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Control; the spanish eperience c.gallardo
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Control; the spanish eperience c.gallardo

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  • 1. CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION EN SANIDAD ANIMAL (CISA-INIA), Valdeolmos, Madrid, SpainControl eradication models; the Spanish experience Dr. Carmina Gallardo (gallardo@inia.es)
  • 2. I. Introduction
  • 3. I- IntroductionSince no vaccine against ASF was available,the program was based on:  Detection of ASF sero+ and carriers  Enforcement of strict sanitary measures
  • 4. I- Introduction Key components of the program:1. Network of mobile vets field teams2. Serological testing of animals3. Improvements in sanitary infrastructures4. Elimination of ASF outbreaks, identification & slaugther of carriers5. Vet control of swine movements with individual identification of every animal
  • 5. HistoryASF appeared in Spain in 1960  Spread within a undeveloped livestock sector  60s: Spanish economy began to take off  In a few years, from back yard to intensive pig productions systems
  • 6. Epidemiology Initially, ASF manifested acute clinical & higmortalitiy Later, became to an endemic disease: mild-to-subclinical & mortality below 5%(lab confirmation was required)  Prof. Sanchez-Botija published in 1963 that ASFV could be transmitted to pigs by ticks (Ornithodoris erraticus)  O. erraticus was common in Southwestern regions where the disease was endemic and the outdoor production of Iberian pigs was located
  • 7. Swine production sector in 80’s In spite of ASF, strong development pork-producing sector Swine production increased from 6m head (1960) to16.7m head (1989) 200.000 employed 1.2m tons of meat (of which 50% consumed as manufactured products)
  • 8. Geographic distribution of Spanish pig population Production systems: Intensive Extensive
  • 9. Economic consequences due to ASF  Economics hardships on pig producers  Barriers to trade in live pigs, fresh meat & pigs products  Great cost on ASF control measures (11.4 m euros in 1983)In March 1985 the Government approved a “Coordinated Program to eradicate ASF.” Initial financial support of 43m euros by European Community
  • 10. IIIKey Actions
  • 11. III- Key Actions1. Network of mobile vets field teams (127 vets)2. Serological surveillance of 100% of pig farms3. Improvement in animal holding facilities4. Elimination of all ASF outbreaks (stamping out)
  • 12. III- Key Actions1. Network of mobile vets field teams (127 vets)  Sanitary control of holdings  Animal identification  Epidemiological surveys  Samples collection  Serological control at abattoirs  Epidemiological investigations  Promotions of Sanitary Associations* *ADS: Asociación de Defensa Sanitaria (Animal Health Protection Asociation)
  • 13. III- Key Actions2. Serological surveillance of 100% of pig farms Main needs:  A simple, fast, accurate & specific diagnostic test (Indirect ELISA)  A Reference Laboratory to harmonize the techniques (INIA)  A net of Regional Laboratories for serological surveillance (13 labs) At the beginind:  Indirect ELISA to screen samples  IFA to confirm results In the final stages:  INIA developed and improved ELISA (new soluble Ag with all ASFV proteins)  INIA developed Immunoblotting assay as confirmatory instead of IFA Consequences  New ELISA: Better recognitions of carriers  New Immunoblotting: Easier and more objective interpretation  New Immunoblotting: Better recognition of weak positives
  • 14. III- Key Actions3. Improvement in animal holding facilities  1st objective: to improve sanitary barriers to prevent de spread of the disease  Hygiene measures: fences, sanitary enclosures, safe disposal of manure… For this purpose:  Loans at low interest rate were offered  More than 2175 holdings were improved (1985-95)
  • 15. III- Key Actions 4. Elimination of all ASF outbreaks (stamping out)  All pigs in infected herds immediately slaughtered  Samples collection for virological & epidemiological investigations  Immediate and adequate compensation to the pig producersSTAMPING OUT is:  A resource-intensive method of eradication  The most cost-effective method  Allow countries to declare ASF free in the shortestSTAMPING OUT must be:  Applied for a period long enough to eradicate  Accompanied by public awareness campaigns
  • 16. III- Key ActionsProcedures once outbreak identified (I): Depopulation by slaugthering all pigs in the affected herd Cleaning and disinfection of all facilities during 1 month afterdepopulation Extermination of insects and rodents Removal and destruction of allanimal feed and animal products Cleansing of manure pits by2% sodium hydroxide Incineration of straw bedding
  • 17. III- Key ActionsProcedures once outbreak identified (II): Sanitary zone of a few hundred km radius Movement of animals, products, feed and waste into orout the sanitary zone were restricted Movement of people to and fromthe area were restricted After implementation measures were gradually lifted(although some specific were maintainedat least 3 months)
  • 18. III- Key ActionsProcedures once outbreak identified (III):  After cleaning and disinfection, introduction of sero- sentinels  Number of sentinels equivalent to 10-20% of the population  If after 1 month don’t become sick: serological test  If neg, authorities allow the repopulation of farm (from status controlled farm)  Restocking procedures usually completed within 3 months after entry of sentinels
  • 19. III- Key Actions Transmission between herds Special Attention ! Biosafety and sanitary measures to avoid transmissionbetween herds played an important role in the eradication Epidemiological surveysindicated that 84% in 1989 and93% in 1990, neighbor contact asthe most likely source of the newoutbreaks
  • 20. IVRestricted Areas 10 Km 3 Km
