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Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
Understanding Solar Energy
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Understanding Solar Energy

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Solar Energy for the Layman

Solar Energy for the Layman

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  • 1. Solar Engineering ANDING SO RGY “ MAD EASY OLAR ENER DEpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 2. Solar Engineering ANDING SO RGY “ MAD EASY OLAR ENER DEpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA Solar power might be a solution“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 3. Solar Engineering BASIC How much sunshine will I need? How many solar panels you will need based on the amount of sunshine available daily in your area Using solar power to produce electricity is not the same as using solar t produce h t S l th i l to d heat. Solar thermal principles l i i l It is presumed that at "peak sun", 1000 W/m² of power peak sun W/m reaches the surface of the earth. are applied to produce hot fluids or air. RGY “ MAD EASY One hour of full sun provides 1000 Wh per m² = 1 Photovoltaic principles are used to produce electricity. A kWh/m² -representing the solar energy received in one DE solar panel (PV panel) is made of the natural element element, silicon, which becomes charged electrically when hour on a cloudless summer day on a one-square meter subjected to sun light. surface directed towards the sun. Solar panels are directed at solar south in the northern To put this in some other perspective, the Indian p OLAR ENER hemisphere and solar north in the southern hemisphere Department of E D t t f Energy i di t indicates th amount of solar the t f l (these are slightly different than magnetic compass energy that hits the surface of the earth every +/- hour is greater than the total amount of energy that the entire north-south directions) at an angle dictated by the geographic location and latitude of where they are to be human population requires in a year. Another perspective is that roughly 100 miles square of solar g y ANDING SO installed. installed panels placed in the southwestern U.S. could power thepreparation by s.r.kushero WHOLE United States . Typically, the angle of the solar array is set within a range of between site-latitude-plus 15 degrees and site- The intensity of the Suns radiation changes with the latitude-minus 15 degrees, depending on whether a g , p g“UNDERSTA hour of th d h f the day, ti time of th year and weather conditions. f the d th diti slight winter or summer bias is desirable in the system. To be able to make calculations in planning a system, the total amount of solar radiation energy is expressed in Many solar arrays are placed at an angle equal to the hours of full sunlight per m², or Peak Sun Hours. This site latitude with no bias for seasonal periods. term, Peak Sun Hours, represents the average amount p g“ of sun available per day throughout the year. a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 4. Solar Engineering Solar Radiation In India RGY “ MAD EASY OLAR ENER DE Solar Radiation : Sunshine across INDIA ANDING SO A color coded map of INDIA that displays thepreparation by s.r.kushero daily average hours of solar radiation (sunshine). This information will assist you in calculating the number of solar panels you“UNDERSTA will need for your solar power system. a short explanation of Watts, Watt Hours, and Amp Hours“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 5. Solar Engineering BASIC Electrical charge is consolidated in the PV panel and directed to the output terminals to produce low voltage (Direct Current) - usually 6 to 24 volts The most common output is intended for nominal 12 volts. volts, with an effective output usually up to 17 volts. RGY “ MAD EASY A 12 volt nominal output is the reference voltage, but the operating voltage can be 17 volts or higher DE much like your car alternator charges your 12 volt battery at well over 12 volts. So theres a difference between the reference voltage and the actual operating voltage. ANDING SO OLAR ENERpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 6. Solar Engineering PV system Q. What is a PV system? A. PV technology produces electricity directly from electrons freed by the interaction of sunlight with a solar panel made of semiconductor material. Th power provided i li ht ith l l d f i d t t i l The id d is RGY “ MAD EASY direct current (DC) electricity. The basic building block is known as a cell. Many cells put together are known as a module, and many modules assembled together form an array. A PV system will consist of an array of modules generating DC electricity, an DE inverter, and sometimes battery storage back up with charge controller. Q. How much electricity will a system p y y produce? OLAR ENER A. The amount of power produced will depend upon how large the system is. In Mumbai the average residential customer purchases 5,500 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year. There is enough sunshine falling upon on the average home to produce this and a ANDING SO system can be designed to offset all electrical needs. The cost to accomplish a 100% ff %preparation by s.r.kushero system may be prohibitive and sometimes it makes more sense to simply reduce or shave your consumption. Some utilities use tiered rates when they charge for consumption which means that the more energy you use the higher is the cost per“UNDERSTA kilo-watt-hour. The most economically feasible size is usually between 50% and 75% of your annual household needs.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 7. Solar Engineering FREE electricity At todays prices a single solar panel, rated at 1 Watts sells for about Rs.150- Rs.250 depending on brand. If your system uses several of these panels, this would seem to be quite RGY “ MAD EASY expensive. DE The good news is that todays solar panels have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 today s years or more. And just think, theyll be making FREE electricity that whole time! ANDING SO OLAR ENERpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 8. Solar Engineering Manual The Basics f Solar Power f P d i Th B i of S l P for Producing El t i it Electricity Understanding Parts of a Solar Energy System Overview of the individual components required to assemble a solar power system and produce free electricity from the sun for energy p y p y gy independence. RGY “ MAD EASY 1.Solar Panels which generate the electricity, 2.Charge Controller to control battery charging, DE 3.the Power Inverter that makes 220 volts AC from the batteries to run your appliances, 4.Storage batteries which store the excess power for use when the sun is weak or not available, 5. AC generators for back-up power. ANDING SO OLAR ENERpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 9. Solar Engineering System Overview For electricity from the sun. You will need one or more Solar Panels a Charger Controller a Power Inverter Panels, Controller, Inverter, and of course, Batteries. RGY “ MAD EASY The first component needed is one or more Solar Panels. They supply the electricity and charge the batteries. A y pp y y g DE very small system could get away with a couple 80 watt panels but figure at least 4 to 8 for a small to medium system.. OLAR ENER A Charge Controller. is needed to prevent overcharging of the batteries. Proper charging will prevent damage and increase the life and performance of the batteries. ANDING SO The Power Inverter is the heart of the system It makes system. 