Understanding wind power made easy

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Wind turbines, like aircraft propeller blades, turn in the moving air and power an electric generator that supplies an electric current. Simply stated, a wind turbine is the opposite of a fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind to make electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity.

Wind Turbine Types

Modern wind turbines fall into two basic groups; the horizontal-axis variety, like the traditional farm windmills used for pumping water, and the vertical-axis design, like the eggbeater-style Darrieus model, named after its French inventor. Most large modern wind turbines are horizontal-axis turbines.

Turbine Components

Horizontal turbine components include:

blade or rotor, which converts the energy in the wind to rotational shaft energy;
a drive train, usually including a gearbox and a generator;
a tower that supports the rotor and drive train; and
other equipment, including controls, electrical cables, ground support equipment, and interconnection equipment.
Power generation from wind has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing renewable energy technologies. The estimated power generation capacity in India through wind is about 45,000 MW. The installed capacity is about 1,870 MW, which is about 4% of the total estimated potential.
Globally, wind generation capacity has increased by 27% in the year 2002 and is expected to expand 15 – fold in the next 20 years. Wind energy technologies have matured and large capacity wind turbines in the range of 1.25 to 1.65 MW are now being manufactured in India. The productivity of larger capacity machines is higher than that of smaller machines. Minimum wind velocity required for power generation is about 2.5 m/s and the maximum could be 30 m/s.

Energy generation for 1 MW turbine could be about 28 to 30 lakhs units per year, with a plant load factor of 25 to 30% Among the different renewable energy sources, wind energy is currently making a significant contribution to the installed capacity of power generation, and is emerging as a competitive option. The programme covers research and development, survey and assessment of wind resources, implementation of demonstration and private sector projects and promotional policies. As a result, India, with an installed capacity of about 3000 MW, ranks fifth in the world after Germany, USA, Spain and Denmark in wind power generation.

Small wind energy systems, namely water pumping windmills, aero generators and wind-solar hybrid systems can also be used for harnessing wind power potential, in addition to the large capacity wind turbines. These systems have been found to be very useful for meeting water pumping and small power requirements in decentralised mode in rural and remote windy areas of the country, which are un-electrified or have intermittent electric supply.

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Understanding wind power made easy

  1. 1. Centre for application of renewable energy http://www.windpower.co.nr http://www.careindia.co.nr p // Care.india@live.co.uk windpower@live.co.uk
  2. 2. WIND POWER NDPOWER By C.A.R.E R Wind is Suns heat transformed into kinetic energy through the greatest solar collector currently available, Earths atmosphere. Wind total power is estimated between 1 700 and 3 500 TeraWatt; by comparison, the whole mankind primary y p p yWIN energy needs are estimated at approx. 14 TW. Wind energy is not uniformly distributed, but mainly found in the higher layers of the troposphere at th mid l tit d of b th N th and S th h i h th t h t the id latitudes f both North d South hemispheres. Th The most favourable altitude in term of wind power is, quite difficult to exploit, at approx. 10 000 m (32 800 ft), where average wind speeds can exceed 45 m/s ( q (equal to 162 km/h or 100 mph). / p ) At 250 hecto Pascal (measure of atmospheric pressure, equal to millibar) equivalent to approx. 10 400 m of altitude From these heights, wind speed and energy ddecrease moving towards the ground, the l i d h d h layers of air giving b k h f i i i back heat through friction between them and with the topography of the Earths surface. In the below graphic at 500 hPa (approx. 5 600 m of altitude) average wind speeds are already significantly reduced. dy g y d d CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  3. 3. Wind Potential NDPOWER By C.A.R.EWIN R CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  4. 4. Global Scenario World top 10 Renewable  Electricity Producers  World top 10 Renewable Electricity Producers NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_electricity_production_from_renewable_sources Other Oh R Hydro- Wind Geo- Rank Country Year Total Biomass Solar sources electricity Power thermal * 1 China 2009 576.9 549 40.2 3 0.14WIN European - 2009 587.2 Union[6] 2 United States 2009 424.3 272.1 70.8 54.3 0.808 15.2 3 Brazil 2009 409.8 387.1 1.374 21.354 4 Canada 2009 374.5 363.2 2.5 0.017 5 Russia 2009 165.1 165 1 163.2 163 2 0.007 0 007 0.48 0 48 0.41 0 41 6 Norway 2009 126.2 125 0.977 0.2 7 India 2009 121.8 104.4 14.7 8 Germany 2010 101.7 19.694 36.5 33.46 12 0.027 9 Japan 2009 98.9 75.2 1.754 0.002 3.027 10 Venezuela 2009 85.8 85.8 CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  5. 