  • 21. IV- Restricted Areas Protection zone 3 km radius All pigs of all herds serologicalllyscreened immediately after confirmation Movement prohibited for 30 days 10 Km Surveillance zone 10 km radius 3 Km Screening 30 days after cleaning &disinfection of infected holding Movement prohibited for 30 days
  • 22. V. Livestock Movement & Animal Identification
  • 23. V- Livestock Movement & Animal Identification Movement of animals  Vehicles required to be washed and disinfected  Animals in transit previously identified & provided with veterinary certificate (stating origin & sanitary situation) Abattoir  Vets checking the sanitary certificate (before slaughtering)  Life pigs inspected antemortem & tissues posmortem  Sanitary certificates retained at least 1 year  Manufacturers retained identification of meat origin
  • 24. V- Livestock Movement & Animal Identification Register & Identification  Pig farmer census was improved & completed  Producers & manufacturers register was improved  Infected farms register was daily updated  Annual Report of the Program development issued
  • 25. V- Livestock Movement & Animal Identification Involvement and participation of farmers  Wide publicity campaign in the mass media  Encouraging the creation of Health Protection Group  Lidership role in the eradication program (voluntary)  Common approach against ASF  Serological surveillance of breeders  Correct sanitary infrastructures  Sanitary suitable program for ASF  Aids from Administration  1990: 1,000 HPG created grouping 41,500 farmers & 1m animals  A register was created classifying farms (health status & facilities)
  • 26. VIRegionalization
  • 27. The erradication programe evolves into regionalization
  • 28. The erradication programe evolves into regionalization
  • 29. ASF Situation in 1985Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  • 30. VI- Regionalization As a result of the progress…  1989 ECC authorizes dividing Spain into 2 regions:  ASF-free region (largest part of the country & 70% of pig population)  ASF-infected region  Consequently prohibition of trade was lifted (from ASF- free regions)
  • 31. ASF Situation in Dec 1989Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  • 32. VI- Regionalization Since 1990:  No Outbreaks in certains parts of Infected Region (although some serological evidence observed in certain herds)  Outbreaks continued in others areas until 1993 The virus persistence was due to:  Production facilites lack of sanitation and biosafety features  Presence of soft ticks (Ornitodorus erraticus)  Uncontrolled wild boar population
  • 33. ASF Situation in Feb 1991Po No Outbreaks since 1990rtu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  • 34. VI- Regionalization Free Area Serological sampling of 5% sow herds (each year)  Samples from adjacent areas to surveillance and infected zones Serological sampling of 5% wild boar population (eachyear)  Wild boar killed during hunting season Surveillance Area In each breeding herd:  30% of breeding animals tested (each year) In open/mixed production systems:  50% of breeding animals in all herd tested (each year) In fattening herds:  All pigs more than 40kg in all herd tested once
  • 35. VI- Regionalization Infected Area  In all breeding herd:  30% of breeding animals tested (twice per year)  In open/mixed production systems:  50% of breeding animals in all herds tested (twice per year)  In fattening herds:  All pigs more than 40kg in all herds tested (once per year)  Wild boars:  All killed during hunting season had to be virological & serological examinated
  • 36. VI- Regionalization Special measures in Surveillance & Infected  Destruction of the unsanitary animal production facilities  Serological surveillance by ELISA of pig at risk of being bitten by ticks  Construction of metal fences of 100 m radio around animal facilities
  • 37. ASF Situation in July 1993Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  • 38. ASF Situation in July 1994Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  • 39. VII. Final Phase:International Coordination
  • 40. VII- Final Phase The epidemiological situation presented needed to join efforts with Portugal The remaining infected areas inboth countries were located aroundthe border Spain/Portugal P o r t Jul 94-Dec 96: Cost of serological utesting, slaughter & destruction, g acleaning & disinfection, 50% funded lby EC (7.2 m euros)
  • 41. ASF Situation in Nov 1994Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  • 42. ASF Situation in Dec 1994Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  • 43. ASF Situation in Jul 1995Portu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  • 44. ASF Situation in Dec 1995 In Dec 1995:Po Spain was declared officially freer of ASF !!!tu Infected Areag Surveillance Areaa Free Areal
  • 45. ASF Eradication: Conclusions
  • 46. ConclusionsGreat effort on the Agriculture Ministry had to be done:  To create the necessary infrastructure  To train higly qualified personnel  To coordinate with Regional authoritiesConsequently:  Since 1987, no new outbreaks in the areas producing confined systems  Since 1987, outbreaks appeared only in Southwest (extensive systems)  Since 1994, no new outbreak appeared anywhere in Spain
  • 47. Vaccine was not essential for ASF eradication
  • 48. AcknowledgmentsLivestock Department of Ministry of Agriculture of Spain Dr. Sánchez-Vizcaíno (Fac. Vet. UCM) Dr. Marisa Arias (CISA-INIA)
  • 49. Spanish pig population in 1995 The 2nd producer in Europe:Po  22.4 m pigsrtu  2.5 m sowsgal
  • 50. Spanish pig population in 2008 The 2nd producer in Europe:Po  25 m pigsrtu  2.6 m sowsgal
  • 51. Prevention strategies for ASFQUARANTINE is the first line of defence,EDUCATION is the most important resource, in the prevention of ASF. ”Prevention is better than cure””
  • 52. Thank you,see you later !