220 volts AC from the 12 volts DC stored in the batteries.preparation by s.r.kushero It can also charge the batteries if connected to a generator or the AC line.“UNDERSTA Last are the storage Batteries. They store the electrical power in the form of a chemical reaction. Without storage you would only have power when the sun was shining or the generator was running.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 10. Solar Engineering Solar Power : Components A Solar Power energy system can be used by anyone to Charge Controllers supply all their electrical needs, provide back-up power, This device is necessary to protect the batteries from over or even just as a supplement to the normal electrical grid charging and supply them with the proper amount of connection to a utility company. It is ideal for remote energy to promote long battery life. locations where power is unavailable or too expensive to RGY “ MAD EASY hook-up to. Power Inverters The power inverter converts your storage battery power Solar Panels into the 220 volts AC that runs your appliances. It is the DE The S Solar Panels tutorial will give you a simple heart of your solar energy system Unless you only run 12 system. explanation of this most basic electric power generator volt DC appliances you will need a power inverter to supply for solar energy systems. Fixed, Adjustable, and your AC. Tracking type mounting systems are also covered. Getting power from the suns energy is not only Free, but gp gy y , Storage Batteries OLAR ENER its Fun to setup a solar energy system and be your own Without Storage Batteries to store energy you would only utility company have power when the sun was shining or the generator as running. Here we discuss 4 major categories of batteries for solar power systems. The batteries in your system are ANDING SO very important. The care & feeding section of this tutorial is a must read to ensure long battery life and goodpreparation by s.r.kushero performance. AC Generators“UNDERSTA Even the largest Solar Energy System would not have enough power for many consecutive days of no sun. The AC Generator tutorial will tell you what size generator youll need“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 11. Solar Engineering Solar Panels Solar panels generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity with no moving parts, zero emissions, and no maintenance. The solar panel, the first component of a electric solar e e gy sys e , s co ec o o energy system, is a collection of individual silicon cells that generate electricity from sunlight. The d dua s co ce s a ge e a e e ec c y o su g e photons (light particles) produce an electrical current as they strike the surface of the thin silicon RGY “ MAD EASY wafers. DE A single solar cell produces only about 1/2 ( 5) of a volt However a typical 12 volt panel about 25 (.5) volt. However, inches by 54 inches will contain 36 cells wired in series to produce about 17 volts peak output. If the solar panel can be configured for 24 volt output, there will be 72 cells so the two 12 volt groups OLAR ENER of 36 each can be wired in series, usually with a jumper, allowing the solar panel to output 24 volts. When under load (charging batteries for example), this voltage drops to 12 to 14 volts (for a 12 volt configuration) resulting in 75 to 100 watts for a panel of this size. ANDING SO Multiple solar panels can be wired in parallel to increase current capacity (more power) and wired inpreparation by s.r.kushero series to increase voltage for 24, 48, or even higher voltage systems. The advantage of using a higher voltage output at the solar panels is that smaller wire sizes can be used to transfer the electric power from the solar panel array to the charge controller & batteries Since copper has gone up considerably batteries.“UNDERSTA in the last few years, purchasing large copper wiring and cables is quite expensive. (thats why pennies are made of mostly zinc today).“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 12. Solar Engineering Solar Panels An A eco-friendly electric generator. S l f i dl l ti t Solar panelsl generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity with no moving parts, zero emissions, and no maintenance. The solar panel, the first component of a electric solar energy system, is a collection of individual silicon cells that RGY “ MAD EASY generate electricity from sunlight. DE The photons (light particles) produce an electrical current as they strike the surface of the thin silicon wafers. A single solar cell produces only about 1/2 (.5) of a volt. OLAR ENER However, a typical 12 volt panel about 25 inches by 54 inches will contain 36 cells wired in series to Multiple solar panels can be wired in parallel to produce about 17 volts peak output. increase current capacity (more power) and wired in series to increase voltage for 24, 48, or even ANDING SO higher lt hi h voltage systems. t If the solar panel can be configured for 24 voltpreparation by s.r.kushero The advantage of using a higher voltage output at output, there will be 72 cells so the two 12 volt the solar panels is that smaller wire sizes can be groups of 36 each can be wired in series, usually used to transfer the electric power from the solar with a jumper allowing the solar panel to output 24 jumper,“UNDERSTA panel array to the charge controller & batteries batteries. volts. When under load (charging batteries for Since copper has gone up considerably in the last example), this voltage drops to 12 to 14 volts (for a few years, purchasing large copper wiring and 12 volt configuration) resulting in 75 to 100 watts for cables is quite expensive. (thats why pennies are a panel of this size. made of mostly zinc“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 