5. Global Scenario World top 10 WIND POWER Electricity Producers  World top 10 WIND POWER Electricity Producers NDPOWER By C.A.R.E # Top 10 countries by nameplate WIND POWER capacity (2010)** WIND POWER (2010) R 1 China 44,733 2 United States 40,180WIN 3 Germany 27,215 4 Spain 20,676 5 India 13,066 6 Italy 5,797 7 France F 5,660 5 660 8 United Kingdom 5,204 9 Canada 4, 4,008 10 Denmark 3,734 ** World Wind Energy Report 2010. World Wind Energy Association. February 2011. Retrieved 8 ugus 0 e e ed 8-August-2011. http://www.wwindea.org/home/images/stories/pdfs/worldwindenergyreport2010_s.pdf CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  6. 6. Wind Generation NDPOWER By C.A.R.E R In the year 2010, the wind capacity reached worldwide 196 630 Megawatt, after 159 050 MW in 2009, 120 903 MW in 2008, and 93 930 MW in 2007 the installed wind capacity more than doubled every third year. p y y yWIN In the year 2010, altogether 83 countries, one more than in 2009, used wind energy for electricity generation. 52 countries increased their total installed capacity, after 49 in the previous year. At the end of 2010, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 197 gigawatts (GW). Wind power now has the capacity to generate 430 TWh annually, which is about 2.5% of worldwide electricity usage. Over the y, 5 y g past five years the average annual growth in new installations has been 27.6 percent. Wind power market penetration is expected to reach 3.35 percent by 2013 and 8 percent by 2018. Several countries have already achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration, such as 21% of stationary electricity g p p , y y production in Denmark, 18% in Portugal, 16% in Spain, 14% in Ireland [9] and 9% in Germany in 2010. As of 2011, 83 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  7. 7. Best Locations for Wind Power NDPOWER By C.A.R.E What kind f i d is Wh ki d of wind i needed to generate d d R enough power to do the job. If you are producing electricity for instance, youll need to be receiving an adequate amount ofWIN electricity for the wind turbine to pay for itself in a reasonable amount of time. However, there are exceptions. For instance, if you live in a higher elevation than most of the surrounding terrain, or along a uniquely situated "wind tunnel," you will probably have more wind than any chart would show One method of determining the amount of wind your area of the country receives is to consult average wind speed data at your g p y nearest airport weather station. Of course, the below chart will help as well. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  8. 8. Wind Potential ( (Height) g ) NDPOWER By C.A.R.E R One of main deciding factor about the efficiency At 80 m above the ground, the hub height of wind turbines is the height of tower underlying representative of the latest generation of the windmill. In most of cases the greater height of wind turbines, the global average wind the tower is preferred with a objective to harness the p j speed is estimated at 4 6 m/s not enough 4.6 m/s,WIN available wind power to maximum extent. for economical wind power generation; at 10 Sometimes tower goes up to 65 meters in sky. m above the ground is even lower, estimated Consequently there is seen a general trend in favour at 3.3 m/s (see Evaluation of global wind of high towers these days. E very point on the Earth power, power Cristina L Archer - Mark Z L. Z. surface, on average, 800 m above it, has enough Jacobson, Journal of Geophysical Research wind power to be exploited – Atmospheres, 2005). Altitude Wind speed Wind power But B to b k f break free ffrom the ground and to h d d reach altitude winds is already very m m/s W/m² beneficial at 800 m, the height 800 7 7.2 205 5 representative of a Kite Gen power plant, where the average wind speed i estimated h h i d d is i d 80 4.6 58 by Kite Gen Research at 7.2 m/s. At this altitude wind power, as shown by the 10 3.3 22 following table, is almost 4 times the amount available t wind t bi t il bl to i d turbines. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  9. 9. A WIND TURBINE NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Advantages of new systems to optimize the g y p R efficiency of wind turbines and their blades •They reduce noise. •They reduce vibration.WIN New developments that are being worked out to make wind turbines and blades more efficient The overall working scope of the wind turbine can be enlarged by using the flow control on the outboard side of the blade beyond the half radius Attempts are being radius. made to increase the rated output power without increasing the level of operating range. Scientists are also trying to attain a greater efficiency by placing blades at various angles through wind tunnel tests of 2.5 megawatt turbine airfoil surfaces and computer simulations. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  10. 