CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION EN SANIDAD ANIMAL (CISA-INIA), Valdeolmos,                          Madrid, SpainControl eradicati...
I. Introduction
I- IntroductionSince no vaccine against ASF was available,the program was based on:     Detection of ASF sero+         an...
I- Introduction      Key components of the program:1. Network of mobile vets field teams2. Serological testing of animals3...
HistoryASF appeared in Spain in 1960           Spread within a undeveloped          livestock sector           60s: Span...
Epidemiology Initially, ASF manifested acute clinical & higmortalitiy Later, became to an endemic disease: mild-to-subcl...
Swine production sector in 80’s In spite of ASF, strong development pork-producing sector Swine production increased fro...
Geographic distribution of Spanish pig population                                Production systems:                      ...
Economic consequences due to ASF                           Economics hardships on pig                            producer...
IIIKey Actions
III- Key Actions1. Network of mobile vets field teams (127 vets)2. Serological surveillance of 100% of pig farms3. Improve...
III- Key Actions1. Network of mobile vets field teams (127 vets)    Sanitary control of holdings    Animal identificatio...
III- Key Actions2. Serological surveillance of 100% of pig farms   Main needs:    A simple, fast, accurate & specific dia...
III- Key Actions3. Improvement in animal holding facilities    1st objective: to improve sanitary barriers to prevent de ...
III- Key Actions    4. Elimination of all ASF outbreaks (stamping out)          All pigs in infected herds immediately sl...
III- Key ActionsProcedures once outbreak identified (I): Depopulation by slaugthering all pigs in the affected herd Clea...
III- Key ActionsProcedures once outbreak identified (II): Sanitary zone of a few hundred km radius Movement of animals, ...
III- Key ActionsProcedures once outbreak identified (III):             After cleaning and disinfection, introduction     ...
III- Key Actions            Transmission between herds                Special Attention ! Biosafety and sanitary measures...
IVRestricted Areas               10 Km        3 Km
IV- Restricted Areas Protection zone 3 km radius All pigs of all herds serologicalllyscreened immediately after confirm...
V. Livestock Movement           & Animal Identification
V- Livestock Movement & Animal Identification Movement of animals   Vehicles required to be washed and disinfected   An...
V- Livestock Movement & Animal Identification Register & Identification  Pig farmer census was improved & completed  Pr...
V- Livestock Movement & Animal Identification Involvement and participation of farmers  Wide publicity campaign in the m...
VIRegionalization
The erradication programe evolves into            regionalization
The erradication programe evolves into            regionalization
ASF Situation in 1985Portu                           Infected Areag                           Surveillance Areaa          ...
VI- Regionalization As a result of the progress…   1989 ECC authorizes dividing Spain into 2 regions:       ASF-free re...
ASF Situation in Dec 1989Portu                               Infected Areag                               Surveillance Are...
VI- Regionalization Since 1990:  No Outbreaks in certains parts of Infected Region      (although some serological evide...
ASF Situation in Feb 1991Po                       No Outbreaks since 1990rtu                               Infected Areag ...
VI- Regionalization Free Area Serological sampling of 5% sow herds                   (each year)    Samples from adjace...
VI- Regionalization Infected Area  In all breeding herd:     30% of breeding animals tested (twice per year)  In open/...
VI- Regionalization Special measures in Surveillance & Infected   Destruction of the unsanitary animal production  facil...
ASF Situation in July 1993Portu                                Infected Areag                                Surveillance ...
ASF Situation in July 1994Portu                                Infected Areag                                Surveillance ...
VII. Final Phase:International Coordination
VII- Final Phase  The epidemiological situation presented needed to             join efforts with Portugal The remaining ...
ASF Situation in Nov 1994Portu                               Infected Areag                               Surveillance Are...
ASF Situation in Dec 1994Portu                               Infected Areag                               Surveillance Are...