13. Solar Engineering Solar Panels : TYPES Amorphous solar panels : These are not really Monocrystalline solar panels : The most crystals, but a thin layer of silicon deposited on a efficient and expensive solar panels are base material such as metal or glass to create made with Monocrystalline cells These cells. the solar panel. These Amorphous solar panels RGY “ MAD EASY solar cells use very pure silicon and are much cheaper, but their energy efficiency is involve a complicated crystal growth also much less so more square footage is process. Long silicon rods are produced g required to produce the same amount of power DE which are cut into slices of .2 to .4 mm as the Monocrystalline or Polycrystalline type of solar panel. Amorphous solar panels can even thick discs or wafers which are then be made into long sheets of roofing material to processed into individual cells that are cover large areas of a south facing roof surface. wired together in the solar panel panel. OLAR ENER Polycrystalline solar panels : Often called Multi-crystalline, solar panels made with ANDING SO Polycrystalline cells are a little less expensive &preparation by s.r.kushero slightly less efficient than Monocrystalline cells because the cells are not grown in single crystals but in a large block of many crystals. This is what“UNDERSTA gives them that striking shattered glass appearance. Like Monocrystalline cells, they are also then sliced into wafers to produce the individual cells that make up the solar panel.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 14. Solar Engineering Solar Panels : Wattage The output of a solar panel is usually stated Since the intensity of sunlight contacting in watts, and the wattage is determined by the solar panel varies throughout the day, multiplying the rated voltage by the rated u p y g e a ed o age e a ed we use the term "peak sun hours“ as a e e e pea su ou s amperage. method to smooth out the variations into a RGY “ MAD EASY daily average The formula for wattage is VOLTS times Early morning and late-in-the-day sunlight y g y g DE AMPS equals WATTS WATTS. produces less power than the mid-day sun. So for example, a 12 volt 60 watt solar panel Naturally, cloudy days will produce less measuring about 20 X 44 inches has a rated p power than bright sunny days as well. g y y OLAR ENER voltage of 17.1 and a rated 3.5 amperage. When planning a system your VxA=W geographical area is rated in average peak sun hours per day based on yearly sun p y y y ANDING SO 17.1 17 1 volts times 3 5 amps equals 60 watts 3.5 data.preparation by s.r.kushero If an average of 6 hours of peak sun per day Average peak sun hours for various is available in an area, then the above solar g g p geographical areas is listed in the above“UNDERSTA panel can produce an average 360 watt section. hours of power per day; 60w times 6 hrs. = 360 watt-hours.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 15. Solar Engineering Solar Panels Wiring Series S i Solar panels can be wired in series or in parallel to increase voltage or amperage respectively, and they can be wired both in series and in parallel to increase both volts and amps. amps RGY “ MAD EASY Series wiring refers to connecting the positive terminal of + one panel to the negative terminal of another. The resulting - outer positive and negative terminals will produce voltage DE the sum of the two panels, but the amperage stays the same Parallel as one panel. So two 12 volt/3.5 amp panels wired in series produces 24 volts at 3.5 amps. Four of these wired in series would produce 48 volts at 3.5 amps. OLAR ENER Parallel wiring refers to connecting positive terminals to positive terminals and negative to negative. The result is that + voltage stays the same, but amperage becomes the sum of - the number of panels. So two 12 volt/3.5 amp panels wired p pp ANDING SO in parallel would produce 12 volts at 7 amps. Four panels Series/parallel S i / ll lpreparation by s.r.kushero would produce 12 volts at 14 amps. Series/parallel wiring refers to doing both of the above -“UNDERSTA increasing volts and amps t achieve th d i d voltage as i i lt d to hi the desired lt in 24 or 48 volt systems. The following diagram reflects this. In addition, the four panels below can then be wired in parallel to another four and so on to make a larger array.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 16. Solar Engineering Solar Installation : Location Where a building is at a considerable distance from the public electricity supply (or grid) - in remote or mountainous areas – PV may be the preferred possibility for generating electricity, or PV may be used together with wind, diesel generators and/or hydroelectric power In such off-grid circumstances batteries are usually used power. off grid to store the electric power. ANDING SO RGY “ MAD EASY OLAR ENER DE In locations near the grid however feeding the grid using PV panels is more practical grid, however, practical, and leads to optimum use of the investment in the photovoltaic system. This requirespreparation by s.r.kushero both regulatory and commercial preparation, including net-metering and feed-in agreements. To provide for possible power failure, some grid tied systems are set up to g p p p g y p“UNDERSTA allow local use disconnected from the grid. Most photovoltaics are grid connected. In the event the grid fails, the local system must not feed the grid to prevent the possible creation of dangerous islanding.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 17. Solar Engineering Solar Panels : Placement Shading Shadows Sh di & Sh d Temperature & Wi d l di considerations T t Wind loading id ti When deciding on a location for your solar As previously discussed, you want to mount panels, make sure no shadows will fall on the solar panels in a sunny and non-shaded location p y solar panel array during peak sunlight hours to get maximum sun. But, heat build-up is also a RGY “ MAD EASY (say, 9am to 4pm). Not only will shading of the problem. Because the efficiency of solar panels solar panels significantly reduce their output, but decreases as temperature increases, the solar also could cause damage. Some solar panel p panel mounting system should allow for spacing g y p g DE manufacturers advertise panels that can around the individual solar panels for air withstand shading but they use internal diodes circulation. The idea is to allow air cooling in the which in themselves reduce the power hot sun to reduce the temperature of the solar somewhat. I recommend simply choosing a good p panels. Another consideration is wind loading. By g y OLAR ENER location to start with, even if it means cutting allowing air to flow around the solar