10. A WIND TURBINE NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Wind Wi d turbines use l bi large bl d to catch blades h R the wind. When the wind blows, the blades are forced round, driving a turbine which generates electricity. TheWIN stronger the wind, the more electricity produced. There are two types of domestic-sized wind turbine: Pole mounted: these are free standing and are erected in a suitably exposed position, position often around 5kW to 6kW Building mounted: these are smaller than mast mounted systems and can be installed on the roof of a home where there is a suitable wind resource. Often these are around 1kW to 2kW in size. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  11. 11. Small wind energy gy NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Small S ll wind energy systems, i d t R namely water pumping windmills, aero generators and wind-solar wind solar hybrid systems canWIN also be used for harnessing wind power potential, in addition to the large capacity wind turbines turbines. These systems have been found to be very useful for meeting water pumping and small power requirements in decentralised mode in rural and remote windy areas of the country, which are un-electrified or have intermittent electric supply. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  12. 12. Turbine Characteristics NDPOWER By C.A.R.E General advantages of wind turbines are the complete absence of R air pollution and a high energy-conversion efficiency. Well- designed wind turbines can recover up to 60- 80% of the kinetic energy from the flow passing through their rotors. However, the gy p g g ,WIN low energy density available in the wind typically restricts output to a range 0.1 to 0.8 kW/m2 (kilowatts per square metre) of the rotors projected area. The result is a large machine size in relation to output; f example, i a machine rated at 5 MW l i for l in hi d (MW=106 W), a high output for a single wind turbine, the rotor diameter can be as large as 100 m. This size problem results in the use of clustered machines known as wind farms to extract machines, farms, large power outputs from individual sites. Another problem with wind-energy systems is the variability of wind strength, which leads to substantial fluctuations in power since output is roughly proportional to the cube of the wind speed. Furthermore, all wind-energy conversion devices incur additional costs because they must be capable of withstanding storms. y p g CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  13. 13. Turbine Characteristics NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Different t bi characteristics are required f Diff t turbine h t i ti i d for R each type of application. Most electrical-power generators, or alternators, tend to require a relatively high speed of rotation. Consequently, turbines th t run f i l f t with th ti of th t bi that fairly fast, ith the tips f theWIN rotor moving 3-10 times the wind speed, are generally preferable to low-speed turbines because less gearing is required between the shaft of th wind t bi and th armature of h ft f the i d turbine d the t f the generator. A relatively low running speed is generally favoured for wind turbines that are directly coupled to water pumps or other mechanical l d A striking f t h i l loads. t iki feature of wind f i d turbines intended for high-speed operation is the low rotor solidity, that is, the very small blade area in proportion to the turbine rotors total t t l projected area. l j t d low-speed t bi d turbines f t feature a high solidity (either a small number of relatively broad blades or a large number of narrower ones). CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  14. 14. Turbine Characteristics NDPOWER By C.A.R.E The most common form of low-speed low speed R machine is the horizontal axis, multi bladed form often found on farms. The turbine is usually connected, via a crank, to a reciprocating water pump. A , p g p pWIN related design is the multi bladed "bicycle-wheel" turbine, an example of a relatively low-speed turbine used for electrical-power generation. A simple p g p vertical-axis design, often used for water pumping, is the split cylinder configuration known as the Savonius rotor, after its originator. In this turbine each of the 2 or 3 rotor bl d bi h f h blades consists of a semi cylinder offset radially from the axis of rotation. The design relies, in part, on a drag effect for its f it operation. It i not, th f ti is t therefore, a particularly efficient configuration, but is relatively simple to make. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  15. 15. Turbine Characteristics NDPOWER By C.A.R.E All modern high speed turbines and high-speed R most of the low-speed units incorporate blades designed on airfoil principles. Some inefficient low-speed machines depend on a drag effect as does a effect,WIN square-rigged sailing ship. The foregoing remarks apply equally to wind turbines that are arranged with horizontal or vertical axes of rotation rotation. Typical horizontal-axis high-speed wind turbines have either 2 or 3 blades and resemble aircraft propellers. The blades of these machines are commonly arranged to vary in pitch automatically to optimize performance under conditions of varying wind speed. The most common high-speed vertical-axis g p turbine is the Darrieus rotor, named for its inventor. This machine is also known as an "egg beater" because of its characteristic appearance CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  16. 