ASF Situation in Jul 1995Portu                               Infected Areag                               Surveillance Are...
ASF Situation in Dec 1995              In Dec 1995:Po    Spain was declared officially freer               of ASF !!!tu   ...
ASF Eradication:  Conclusions
ConclusionsGreat effort on the Agriculture Ministry had to be done:           To create the necessary infrastructure     ...
Vaccine was not essential for ASF           eradication
AcknowledgmentsLivestock Department of Ministry of Agriculture of Spain         Dr. Sánchez-Vizcaíno (Fac. Vet. UCM)      ...
Spanish pig population in 1995                             The 2nd producer                             in Europe:Po      ...
Spanish pig population in 2008                            The 2nd producer                            in Europe:Po        ...
Prevention strategies for ASFQUARANTINE is the first line of defence,EDUCATION is the most important resource,            ...
Thank you,see you later !
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Control; the spanish eperience c.gallardo

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Control; the spanish eperience c.gallardo

  1. 1. CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION EN SANIDAD ANIMAL (CISA-INIA), Valdeolmos, Madrid, SpainControl eradication models; the Spanish experience Dr. Carmina Gallardo (gallardo@inia.es)
  2. 2. I. Introduction
  3. 3. I- IntroductionSince no vaccine against ASF was available,the program was based on:  Detection of ASF sero+ and carriers  Enforcement of strict sanitary measures
  4. 4. I- Introduction Key components of the program:1. Network of mobile vets field teams2. Serological testing of animals3. Improvements in sanitary infrastructures4. Elimination of ASF outbreaks, identification & slaugther of carriers5. Vet control of swine movements with individual identification of every animal
  5. 5. HistoryASF appeared in Spain in 1960  Spread within a undeveloped livestock sector  60s: Spanish economy began to take off  In a few years, from back yard to intensive pig productions systems
  6. 6. Epidemiology Initially, ASF manifested acute clinical & higmortalitiy Later, became to an endemic disease: mild-to-subclinical & mortality below 5%(lab confirmation was required)  Prof. Sanchez-Botija published in 1963 that ASFV could be transmitted to pigs by ticks (Ornithodoris erraticus)  O. erraticus was common in Southwestern regions where the disease was endemic and the outdoor production of Iberian pigs was located
  7. 7. Swine production sector in 80’s In spite of ASF, strong development pork-producing sector Swine production increased from 6m head (1960) to16.7m head (1989) 200.000 employed 1.2m tons of meat (of which 50% consumed as manufactured products)
  8. 8. Geographic distribution of Spanish pig population Production systems: Intensive Extensive
  9. 9. Economic consequences due to ASF  Economics hardships on pig producers  Barriers to trade in live pigs, fresh meat & pigs products  Great cost on ASF control measures (11.4 m euros in 1983)In March 1985 the Government approved a “Coordinated Program to eradicate ASF.” Initial financial support of 43m euros by European Community
  10. 10. IIIKey Actions
  11. 11. III- Key Actions1. Network of mobile vets field teams (127 vets)2. Serological surveillance of 100% of pig farms3. Improvement in animal holding facilities4. Elimination of all ASF outbreaks (stamping out)
  12. 12. III- Key Actions1. Network of mobile vets field teams (127 vets)  Sanitary control of holdings  Animal identification  Epidemiological surveys  Samples collection  Serological control at abattoirs  Epidemiological investigations  Promotions of Sanitary Associations* *ADS: Asociación de Defensa Sanitaria (Animal Health Protection Asociation)
  13. 13. III- Key Actions2. Serological surveillance of 100% of pig farms Main needs:  A simple, fast, accurate & specific diagnostic test (Indirect ELISA)  A Reference Laboratory to harmonize the techniques (INIA)  A net of Regional Laboratories for serological surveillance (13 labs) At the beginind:  Indirect ELISA to screen samples  IFA to confirm results In the final stages:  INIA developed and improved ELISA (new soluble Ag with all ASFV proteins)  INIA developed Immunoblotting assay as confirmatory instead of IFA Consequences  New ELISA: Better recognitions of carriers  New Immunoblotting: Easier and more objective interpretation  New Immunoblotting: Better recognition of weak positives