panels, not down a few trees or otherwise removing only will they remain cooler, obstacles. ANDING SOpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 18. Solar Engineering Efficiency Losses In all systems there are losses due to such things as voltage losses as the electricity is RGY “ MAD EASY carried across the wires, batteries and inverters not being 100 percent efficient, and other factors. These efficiency losses vary from component to component, and from system to system and can be as high as 25 percent. y g p ANDING SO OLAR ENER DEpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 19. Solar Engineering Solar Panels : Mountings Types of Solar Panel Array Mountings : Fixed, Adjustable, & Tracking Fixed solar panel mounts : If you use th most simple and l t the t i l d least expensive t i type of solar panel mounting system, it will be completely RGY “ MAD EASY stationary. The solar panels should always face the equator. (due south in the northern hemisphere). Dont forget that true south varies from magnetic south. This DE can make a huge difference. For example, true south in eastern Washington state is 161 on a compass instead of 180. The angle of inclination (tilt) in degrees should be set to about your latitude. Slightly more than your latitude will favor the winter sun and slightly less will favor the OLAR ENER summer sun. (for a seasonal cabin for example). Adjustable solar panel mounts : The angle of inclination ( ) (tilt) of an adjustable solar panel mount can be changed j p g ANDING SO 2 or more times during the year to account for the lowerpreparation by s.r.kushero angle of the sun in winter as the earth orbits the sun causing seasonal change. A good rule of thumb is latitude + 15 degrees in the winter and latitude – 15 degrees in the summer This will increase overall solar summer.“UNDERSTA panel output by approximately 25%. I adjust my solar panel array 4 times per year. (Shown here in its summer position). An easy approach that works pretty good is to set the tilt for the winter position in about mid October and b k t summer position i mid. d back to iti in id“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 20. Solar Engineering Charge Controller A charge controller monitors the batterys state battery s state- Many charge controllers also offer Low Voltage of-charge to insure that when the battery needs Disconnect (LVD) and Battery Temperature charge-current it gets it, and also insures the Compensation (BTC) as an optional feature. The battery isnt over-charged. Connecting a solar LVD feature permits connecting loads to the LVD panel to a battery without a regulator seriously terminals which are then voltage sensitive. If the g risks damaging the battery and potentially battery voltage drops too far the loads are causing a safety concern. RGY “ MAD EASY disconnected - preventing potential damage to both the battery and the Charge controllers (or often called charge loads. BTC adjusts the charge rate based on the regulator) are rated based on the amount of g ) DE temperature of the battery since batteries are amperage they can process from a solar array. If sensitive to a controller is rated at 20 amps it means that you temperature variations above and below about can connect up to 20 amps of solar panel output 75 F degrees. current to this one controller. The most advanced charge controllers utilize a charging principal g g g p p OLAR ENER referred to as Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) - To Load Switched which insures the most efficient battery charging and extends the life of the battery. ANDING SO Even more advanced controllers also include Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) whichpreparation by s.r.kushero maximizes the amount of current going into the battery from the solar array by lowering the To Load Always On panels output voltage, which increases the“UNDERSTA charging amps to the battery - because if a panel From Solar Panel can produce 60 watts with 17.2 volts and 3.5 amps, then if the voltage is lowered to say 14 volts then the amperage increases to 4.28 (14v X 4.28 amps = 60 watts) resulting in a 19% increase in charging amps for this example example.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 21. Solar Engineering Connections After you connect the Solar Panels to the input Connecting the Batteries terminals of the Charge Controller using the above chart, you can use the same size wire to The batteries are last. They will also require very connect the Charge Controller output to the large cables like the large battery cables in cars. RGY “ MAD EASY batteries since these wires will carry no more The full current to the loads and also the full current than the solar panel wires and will charging current flow thru the entire battery probably be located pretty close to the batteries bank. Connect all the batteries with large high DE anyway. quality cables. Check out the Battery Wiring Diagrams tutorial for examples of Series and Connecting the Power Inverter Parallel wiring techniques that allow the use of battery voltages of 2, 4, 6, or 12 volts. Our new The Power Inverter is next Both the Power next. OLAR ENER Battery Bank Designer tool will show you how to Inverter and the Batteries require the largest connect the batteries for these various voltage wires in the system. During operation, the AC produced by the Power Inverter draws considerable amps from the batteries Not only batteries. ANDING SO are very large wires required, but they should notpreparation by s.r.kushero exceed 6 feet in length to reach the batteries. These wires are like the large battery cables in cars. cars Use the largest size possible An AC possible.“UNDERSTA appliance drawing 10 amps (like a microwave or vacuum cleaner) will require 100 amps at 12 volts DC. Even large cables will get warm. Dont skimp here here.