Arbor Day Foundation hardiness zones reflect warmer climate 1990 2006
Climate Change Projections
% of Human Population
Biodiversity is diminishing at a rate even faster than the last mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous Period, 65 mi...
Foreword by  Peter Raven
 
 
 
 
 
What role can we play in helping the problems facing our planet and our future?
1. Work for more species  diversity  in California’s urban forests
 
 
 
 
Origins of California ’s Urban Trees
California Native Trees in Municipal Forests <ul><li>9,100 species of plants in California </li></ul><ul><li>~6,000 native...
 
 
Evolutionary Relationships Among California ’s Commonly Cultivated Trees
Tree Species in the Urban Forest <ul><li>All phyla and 83% of orders with trees are represented in California </li></ul><u...
Diversity in Urban Forests J.C. Raulston’s Second Law of Landscape Plant Diversity: In any given region of the United Stat...
Diversity in Urban Forests Muller and Bornstein Arb. & Urb. For. 2010. 36(1): 18–27 309 species
Diversity in Municipal Forests <ul><li>188 – Average # of species on California municipality tree surveys </li></ul><ul><l...
 
Promote Diverse Urban Forests <ul><li>Diverse urban forests are more resilient to climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse...
2.  Learn  your trees and  teach   other people about them
 
“ The average person recognizes more than 1,000 corporate logos, but can identify fewer than 10 plants and animals native ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Promote Tree Knowledge <ul><li>Relearn the trees in your urban forest </li></ul><ul><li>Work on making your area’s tree in...
3. Promote a clear educational message about the  value  of trees
Life without trees is a lower quality life.
Trees Sequester and Store Carbon  Nowak 1994, USDA FS Technical Report, Radnor, PA, pp. 83-94
Trees Reduce Energy Consumption  Carver, Unger, and Parks, 2004, Environmental Management 34: 650-655
Trees Cool Cities  Wilson et. al., 2003, Remote Sensing of Environment 86: 303-321
More Trees = More Wildlife  Donnelly and Marzluff, 2006, Urban Ecosystems 9: 99-117
More Trees Correlate with Lower Crime  Kuo and Sullivan, 2001, Environment and Behavior 33: 343-367 & 543-571
More Trees Correlate with Lower Crime  Kuo and Sullivan, 2001, Environment and Behavior 33: 343-367 & 543-571
More Trees Correlate with Lower Crime  Kuo and Sullivan, 2001, Environment and Behavior 33: 343-367 & 543-571
Trees Promote Happiness  Fuller et. al., 2007, Biology Letters 3: 390-394
Life without trees is a lower quality life.
Summary <ul><li>Work for more  diversity  in California’s urban forests </li></ul><ul><li>Learn  your trees and  teach   o...
The beautiful trees that grace our neighborhoods did not sprout at random.  Tree-lined streets have been woven into a livi...
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  • Spent the last 4 years writing a flora of the urban trees in California Share information I learned during writing the book Put the urban forest in the context of environmental changes happening on the planet.
  • Climate change is real and now upon us. A general warming has occurred in the 16 years between the publication of the two most recent hardiness zones maps.
  • These figures show climate change projects for the next 100 or so years, and even the most conservatives projects show baseline climate temperatures continuing to rise. The map illustrates just how much warmer temperatures were in the decade (2000-2009) compared to average temperatures recorded between 1951 and 1980 (a common reference period for climate studies). The most extreme warming, shown in red, was in the Arctic. Very few areas saw cooler than average temperatures, shown in blue. Gray areas over parts of the Southern Ocean are places where temperatures were not recorded. The analysis, conducted by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York City, is based on temperatures recorded at meteorological (weather) stations around the world and satellite data over the oceans.
  • And human populations are becoming more and more urban. In 2008, global urban populations surpassed global populations of people living in rural areas.
  • We are also now in what could arguably be called a biodiversity crisis. Extinctions are taking place between 100 to 1,000 times higher than natural &amp;quot;background&amp;quot; extinction Some of these number and projects have caused many scientists to wonder if we are now in the 6 th mass extinction event.
  • Conservation of organisms and biodiversity is important Appreciation of organism is what leads to conservation Trees Among Us is about helping people appreciate organisms, by introducing them to the ones they live among. Giving organisms names and telling stories is the first step to helping people care about the natural world.