  14. 14. III- Key Actions3. Improvement in animal holding facilities  1st objective: to improve sanitary barriers to prevent de spread of the disease  Hygiene measures: fences, sanitary enclosures, safe disposal of manure… For this purpose:  Loans at low interest rate were offered  More than 2175 holdings were improved (1985-95)
  15. 15. III- Key Actions 4. Elimination of all ASF outbreaks (stamping out)  All pigs in infected herds immediately slaughtered  Samples collection for virological & epidemiological investigations  Immediate and adequate compensation to the pig producersSTAMPING OUT is:  A resource-intensive method of eradication  The most cost-effective method  Allow countries to declare ASF free in the shortestSTAMPING OUT must be:  Applied for a period long enough to eradicate  Accompanied by public awareness campaigns
  16. 16. III- Key ActionsProcedures once outbreak identified (I): Depopulation by slaugthering all pigs in the affected herd Cleaning and disinfection of all facilities during 1 month afterdepopulation Extermination of insects and rodents Removal and destruction of allanimal feed and animal products Cleansing of manure pits by2% sodium hydroxide Incineration of straw bedding
  17. 17. III- Key ActionsProcedures once outbreak identified (II): Sanitary zone of a few hundred km radius Movement of animals, products, feed and waste into orout the sanitary zone were restricted Movement of people to and fromthe area were restricted After implementation measures were gradually lifted(although some specific were maintainedat least 3 months)
  18. 18. III- Key ActionsProcedures once outbreak identified (III):  After cleaning and disinfection, introduction of sero- sentinels  Number of sentinels equivalent to 10-20% of the population  If after 1 month don’t become sick: serological test  If neg, authorities allow the repopulation of farm (from status controlled farm)  Restocking procedures usually completed within 3 months after entry of sentinels
  19. 19. III- Key Actions Transmission between herds Special Attention ! Biosafety and sanitary measures to avoid transmissionbetween herds played an important role in the eradication Epidemiological surveysindicated that 84% in 1989 and93% in 1990, neighbor contact asthe most likely source of the newoutbreaks
  20. 20. IVRestricted Areas 10 Km 3 Km
  21. 21. IV- Restricted Areas Protection zone 3 km radius All pigs of all herds serologicalllyscreened immediately after confirmation Movement prohibited for 30 days 10 Km Surveillance zone 10 km radius 3 Km Screening 30 days after cleaning &disinfection of infected holding Movement prohibited for 30 days
  22. 22. V. Livestock Movement & Animal Identification
  23. 23. V- Livestock Movement & Animal Identification Movement of animals  Vehicles required to be washed and disinfected  Animals in transit previously identified & provided with veterinary certificate (stating origin & sanitary situation) Abattoir  Vets checking the sanitary certificate (before slaughtering)  Life pigs inspected antemortem & tissues posmortem  Sanitary certificates retained at least 1 year  Manufacturers retained identification of meat origin
  24. 24. V- Livestock Movement & Animal Identification Register & Identification  Pig farmer census was improved & completed  Producers & manufacturers register was improved  Infected farms register was daily updated  Annual Report of the Program development issued
  25. 25. V- Livestock Movement & Animal Identification Involvement and participation of farmers  Wide publicity campaign in the mass media  Encouraging the creation of Health Protection Group  Lidership role in the eradication program (voluntary)  Common approach against ASF  Serological surveillance of breeders  Correct sanitary infrastructures  Sanitary suitable program for ASF  Aids from Administration  1990: 1,000 HPG created grouping 41,500 farmers & 1m animals  A register was created classifying farms (health status & facilities)
  26. 26. VIRegionalization
  27. 27. The erradication programe evolves into regionalization