16. Savonius Wind Turbine NDPOWER By C.A.R.E R Savonius is a type of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) generator. The Savonius is adrag-type VAWT which operates in the same way as a cup g yp p y pWIN anemometer Savonius wind turbines typically only have an efficiency of around 15% - i.e. just 15% of the wind energy hitting the rotor is turned into rotational mechanical energy. This is much less than can be achieved with a Darrieus wind turbine (which useslift rather than drag. The speed of the cups of a cup anemometer (and aSavonius wind turbine) cannot rotate faster than the speed of the wind and so they have a tip speed ratio(TSR) of 1 or below. Therefore Savonius type vertical axis wind turbines turn slowly but generate a high torque torque. This does not make them very suitable for electricity generation since turbine generators need to be turned at hundreds of RPM to generate high voltages and currents. A gearbox could be employed but the added resistence would l ld leave the S h Savonius requiring a very strong wind to get spinning - i i i i i i d i i i.e. it typically would not self-start. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  17. 17. Darrieus Wind Turbine NDPOWER By C.A.R.E R A Darrieus is a type of vertical axis wind turbine (1) (VAWT)WIN generator. Unlike the Savonius wind turbine (2), the Darrieus is i a lift t lift-type VAWT R th VAWT. Rather than collecting the wind in cups dragging the turbine around, a Darrieus uses lift forces generated by the wind hitting aerofoil’s to create rotation. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  18. 18. Benefits : Darrieus Wind Turbine NDPOWER By C.A.R.E A Darrieus wind turbine can spin at many times the speed of the wind R hitting it (i.e. the tip speed ratio (TSR) is greater than 1). Hence a Darrieus wind turbine generates less torque than a Savonius but it rotates much faster. This makes Darrieus wind turbines much better suited to electricity generation rather than water pumping and similar activities activities.WIN The centrifugal forces generated by a Darrieus turbine are very large and act on the turbine blades which therefore have to be very strong - however the forces on the bearings and generator are usually lower than are the case with a Savonius. ih i Darrieus wind turbines are not self-starting. Therefore a small powered motor is required to start off the rotation, and then when it has enough speed the wind passing across the aerofoil’s starts to generate torque and aerofoil s the rotor is driven around by the wind. An alternative is shown in the illustration above. Two smallSavonius rotors are mounted on the shaft of the Darrieus turbine to start rotation. These slow down the Darrieus turbine when it gets going however they make the whole device a lot simpler and easier to maintain CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  19. 19. Distribution Weibull NDPOWER By C.A.R.E R In order to calculate the likely power output from a given wind turbine it is necessary to understand the wind in the planned turbine location. It is very easy to find theaverage wind speed i a l ti d in locationWIN Wind speeds in most of the world can be modeled using the Weibull Distribution. This statistical tool tells us how often winds of different speeds will be seen at a location with a certain average (mean) wind speed. Knowing this helps us to choose a wind turbine with the optimal cut-in speed (the wind speed at which the turbine starts to generate usable power), and the cut- g p out speed (the speed at which the turbine hits the limit of its alternator and can no longer put out increased power output with further increases in wind speed). Weibull Distribution and Wind Speeds (http://www windpower co nr) (http://www.windpower.co.nr) Calculations visit http://www.windpower.co.nr) CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  20. 20. Real World Wind Turbine Power Po er Efficiencies NDPOWER By C.A.R.E The theoretical maximum power R efficiency of any design of wind turbine Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) is 0.59 (i.e. no more than 59% of the theoretically have higher power efficiencies energy carried by the wind can be than vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) extracted by a wind turbine) Once you turbine). however wind direction is not important forWIN also factor in the engineering a VAWT and so no time (and power) is requirements of a wind turbine - wasted chasing the wind. In turbulent strength and durability in particular - the real world limit is well below conditions with rapid changes in wind the Betz Limit with values of 0.35-0.45 direction more electricity will be generated common even in the best designed wind by a VAWT turbines. By the time you take into account other inefficiencies in a complete wind turbine system - e.g. the generator, bearings, power transmission and so on - only 10-30% of the power of the wind is ever actually converted into y usable electricity. (see the graphic above from the Iowa Energy Center, USA.) Calculations visit http://www.windpower.co.nr) CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  21. 