  • Why are urban trees the solution? Trees define the character of neighborhoods and landscapes. They are the most prominent and permanent landscape features. As populations become more urban, they sometimes only have access to the natural world through the urban forest. It’s natural history that is hard to ignore. You can think of California as one big arboretum Our urban environments are designed ecosystems, we choose what we plant there, and we can affect these ecosystems and help in conservation by the decisions we make.
  • This is the type of natural history that you cannot ignore.
  • Moreton bay fig at the amtrak station in Santa Barbara. It has an incredible form. 135 years old Knife edge butressing roots that go for 30 ft. Urban myth, postal code, In 1876 a visiting seaman presented a seedling of an Australian Moreton Bay Fig tree (Ficus macrophyllia) to a local girl who planted it at 201 State Street. When the girl moved away one year later, her friend Adeline Crabb relocated the tree to the corner of Chapala and Montecito (in Santa Barbara) on land then owned by the Southern Pacific Transportation Company.
  • Some trees are real survivors, planted long ago and the built landscape changes incredibly fast around them. Trees are living organisms and they have growing and expanding and reproducing around us, but at a different time frame.
  • I am going to suggest to 3 actions that we can take to help the urban forest alleviate our future problems (people who are invested in the urban forest)
  • California is a large state Our most populace cities are incredibly diverse But I’ll make a case to you that the urban forest in these cities is less diverse that it could be.
  • California is a large state Our most populace cities are incredibly diverse But I’ll make a case to you that the urban forest in these cities is less diverse that it could be.
  • Only some species o
  • The urban forest can help preserve biodiversity. The Monterey cypress genetic diversity is being conserved in the urban forest.
  • Narrow endemic in the wild in SW Australia. Being protected from extinction in the urban forest.
  • 2/3 are only found in 5 or fewer communities.
  • Lawrance M. Lesser
  • Throughout the book and individual species treatments, Boxes that categorize and identify different trees
  • Appropriate biology for appropriate planting areas – right tree right spot Natural history (names and stories) – engage people in trees by telling them stories about the species
  • Our urban environments are designed ecosystems, we choose what we plant there, and we can affect these ecosystems. There are so many different trees and this diversity is often hard for people to overcome.
  • Trees are living. Tree and they can come into conflict with urban infrastructure in the wrong situation. Often the removal of trees is controversial
  • Often controversial, large roots, dark canopies Could be worse
  • Could be worse
  • Moretone bay figs in Santa Monica
  • So many stories. Learning the stories and sharing the stories will promote interest.
  • (people who are invested in the urban forest)
  • These figures are reprinted from William Wilson’s “Constructed Climates”. The reference for the original primary papers are shown in blue at the bottom. A tree with 41-67 CM DHG has about 1000 KG of stored carbon and increases by 35 KG a year.
  • A study comparing different residential areas in IL showed that trees reduce summer energy consumption by about 25%.
  • Having full canopy cover provides cooling up to 10ºC. Neighborhoods with relatively low vegetation or % canopy cover are warmer.
  • This figure shows results of bird censusing in Seattle as correlated with tree density. In Seattle, at least, if you want birds, you need a minimum of 5 trees per acre.
  • Results from a 2 year study at the Ida B. Wells housing project in Chicago. More people engage in social activities when more trees are present.
  • People have fewer experiences of aggression and violence when trees are around.
  • Overall: Incidents of crime are lower in areas with more trees.
  • In UK people surveyed on a number of measurements of well being and people’s perception of well being increased when there were more trees around. Measure on a questionnaire: “the ability to think and gain perspective” and “the degree of feeling unique or different through association with a particular place”
  • Summary of 3 ways we can work to have the urban forest alleviate some of the environmental and social problems we are facing.
  • work for diversity, learn the trees, and promote the urban forest
  • Matt Ritter