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 22. Solar Engineering Wire & Cables To prevent dangerous overheating or inefficient Battery Wiring Diagrams transfer of power, the wires and cables in a solar Learn how to use series and parallel wiring power system must be correctly sized. A convenient chart to determine wire size based on techniques to obtain exactly the power and solar panel power output and the distance voltage you want using 2, 4, 6,or 12 volt between the solar panels and the batteries. For batteries. batteries Series wiring parallel wiring and wiring, using series/parallel combinations show you RGY “ MAD EASY safety and good performance of your solar power system you will have to use the how to build your battery bank into any appropriate size wires when connecting the DE components of your system system. Meters & Monitors This tutorial explains the importance of OLAR ENER monitoring your solar energy system With the system. included voltage chart, you can easily determine the basic level of charge on your batteries using just a simple voltmeter. Taking proper care of y your batteries will ensure good system g y ANDING SO performancepreparation by s.r.kushero Power Requirements This tutorial is a little more advanced but advanced,“UNDERSTA explains more about voltage, current, power, and Ohms Law. Find out about the relationship between AC amps and DC amps. The importance of energy conservation for a solar“ power system is also covered. a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 23. Solar Engineering Battery During planning, all of these factors are looked at, and The Deep Cycle batteries used are designed to be discharged and then re-charged hundreds or thousands the one requiring the largest capacity will dictate the of times. These batteries are rated in Amp Hours (ah) - battery size. One of the biggest mistakes made by those usually at 20 hours and 100 hours. Simply stated, amp just starting out is not understanding the relationship hours refers to the amount of current - in amps - which between amps and amp-hour requirements of 120 volt can be supplied by the battery over the period of hours. AC items versus the effects on their DC low voltage batteries. For example, say you have a 24 volt nominal RGY “ MAD EASY system and an inverter powering a load of 3 amps, For example, a 350ah battery could supply 17.5 120VAC, which has a duty cycle of 4 hours per day. You continuous amps over 20 hours or 35 continuous amps would have a 12 amp hour load (3A X 4 hrs=12 ah). for 10 hours. To quickly express the total watts However, in order to determine the true drain on your potentially available in a 6 volt 360ah battery; 360ah DE batteries you have to divide your nominal battery voltage times the nominal 6 volts equals 2160 watts or 2 16kWh 2.16kWh (24v) into the voltage of the load (120v), which is 5, and (kilowatt-hours). then multiply this times your Like solar panels, batteries are wired in series and/or 120vac amp hours (5 x 12 ah). So in this case the parallel to increase voltage to the desired level and calculation would be 60 amp hours drained from your p y increase amp hours. p OLAR ENER batteries - not the 12 ah. Another simple way is to take the total watt-hours of your 120VAC device and divide The battery should have sufficient amp hour capacity to by nominal system voltage. supply needed power during the longest expected period "no sun" or extremely cloudy conditions. A lead- Using the above example; 3 amps x 120 volts x 4 hours acid battery should be sized at least 20% larger than ANDING SO = 1440 watt hours divided by 24 DC volts = 60 amp watt-hours this amount If there is a source of back up power such amount. back-up power, hours. Lead-acid batteries are the most common in PV as a standby generator along with a battery charger, thepreparation by s.r.kushero systems because their initial cost is lower and because battery bank does not have to be sized for worst case they are readily available nearly everywhere in the world. weather conditions. The size of the battery bank There are many different sizes and designs of lead-acid required will depend on the storage capacity required, batteries, but the most important designation is that they the maximum discharge rate, the maximum charge rate,“UNDERSTA are d deep cycle b tt i l batteries. L d id b tt i Lead-acid batteries are and th minimum t d the i i temperature at which th b tt i will t t hi h the batteries ill available in both wet-cell (requires maintenance) and be used. sealed no-maintenance versions. AGM and Gel-cell deep-cycle batteries are also popular because they are maintenance free and they last a lot longer.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 24. Solar Engineering Battery Wiring Diagrams Wiring up your battery bank. Use 2, 4, 6, or 12 volt b tt i lt batteries t b ild a system voltage of 12 to build t lt f 12, 24, or 48 volts using series and parallel wiring with just 4 clicks. Battery bank capacities from 300 Amp/Hours to over 4000 Amp/Hours •AWG (American Wire Gauge) RGY “ MAD EASY Based on the distance to your solar panel array & the amount of amperage your panels put out. Configurations are possible for Amp/Hour DE capacities from as little as 300 Amp/Hours to over 4000. To use the Designer, follow these 4 simple steps : Click 2, 4, 6, or 12 volt batteries to build OLAR ENER your Battery 1.Battery Bank. 2. Select the closest Amp/Hour rating for 1 Battery. ANDING SO 3. 3 Choose your System Battery Bank voltage voltage. (your inverter input voltage)preparation by s.r.kushero 4. Select the size of the Battery Bank capacity in Amp/Hours.“UNDERSTA To determine the Amp/Hour capacity you will need, use System Sizing Estimator which will calculate the Amp/Hour capacity of your battery bank and also the number of solar panels required. required“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 25. Solar Engineering Battery Bank Configurations are possible for AmpHour capacities from as little as 300 AmpHours to over 4000. 4000 To use the Designer follow these 4 simple Designer, steps : RGY “ MAD EASY 1.Battery Bank. Batteries come in various individual sizes. They can be connected to DE increase th system voltage. i the t lt 2. Select the closest Amp/Hour rating for 1 battery. To determine the total Amp/Hour capacity of p p y OLAR ENER your battery bank you must use the rating for 1 battery. 3. Choose your System Battery Bank voltage. (your inverter input voltage) The System Voltage ANDING SO is the combined voltage of the entire batterypreparation by s.r.kushero bank. The Solar Panels, the Charge Controller, and the“UNDERSTA Inverter will all use this voltage voltage. 4. Select the size of the Battery Bank capacity in Amp/Hours.This is the total capacity required to run your solar energy system.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 26. Solar Engineering Battery Bank Storage Batteries : the fuel tank of your solar power Industrial strength : Flooded, Gel, and AGM sealed system batteries Without batteries to store energy you would only have power when the sun was shining or the generator was running. This tutorial The next 3 types are the heavier industrial type batteries. describes the 4 basic types of batteries & provides some good tips They are all also considered Deep Cycle and are usually Lead on the care & feeding of your batteries tomaximize their performance Acid types with much thicker internal plates that can withstand and life. many deep discharge cycles. These next 3 are all designed for RGY “ MAD EASY alternative energy systems. 