21. Betz Limits NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Albert Betz was a German physicist who in R 1919 concluded that no wind turbine can convert more than 16/27 (59.3%) of the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy turning a rotor. To this day this isWIN known as the Betz Limit or Betz Law. This limit has nothing to do with inefficiencies in the generator, but in the very nature of wind turbines themselves. Wind turbines extract energy by slowing down the wind. For a wind turbine to be 100% efficient it would need to stop 100% of the wind - but then the rotor would have to be a solid disk and it would not turn and no kinetic energy would be converted. On the other extreme, if you had a wind turbine with just one rotor blade, most of the wind passing through the area swept by the turbine blade would miss the blade completely and so the kinetic energy would be kept by the wind. Calculations visit http://www.windpower.co.nr) CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  22. 22. Real World Wind Turbine Power Efficiencies NDPOWER By C.A.R.E R “When h i d blows, a pocket of l “Wh the wind bl k f low pressure air forms, pulling the blade toward it, causing the rotor to turn. ThisWIN is called lift. The “When the wind blows, a pocket of low pressure air forms, pulling the blade toward it, , p g , causing the rotor to turn. This is called lift. The turbines that use a new, low wind speed technology. The sweep twist adaptive blade automatically twists to reduce stress on the turbine from the Calculations visit http://www.windpower.co.nr) mechanical load produced during high wind. i d CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  23. 23. HAWT’s NDPOWER By C.A.R.E A standard HAWT (Horizontal Axis R Wind Turbine)captures the wind’s energy with three propeller-like blades mounted on a rotor. The turbine sits more than 200 f bi i h feet atop aWIN tower to take advantage of stronger and less-turbulent wind. Elevated so high above the surface makes maintenance and repair costly; bearings and shafts that transfer wind p power from the turbine blades must be to withstand exceptional rigors in various weather conditions. BUT ……Newer HAWTs can make Newer use of wind at lower velocities; such advanced design has meant the addition of utility scale wind turbines in less windy (Class Four*) areas Four ) CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  24. 24. Real World Wind Turbine Power Efficiencies NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Wind power classes designate a range of mean wind power density of R approximate wind speed at specified heights above the ground. Areas designated as “Excellent” have wind power Class Five or greater, and are suitable for utility-scale wind energy applications. These areas represent regions where the wind power density exceeds 500WIN watts/m2 at 50m above the ground. Areas designated as “Good” have wind power at four or better, and are also suitable for utility scale wind energy applications. Nevertheless, these advanced designs can have increased stress at higher velocities requiring the turbine to be stopped or the drive train disengaged. The innovative wind blade, which Knight & Carver’s Wind Blade Division has developed can operate over a wider range of wind developed, speed thereby increasing the amount of energy that a low wind speed turbine can produce. Sized at 27.2 (85 ft) meters x 2.4 meters (7 ft), 7 ( 5 ) 4 ), the Adaptive Sweep Twist Blade is designed both for maximum efficiency at lower-speed wind conditions and to automatically adjust to higher wind gusts when necessary. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  25. 25. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine NDPOWER By C.A.R.E R Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) theoretically have higher powerWIN efficiencies than vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) however wind direction is not important for a VAWT p and so no time (and power) is wasted chasing the wind. In turbulent conditions with rapid changes in wind p g direction more electricity will be generated by a VAWT CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  26. 26. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine NDPOWER By C.A.R.E R 10KW C type VAWT technique parameter Power 10kw The diameter of wind wheel 4.5mWIN Rated rotate speed 150(r/min) Rated wind speed 10 m/s Start up wind speed 3m/s Working wind speed 3-30(m/s) 3 30(m/s) Security wind speed 50(m/s) Rated power 10kw The max power 12kw Output voltage 220v The height of tower 12m The top part weight 380kg Guy cable tower type 273 steel pipe Output control system Charger control,inverter Necessary battery 12v200ah, 30 pcs CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  27. 