  28. 28. The erradication programe evolves into regionalization
  29. 29. ASF Situation in 1985Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  30. 30. VI- Regionalization As a result of the progress…  1989 ECC authorizes dividing Spain into 2 regions:  ASF-free region (largest part of the country & 70% of pig population)  ASF-infected region  Consequently prohibition of trade was lifted (from ASF- free regions)
  31. 31. ASF Situation in Dec 1989Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  32. 32. VI- Regionalization Since 1990:  No Outbreaks in certains parts of Infected Region (although some serological evidence observed in certain herds)  Outbreaks continued in others areas until 1993 The virus persistence was due to:  Production facilites lack of sanitation and biosafety features  Presence of soft ticks (Ornitodorus erraticus)  Uncontrolled wild boar population
  33. 33. ASF Situation in Feb 1991Po No Outbreaks since 1990rtu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  34. 34. VI- Regionalization Free Area Serological sampling of 5% sow herds (each year)  Samples from adjacent areas to surveillance and infected zones Serological sampling of 5% wild boar population (eachyear)  Wild boar killed during hunting season Surveillance Area In each breeding herd:  30% of breeding animals tested (each year) In open/mixed production systems:  50% of breeding animals in all herd tested (each year) In fattening herds:  All pigs more than 40kg in all herd tested once
  35. 35. VI- Regionalization Infected Area  In all breeding herd:  30% of breeding animals tested (twice per year)  In open/mixed production systems:  50% of breeding animals in all herds tested (twice per year)  In fattening herds:  All pigs more than 40kg in all herds tested (once per year)  Wild boars:  All killed during hunting season had to be virological & serological examinated
  36. 36. VI- Regionalization Special measures in Surveillance & Infected  Destruction of the unsanitary animal production facilities  Serological surveillance by ELISA of pig at risk of being bitten by ticks  Construction of metal fences of 100 m radio around animal facilities
  37. 37. ASF Situation in July 1993Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  38. 38. ASF Situation in July 1994Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  39. 39. VII. Final Phase:International Coordination
  40. 40. VII- Final Phase The epidemiological situation presented needed to join efforts with Portugal The remaining infected areas inboth countries were located aroundthe border Spain/Portugal P o r t Jul 94-Dec 96: Cost of serological utesting, slaughter & destruction, g acleaning & disinfection, 50% funded lby EC (7.2 m euros)
  41. 41. ASF Situation in Nov 1994Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  42. 42. ASF Situation in Dec 1994Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  43. 43. ASF Situation in Jul 1995Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  44. 44. ASF Situation in Dec 1995 In Dec 1995:Po Spain was declared officially freer of ASF !!!tu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  45. 45. ASF Eradication: Conclusions
  46. 46. ConclusionsGreat effort on the Agriculture Ministry had to be done:  To create the necessary infrastructure  To train higly qualified personnel  To coordinate with Regional authoritiesConsequently:  Since 1987, no new outbreaks in the areas producing confined systems  Since 1987, outbreaks appeared only in Southwest (extensive systems)  Since 1994, no new outbreak appeared anywhere in Spain
  47. 47. Vaccine was not essential for ASF eradication
  48. 48. AcknowledgmentsLivestock Department of Ministry of Agriculture of Spain Dr. Sánchez-Vizcaíno (Fac. Vet. UCM) Dr. Marisa Arias (CISA-INIA)
  49. 49. Spanish pig population in 1995 The 2nd producer in Europe:Po  22.4 m pigsrtu  2.5 m sowsgal
  50. 50. Spanish pig population in 2008 The 2nd producer in Europe:Po  25 m pigsrtu  2.6 m sowsgal
  51. 51. Prevention strategies for ASFQUARANTINE is the first line of defence,EDUCATION is the most important resource, in the prevention of ASF. ”Prevention is better than cure””
  52. 52. Thank you,see you later !

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