1) RV / Marine / Golf Cart : RV or Marine type deep cycle batteries 2) Flooded types : These are Lead acid batteries that have caps to add are basically for boats & campers and are suitable for only very water. Many manufacturers make these types for Solar Energy use. small systems. They can be used but do not really have the capacity Trojan, Surrette, and Deka are probably the most well known. They are DE for continous service with many charge/discharge cycles for many reasonably priced and work well f many years. All fl d d b tt i bl i d d k ll for flooded batteries years. Regular or Car type batteries should not be used at all release gas when charged and should not be used indoors. If installed because they cannot be discharged very much without internal in an enclosure, a venting system should be used to vent out the gases damage. A very popular battery for small systems is the Golf Cart which can be explosive. battery. 3) Gel : Not to be confused with maintenance free batteries, sealed gel OLAR ENER They are somewhat more expensive th Th h t i than d deep cycle recreational l ti l batteries have no vents and will not release gas during the charging batteries but are probably the least expensive choice for a small process like flooded batteries do. Venting is therefore not required and system on a budget. they can be used indoors. This is a big advantage because it allows the batteries to maintain a more constant temperature and perform better. 4) AGM : Absorbed Glass Mat batteries are in my opinion the best ) G bso bed G ass at batte es a e y op o t e ANDING SO available for Solar Power use. A woven glass mat is used between the plates to hold the electrolyte. They are leak/spill proof, do not out gaspreparation by s.r.kushero when charging, and have superior performance. They have all the advantages of the sealed gel types and are higher quality, maintain voltage better, self discharge slower, and last longer. The Sun Xtender series by Concorde Battery is an excellent example of AGM batteries.“UNDERSTA They are more expensive, but you usually get what you pay for. You will find this type of battery used in airplanes, hospitals, and remote telephone/cell tower installations.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 27. Solar Engineering Battery Bank Care and Feeding As a technician, I used to say that if you are not comfortable, then neither is your equipment. I was mostly referring to temperature and humidity In fact battery capacity ratings are humidity. usually specified at 77 degrees F. As batteries get colder RGY “ MAD EASY their voltage drops and performance suffers. DE This is Thi i one major reason I prefer AGM b tt i j f batteries because they can be stored indoors where the temperatures vary less. Another important thing to consider is how deeply you discharge your batteries. This is known as the DOD OLAR ENER (depth of discharge). In other words, how low you let the voltage drop before the next charge cycle. Most battery ratings talk about 50% or so, but they will last longer if you keep them as charged as possible. I like the 70% range. ANDING SOpreparation by s.r.kushero Lead acid batteries like to be fully charged. They will last much longer if you do not discharge them too deeply. This is known as shallow cycling and greatly extends their life.“UNDERSTA However, they can withstand discharges down to 20% or so, but I wouldnt do it too often“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 28. Solar Engineering Wire & Cables To connect the components of a Solar Energy System, you will need to use correct wire sizes to ensure low loss of energy and to prevent overheating and possible damage or even fire Below is a chart showing the fire. equired wire size for wire lengths to connect RGY “ MAD EASY the solar panels to the Charge Controller. DE Use these numbers for a 12 volt system to achieve a 3% or less voltage drop. The top row represents the Wire gauge size, the left column the number of amps the solar OLAR ENER panels are rated at, and the grid cells show the distances in feet between the Solar Panels and the Charge Controller. ANDING SO This chart shows wire distances for a 3%preparation by s.r.kushero voltage drop or less. NOTE : This chart is an approximate distance reference and is a little conservative. For a much more accurate“UNDERSTA These distances are calc lated for a 12 volt calculated olt system. Multiply distances by 2 for a 24 volt wire sizing, use our new Wire Size system. Multiply distances by 4 for a 48 volt Calculator tool. It can calculate wire size system. using 3%, 4%, or 5% losses plus you can select 12, 24, or 48 volt systems , , y“ . a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 29. Solar Engineering Wire chart Wire chart for connecting 12 Volt solar panels to the Charge Controller #12 #10 #8 #6 #4 #3 #2 #1 #1/0 #2/0 RGY “ MAD EASY 4 22.7 36.3 57.8 91.6 146 184 232 292 369 465 6 15.2 24.2 38.6 61.1 97.4 122 155 195 246 310 DE 8 11.4 11 4 18.2 18 2 28.9 28 9 45.8 45 8 73.1 73 1 91.8 91 8 116 146 184 233 10 9.1 14.5 23.1 36.7 58.4 73.5 92.8 117 148 186 12 7.6 12.1 19.3 30.6 48.7 61.2 77.3 97.4 123 155 14 6.5 10.4 16.5 26.2 41.7 52.5 66.3 83.5 105 133 16 5.7 9.1 14.5 22.9 36.5 45.9 58.0 73.0 92.0 116 OLAR ENER 18 5.1 8.1 12.9 20.4 32.5 40.8 51.6 64.9 81.9 103 20 4.6 7.3 11.6 18.3 29.2 36.7 46.4 58.4 73.8 93.1 25 3.6 5.8 9.3 14.7 23.4 29.4 37.1 46.8 59.1 74.5 30 3.1 4.8 7.7 12.2 19.5 24.5 30.9 38.9 49.2 62.1 35 2.6 26 4.2 42 6.6 66 10.5 10 5 16.7 16 7 20.9 20 9 26.5 26 5 33.4 33 4 42.2 42 2 53.2 53 2 ANDING SO 40 2.3 3.6 5.8 9.2 14.6 18.4 23.2 29.2 36.9 46.5preparation by s.r.kushero If you have 3 solar panels rated at 6 amps each, mounted 30 feet from the Charge Controller, then you would“UNDERSTA move down the chart to 18 amps (3 panels * 6 amps), and across to 32.5 (closest to 30), and then up the chart to #4. You would need at least #4 gauge wire (awg) to move 18 amps 30 feet with a minimum voltage drop of 3% or less, an acceptable loss. If you cant find the exact numbers, choose either a larger gauge wire (smaller number) or select a distance longer than your actual distance.