time Planning •Monitor Suppliers following Run •Dissolve Event Concept •Risk Management •Promote Event Sheet Team•Create Business •Review Business •Monitor Event •Transfer Event Case for Event Case Activities Assets •Review Run Sheet Output Output Output Output Output •Event •Resource Plan • Pre Event •Event Evaluation •Update Event Description •Monitoring and evaluation report Report Knowledge •Business Case Evaluation plan •Updated Run Database •Schedule Sheet •Run Sheet
Event Processes (1)• Phase 1 – Initiation: The goal is to identify all potential ideas and determine which one is best suited to meeting the event’s objectives – Initiation inputs: after a macro analysis is conducted organizers must then identify stakeholders and understand their particular interests – Common event stakeholder categories: • Sponsors – provide resources to execute event • The Media – helps to build anticipation for the event • Attendees – organizers must ensure that attendee expectations are met or exceeded • Community – consultations are necessary to ensure that benefits are maximized and negative impacts are minimized • Event organization – the event team is an important stakeholder
Event Processes (2)• Phase 1 – Initiation continued… – Initiation activities: When developing event concepts, the 5W’s framework from Goldblatt (2005) is a useful structuring device: 1. Why? Or the purpose of the event 2. Who? Or the specific stakeholders that will be affected by the outcomes 3. When? Or the date(s) on which the event is held 4. Where? Or the location of the event 5. What? Or the details of the event – Within this framework, it is possible to generate a range of ideas that will meet event objectives – The generated options are assessed using the criteria for feasibility, viability and desirability
Event Processes (3)• Phase 1 – Initiation continued… – Initiation outputs: The event description is now converted into a detailed description or scope of works. This should identify: • Internal constraints – related directly to the event and can be monitored using the feasibility, viability and desirability dimensions • External constraints – factors imposed on the event such as legal requirements, suppliers and competitors
Event Processes (4)• Phase 2 – Planning: This stage elaborates the selected idea and determines the resources required to deliver. Some of the details include: – Product breakdown structure – Work schedules and deadlines – Budgets and cash flow – Areas of high risk, uncertainty and contingency plans – Personnel plans and resource utilization plans – Procurement plans – Documentation management plans
Event Processes (6)• Phase 2 – Planning continued ... – Define event activities required to deliver the event – Define resource requirements – once resource requirements have been established, the event manager can plan how to acquire them – Estimate duration and effort for event – using the WBS, the party responsible for executing the activity should provide an estimate for each work package based on available historical information or expert judgement – Sequencing of work packages – the event team needs to identify the sequence of dependent work packages in order to determine the overall time required – Scheduling – a Gantt chart is utilized to prepare a draft schedule – Function or run sheet – used to show sequence of activities during event staging (Tum et al., 2006)
Event Processes (7)Phase 2 – Planning continued…• Costing and budgeting – the WBS can be used to tabulate costs. For extensive events that require extensive preparation, an event cash flow determining financing requirements during preparation is also necessary• Risk management plan – the WBS can also be used to identify risks and develop proactive measures to treat with them. The activities required to mitigate risks should be used to update the WBS, flowchart, schedule and budget
Event Processes (8)• Phase 3 – Mobilizing/Implementing: In this phase, event setup activities are performed. At this stage the event management team: – Ensures that the event scope is delivered in a manner that meets stakeholder expectations and within cost requirements – Monitors and controls activities to prevent unwanted outcomes – Evaluates performance against plans and communicates progress to stakeholders – Takes corrective action to remedy unwanted or varying outcomes – Evaluates completed work packages to ensure that performance requirements are met
Event Processes (9)• Phase 4 – Staging/Event Execution: The event is staged – At the end of this process an event evaluation report is produced• Phase 5 – Closing Process: Evaluation of the entire process is done and lessons learned from event activities are captured – All documentation produced from the event, are archived – The event team reviews event documents to determine any lessons learned. These are compiled in a report which can be referred to to guide planning for future events – All financial issues related to the event are resolved – Any assets created specifically for the event, are transferred to the relevant operating authority
Summary• The benefits of applying project management concepts to events, in many ways, outweighs the limitations• Even managers have a number of beneficial tools available to them that are derived from project management principles and these lend themselves well to achieving an efficient and effective event• Selecting and implementing the most effective solution to manage an event project, can simplify the event execution process• Reviewing the management of past events to identify lessons learned is often an overlooked step that is be vital to the success of future work
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.