27. F.A.Q’S Q NDPOWER By C.A.R.E What are the advantages of wind energy? R Wind is a renewable energy resource. Coal, oil and natural gas are nonrenewable. No emissions are released into the atmosphere. Other energy resources release carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases when they are burned Environmental effects of mining and well drilling are avoided burned. avoided.WIN Wind generates electricity without bringing in fuel from outside the state. Are wind turbines reliable and safe? The turbines are, on average, operational and ready to run during more than 95% of the year. They are very safe. Redundant braking systems slow and stop the rotation of the blades (aerodynamic and mechanical braking systems). The blades have been thoroughly tested for strength and fatigue over time. Th strong towers are h ll f i i The hollow and offer safe access f d ff f for service personnel. How close are the turbines to homes or roads? Where the turbines are placed is highly dependent on factors such as wind strength and aesthetics. They are not placed within 800 feet of residences and 300 feet from public or developed roads. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  28. 28. F.A.Q’S Q NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Are i d A wind turbines noisy? bi i ? R Today’s wind turbines are very quiet. At 200 yards, the swishing sound of rotor blades is usually masked completely by wind noise inWIN the leaves of trees or shrubs. Even with the steps taken to reduce wind turbine noise, some noise is produced. We are required to maintain a noise level less than 50 dBa at any nearby home. Tests have shown that we are below the required level. Examples of noise:* Rock concert 110 dBa Diesel truck 90 dBa Vacuum cleaner 70 dBa Normal conversation 60 dBa Soft whisper 30 dBa Jet taking off 120 dBa CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  29. 29. F.A.Q’S Q NDPOWER By C.A.R.E What happens to a site where wind turbines are no longer R needed? The turbines at the MGE site should operate for at least 25 years. At the end of their useful life we anticipate that the site will be repowered with life,WIN new turbines. Which turbine is suitable for my needs? A medium sized average home requires between 4–6 MWh of energy per annum. A school, office, community centre or f h l ffi i farm will almost ill l certainly use a lot more.An assessment of the power requirements of your particular application and a wind speed assessment of your site, will need to be made in order to determine which turbine will meet all your y needs, however the question may not be as important as you might imagine ... The wind turbine, and your property, will be connected to the national grid, grid so whenever you need more power than the wind turbine can produce, it will simply come from your electricity supplier as it does now. When your turbine produces more power than you need, it is exported to the grid, and you get paid for the surplus. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  30. 30. F.A.Q’S Q NDPOWER By C.A.R.E How d wind turbines generate electricity? H do i d bi l i i ? R Wind turbines have a rotor (a hub with three blades), a power shaft and a generator to convert wind energy intoWIN electrical energy. Wind passes over the rotor and makes it spin. This spinning motion is used by the generator to produce electricity. y The amount of energy produced depends on wind speed and the diameter of the rotor. Because wind speed increases with height, the wind turbines are mounted on towers. A good location for wind turbines should have average annual wind speeds of at least 12 miles per hour. Small changes in average wind speed are important. important Even a one-mile-per-hour increase in wind speed one mile per hour makes a significant difference in the power available to generate electricity. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  31. 31. F.A.Q’S Q NDPOWER By C.A.R.E R Do the turbines affect TV or radio reception? Several thousand towers have been erected . The majority of these turbines h bi have not caused any signal i d i l interference. MGE sited the f i d hWIN wind turbines to minimize signal interference. MGE fixed any TV signal problems nearby neighbors had. Are birds affected by wind turbines? Care is taken to locate wind turbines away from sensitive wildlife areas such as wetlands and migratory paths. MGE’s wind site was MGE s reviewed by independent agencies for environmental impacts including bird mortality. Ongoing studies at our site have shown that bird mortality has not been a problem problem. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  32. 32. F.A.Q’S Q NDPOWER By C.A.R.E R What happens when the wind doesn’t blow? The turbines are dependent on the wind to produce electricity. On a calm day, the turbines won’t be able to produce power. But won tWIN electricity is still available; other power plants will adjust their output to make up the difference. What happens if lightning strikes a wind turbine? Each wind turbine is protected from lightning by a grounding system. In the event of a strike, the system guides the electrical energy safely to ground. Thi system i similar to the li h i f l d This is i il h lightning Can wind turbines blend into the landscape? The turbines are located in open terrain to have access to the wind. e tu b es a e ocated ope te a ave t e w d. Better equipment designs and careful planning dramatically improve the appearance of wind farms. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  33. 33. INNOVATIONS NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Storing Wind Power with Compressed Air R Pumped Hydro– An Alternative TechnologyWIN CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  34. 34. INNOVATIONS NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Storing Wind Power with R Compressed Air Find out how wind power can be stored and sold at times of peakWIN demand Wind power suffers from one major problem majo p oblem - the wind is very ind e fickle. If wind turbines are to be a viable large scale replacement for coal- coal and gas fired power stations gas-fired stations, a way has to be found to capture and store the energy from the wind so that it can be put to use when it is needed, and not just when the wind is blowing. (Credit: PG&E) CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  35. 35. Storing Wind Power with Compressed Air NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Wind power suffers from one major p problem - the wind is very fickle. If wind y R turbines are to be a viable large scale replacement for coal- and gas-fired power stations, a way has to be found to capture and store the energy from the p gyWIN wind so that it can be put to use when it is needed, and not just when the wind is blowing. Since electricity from wind turbines is more expensive than that generated by conventional power stations, another benefit of storing wind power is that electricity can be exported to the National Grid at peak times of day when the price paid for it can be 2 or 3 times g greater that at off peak times. This p makes wind turbine generators financially viable without the need for government subsidies. CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  36. 36. Compressed Air Storage p g NDPOWER By C.A.R.E One O possible solution t thi energy storage problem i th use ibl l ti to this t bl is the R of compressed air. When the wind blows during the night (when electricity demand is low), the electricity generated can be used to power an air compressor The compressed air can then be compressor.WIN stored in the underground caves and caverns left from some forms of mining. During the day when demand peaks (and wholesale electricity prices peak) the compressed air can be released through a turbine generating electricity. These caverns will effectively provide battery storage for wind power. The overall efficiency of this system can be as much as 75% 75%. Although 25%+ of the wind generated electricity is lost, the remaining 75% is used at peak times thus reducing the number of conventional power stations needed to meet demand demand. Dakota, the windiest state of the USA, Sirius Exploration plan to create eight 16m (diameter) x 160m caverns (by potash mining) which will be able to power a 100MW turbine when filled with compressed air. A similar projet is being developed in Ireland by Gaelectric with a cavern large enough for at least a 136MW turbine. g 3 CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  37. 37. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) NDPOWER By C.A.R.E Although a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system has not R been tested commercially with wind turbines, a 290MW plant in Huntdorf, Germany has been running successfully for over 25 years storing excess production from a conventional power stationWIN so it can be sold at times of peak demand. Compressed air is stored in engineered salt caverns, and when released can generated sufficient electricity to meet the needs of almost 300,000 homes. A y 3 , second commericial unit was built in 1991 in McIntosh,Alabama with a 110MW turbine. Other (conventional) sources of electricity could be stored in the ( ) y same way further reducing the number of conventional power stations required to meet peak demand is reduced. The Future for CAES and Wind Power As more wind farms are constructed, and our ddependence on the electricity they generate i d h l i i h increases, energy storage is going to become more and more important. In North CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  38. 38. Pumped Hydro – An Alternative Technolog Alternati e Technology NDPOWER By C.A.R.E The other main alternati e to alternative R compressed air energy storage is pumped hydro - a very well established technology inWIN which electricity generated at times of low demand is used to pump water from a low lake to a high lake. At times of peak electricity demand the water in the upper lake is released down pp through a turbine. Pictured above is the Sloy Power Station which uses pumped hydro technology ( d was h d h l (and constructed many decades ago CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  39. 39. Pumped Hydro – An Alternative Technology NDPOWER By C.A.R.EWIN R CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OFRENEWABLE ENERGY WEBSITE : http://www.careindia.co.nr email : windpower@live.co.uk
  40. 40. centre for application of renewable energyWEBSITE : http://www windpower co nr http://www careindia co nr http://www.windpower.co.nr http://www.careindia.co.nr EMAIL : care.india@live.co.uk windpower@live.co.uk

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