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 30. Solar Engineering Inverter Motors and power supplies usually run warmer and less An inverter is a device which changes DC power efficiently on mod-sine wave power. Some things, like stored in a battery to standard 120/240 VAC fans, amplifiers, and cheap fluorescent lights, give off an electricity (also referred to as 110/220). Most audible buzz on modified sine wave power. However, solar power systems generate DC current which modified sine wave inverters make the conversion from is stored in batteries. DC to AC very efficiently. They are relatively y y y y inexpensive, and many of the electrical devices we use RGY “ MAD EASY Nearly all lighting, appliances, motors, etc., are every day work fine on them. designed to use ac power, so it takes an inverter to make the switch from battery-stored DC to Sine wave inverters can virtually operate anything. Your standard power (120 VAC, 60 Hz). p ( , ) DE utility company provides sine wave power, so a sine wave inverter is equal to or even better than utility supplied power. A sine wave inverter can "clean up" In an inverter, direct current (DC) is switched utility or generator supplied power because of its internal back and forth to produce alternating current processing. Inverters are made with various internal (AC). Then it is transformed, filtered, stepped, features and many permit external equipment interface. y p q p OLAR ENER etc. etc to get it to an acceptable output waveform waveform. Common internal features are internal battery chargers The more processing, the cleaner and quieter which can rapidly charge batteries when an AC source the output, but the lower the efficiency of the such as a generator or utility power is connected to the conversion. The goal becomes to produce a inverters INPUT terminals. Auto-transfer switching is waveform that is acceptable to all loads without also a common internal feature which enables switching ANDING SO sacrificing too much power into the conversion from either one AC source to another and/or f f ih h d/ from utility ili process. power to inverter power for designated loads.preparation by s.r.kushero Inverters come in two basic output designs - sine Battery temperature compensation, internal relays to wave and modified sine wave. Most 120VAC control loads, automatic remote generator starting / , g g“UNDERSTA devices can use the modified sine wave, but stopping and many other programmable features are there are some notable exceptions. Devices available. Most inverters produce 120VAC, but can be such as laser printers which use triacs and/or equipped with a step-up transformer to produce silicon controlled rectifiers are damaged when 120/240VAC. Some inverters can be series or parallel p provided mod-sine wave power. p "stacked-interfaced" to produce 120/240VAC or to“ increase the available amperage. a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 31. Solar Engineering The Power Inverter Square Wave power inverters : This is the least expensive and least desirable Unless you plan on using battery power for type. The square wave it produces is inefficient everything, everything you will need a Power Inverter Since Inverter. and is hard on many types of equipment These equipment. the majority of modern conveniences all run on inverters are usually fairly inexpensive, 500 watts RGY “ MAD EASY 220 volts AC, the Power Inverter will be the heart or less, and use an automotive cigarette lighter of your Solar Energy System. It not only converts plug-in. Dont even consider one of these types the low voltage DC to the 220 volts AC that runs of power inverters for a home system. DE most appliances, but also can charge the batteries if connected to the utility grid or a AC Modified Sine Wave power inverters : Generator as in the case of a totally independent stand-alone solar power system. This is probably the most popular and economical type of power inverter. It produces yp p p OLAR ENER an AC waveform somewhere between a square wave and a pure sine wave. Modified Sine Wave inverters, sometimes called Quasi-Sine Wave inverters are not real expensive and work well in ANDING SO all but the most demanding applications and even most computers work well with a Modifiedpreparation by s.r.kushero Sine Wave inverter. However, there are exceptions. Some appliances that use motor speed controls or that use timers may not work p y“UNDERSTA quite right with a Modified Sine Wave inverter. And since more and more consumer products are using speed controls & timers, I would only recommend this type of inverter for smaller installations such as a camping cabin cabin.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 32. Solar Engineering The Power Inverter True Sine Wave power inverters : A True Sine Wave power inverter produces the closest Grid Tie Power I G id Ti P Inverters t to a pure sine wave of all power inverters and in many If you are connected to normal Utility company cases produces cleaner power than the utility company power and just want to add some Free Sun Power itself. It will run practically any type of AC equipment electricity to reduce your electric bill and you do not and is also the most expensive Many True Sine Wave expensive. need a totally independent system, it is possible that power inverters are computer controlled and will a Grid Tie power inverter will suit your needs. With a RGY “ MAD EASY automatically turn on and off as AC loads ask for Grid Tie power inverter, whatever electricity that service. I believe they are well worth the extra cost. I your solar panels produce will reduce the amount use a True Sine Wave power inverter myself and find supplied by the utility company, in effect lowering DE that its t th t it automatic capabilities makes it seem more lik ti biliti k like your bill And if you are producing more power than bill. And, Utility Company power. The Xantrex 2500 watt power you are using, you can actually sell the extra power inverter back to the utility company! For this type of setup a much smaller battery bank can be installed just to cover short term outages from a few minutes to an OLAR ENER I use has a search feature and checks every couple of hour or two. In fact, if you dont have frequent long seconds for anything that wants AC, then it powers up term power outages and dont need back-up power, automatically. You just flick on a light switch (or then you will not need any batteries at all. (But, whatever) and it works. When you turn off the light or really, what utility company never fails? :) the refrigerator kicks off for example, the power ANDING SO inverter shuts d i t h t down t save b tt to battery power.preparation by s.r.kushero While the Modified Sine Wave inverter (sometimes called a Quasi Sine Wave inverter) is nearly half the“UNDERSTA price of a True Sine Wave inverter I would still inverter, recommend using a True Sine Wave inverter if you want to supply automatic power to a normal home using a wide variety of electrical devices. Also, most appliances run more efficiently and use less power“ with a T ih True Si Sine W Wave i inverter as opposed to a d Modified Sine Wave power inverter. a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 33. Solar