    1. 2. Arbor Day Foundation hardiness zones reflect warmer climate 1990 2006
    2. 3. Climate Change Projections
    3. 4. % of Human Population
    4. 5. Biodiversity is diminishing at a rate even faster than the last mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous Period, 65 million years ago, with possibly two-thirds of existing terrestrial species likely to become extinct by the end of this century — the vast majority of them unknown to science at the time they disappear - Peter Raven, 2011
    5. 6. Foreword by Peter Raven
    6. 12. What role can we play in helping the problems facing our planet and our future?
    7. 13. 1. Work for more species diversity in California’s urban forests
    8. 18. Origins of California ’s Urban Trees
    9. 19. California Native Trees in Municipal Forests <ul><li>9,100 species of plants in California </li></ul><ul><li>~6,000 native species </li></ul><ul><li>294 tree species </li></ul><ul><li>78 species are suitable for urban environments </li></ul><ul><li>20 species commonly used in urban forests </li></ul>
    10. 22. Evolutionary Relationships Among California ’s Commonly Cultivated Trees
    11. 23. Tree Species in the Urban Forest <ul><li>All phyla and 83% of orders with trees are represented in California </li></ul><ul><li>Largest genera in California (most species): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eucalyptus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quercus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acacia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acer </li></ul></ul>
    12. 24. Diversity in Urban Forests J.C. Raulston’s Second Law of Landscape Plant Diversity: In any given region of the United States, 40 shrubs and trees make up 90% of the landscape plantings.
    13. 25. Diversity in Urban Forests Muller and Bornstein Arb. & Urb. For. 2010. 36(1): 18–27 309 species
    14. 26. Diversity in Municipal Forests <ul><li>188 – Average # of species on California municipality tree surveys </li></ul><ul><li>49 – Average # of species on California municipality approved planting lists </li></ul><ul><li>Only 29% of existing species are approved for future planting </li></ul><ul><li>According to Lawrence Lesser 15 species account for ~50% of planted trees in Southern California </li></ul>Lesser, L.M. 1996. Journal of Arboriculture 22:180–185.
    15. 28. Promote Diverse Urban Forests <ul><li>Diverse urban forests are more resilient to climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse urban forests help conserve biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Find undeservedly rare trees in your area </li></ul><ul><li>Work with cities and nurseries to grow and plant more species </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment with new, appropriate trees </li></ul><ul><li>Add 10 new species to your cities approved planting list </li></ul>
    16. 29. 2. Learn your trees and teach other people about them
    17. 31. “ The average person recognizes more than 1,000 corporate logos, but can identify fewer than 10 plants and animals native to his or her locality.” - David Orr
    18. 42. Promote Tree Knowledge <ul><li>Relearn the trees in your urban forest </li></ul><ul><li>Work on making your area’s tree inventory accurate and up-to-date </li></ul><ul><li>Learn species characteristics and plant appropriate trees </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the correct names of trees </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the natural history stories of trees </li></ul><ul><li>Share those stories with others </li></ul>
    19. 43. 3. Promote a clear educational message about the value of trees
    20. 44. Life without trees is a lower quality life.
    21. 45. Trees Sequester and Store Carbon Nowak 1994, USDA FS Technical Report, Radnor, PA, pp. 83-94
    22. 46. Trees Reduce Energy Consumption Carver, Unger, and Parks, 2004, Environmental Management 34: 650-655
    23. 47. Trees Cool Cities Wilson et. al., 2003, Remote Sensing of Environment 86: 303-321
    24. 48. More Trees = More Wildlife Donnelly and Marzluff, 2006, Urban Ecosystems 9: 99-117
    25. 49. More Trees Correlate with Lower Crime Kuo and Sullivan, 2001, Environment and Behavior 33: 343-367 & 543-571
    26. 50. More Trees Correlate with Lower Crime Kuo and Sullivan, 2001, Environment and Behavior 33: 343-367 & 543-571
    27. 51. More Trees Correlate with Lower Crime Kuo and Sullivan, 2001, Environment and Behavior 33: 343-367 & 543-571
    28. 52. Trees Promote Happiness Fuller et. al., 2007, Biology Letters 3: 390-394
    29. 53. Life without trees is a lower quality life.
    30. 54. Summary <ul><li>Work for more diversity in California’s urban forests </li></ul><ul><li>Learn your trees and teach other people about them </li></ul><ul><li>Promote a clear educational message about the value of trees </li></ul>
    31. 55. The beautiful trees that grace our neighborhoods did not sprout at random. Tree-lined streets have been woven into a living fabric that shades and soothes our souls. In a real biological sense, trees are our home. That is the deepest meaning of the urban forest. - David Paul Bayles
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