Engineering The Power Inverter Power Inverter considerations. The Power Inverter is connected directly to the batteries and the ain AC breaker panel to supply Input voltages. Should I use a 12, 24, or 48 volt power f from ththe b tt i batteries t to th the l d loads Inverter? RGY “ MAD EASY appliances). Check out Wires & Cables for more info on the necessary wire size for installing one The main consideration when deciding on the or use our new Wire Size Calculator. The Power input voltage (from your battery bank) of your DE Inverter converts th l I t t the low oltage DC t 220 volts lt to lt Inverter is the distance between your solar panel AC. Power Inverters are available for use on 12, array and your battery bank. The higher the 24, or 48 volt battery bank configurations. Most voltage, the lower the current and the smaller the Power Inverters can also charge the batteries if (expensive) cables need to be. Of course, when you decide on a system voltage the Solar voltage, OLAR ENER connected t th AC li t d to the line. Alt Alternatively, th AC ti l the line input could be your own AC Generator in the Panels, Inverter, and Battery Bank all need to case of a stand-alone solar power system. When use the same voltage. More detailed information using a AC Generator to charge the batteries, on voltage & current is explained in the tutorial on Power & Watts To help decide on which Watts. ANDING SO voltage to use, check out our Wire Sizepreparation by s.r.kushero the Power Inverter transfers the AC Generator Calculator which can tell you what size wire is power to the loads via a relay. This way the AC needed to connect the solar panels to your Generator not only charges the batteries but also equipment area You can try all 3 different area.“UNDERSTA supplies your AC power while it is running. If voltages to see the change that it can make in your Generator is at least 5000 watts, you can wire size. charge your batteries and have extra AC power at the same time.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 34. Solar Engineering The Power Inverter Two i T inverters can b i t ll d i a configuration t be installed in fi ti known as stacking that can provide more power or higher voltage. If two compatible inverters are stacked in series you can double the output voltage. This would be the technique to use to provide 220/240 volts AC. On the other hand, if RGY “ MAD EASY you configure them in parallel, you can double your power. Two 4000 watt inverters in parallel would give you 8000 watts (8KW) of Electricity DE For a small system on a budget, a 2000 to 3000 watt Modified Sine Wave power inverter will do the job for around Rs.2200 to Rs.1500. Expect to OLAR ENER pay up t R 1000 more f a T to Rs.1000 for True Si Sine WWave power inverter if you want to be able to run anything and have the automatic features. These higher quality Power Inverters are computer controlled and once set-up can control your 220 set up, ANDING SO volts AC, battery charging, and even auto-startpreparation by s.r.kushero compatible AC Generators; all automatically. If your goal is to provide real home power, A True Sine Wave inverter is really your best choice.“UNDERSTA The extra cost, in the long run, is a good investment in performance and reliability. For a small seasonal use cabin, a Modified Sine Wave Inverter Stacking: Using multiple inverters inverter would probably do the job.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 35. Solar Engineering How to Determine How many solar panels and batteries Ill need? This will depend on how much electricity p y you are going to need and how many days RGY “ MAD EASY you plan to be able to run on just battery power alone (no sun at all). To assist you in determining the size system you will DE need, need our System Sizing Estimator will help you calculate the number of solar panels youll need and what size battery bank is required. We also provide a Battery Bank Designer tool to show you y g y OLAR ENER how to wire your battery bank for a 12, 24, or 48 volt system. What kind of wires or cables will I need ANDING SO to hook all this stuff together?preparation by s.r.kushero The Wires & Cables tutorial covers this q question and provides a handy chart to p y“UNDERSTA calculate the required wire sizes based on the voltage of your system and the distances between components. Also, our new Wire Size Calculator tool will calculate wires sizes for you you.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 36. Solar Engineering Solar power system configuration System Size 2.100kW 3.150kW 4.200kW 5.250k Generation(*Day/KW ) 8 - 10 12 -16 16 - 21 20 -25 Generation (*Annual/Kw) 2,900 - 3,690 4,300 - 5,100 5,800 - 6,500 7,300 – 8 RGY “ MAD EASY Solar Module 175watts (12) 175watts (18) 175watts(24) 75watts (30) Inverter 2500 3300 3800 5000A DE *KWh OLAR ENER This small energy efficient home uses gy ANDING SO Solar Panels (6nos) * 80 Wpreparation by s.r.kushero Charge Controller 60 amp Inverter 2500W Puresine wave“UNDERSTA Batteries. (15 nos)* 105 AH“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 37. Solar Engineering Solar power system configuration System Size 2.160kW 3.240kW 4.320kW 5.040kW Generation kWh/Day 8 -10 12 - 16 16 - 21 20 -25 RGY “ MAD EASY Generation kWh/annum 2,900 -3,690 4,300 - 5,100 5,800 - 6,500 7,300 - 8000 Solar Module (Watt) Mono 180 Mono 180 Mono 180 Mono 180 DE (x 12) (x 18) (x 24) (x 30) Inverter 2500 2500 3300 4500 5000A OLAR ENER 5.4KWh ANDING SO 3.2KWhpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 38. Solar Engineering ANDING SO RGY “ MAD EASY OLAR ENER DEpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 39. Solar Engineering Largest Global Photovoltaic Power Plants ANDING SO RGY “ MAD EASY OLAR ENER DEpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 40. Solar Engineering Global Solar Photovoltaic Installation Install Wp/capit off on off on Total Module kW h/kWp yr kW·h/kWp·yr Feed in Feed-in Tariff Country or R i C t Region ed d a grid grid grid grid 2007 Price Insolation EU¢/kW·h Report Nat. Int. 2007 Total Δ Δ Σ Σ €/Wp World 127.9 2,130 2,258 662.3 7,178 7,841 2.5–11.2 800–2,902 0–59.3 Germany 35 1,100 1,135 35 3,827 3,862 46.8 4.0–5.3 1,000–1,300[28] 51.8–56.8 Japan[29][27] 1.562 208.8 210.4 90.15 1,829 1,919 15 2.96 1,200–1,600 Ended(2005) RGY “ MAD EASY United States 55 151.5 206.5 325 505.5 830.5 2.8 2.98 900–2,150[28] 1.2–31.04(CA) Spain] 22 490 512 29.8 625.2 655 15.1 3.0–4.5 1,600–2,200 18.38–44.04 DE Italy 0.3 69.9 70.2 13.1 107.1 120.2 2.1 3.2–3.6 1,400–2,200 36.0–49.0 Australia 5.91 6.28 12.19 66.45 16.04 82.49 4.1 4.5–5.4 1,450–2,902[33] 0–26.4(SA08) South Korea 0 42.87 42.87 5.943 71.66 77.60 1.6 3.50–3.84 1,500–1,600 56.5–59.3 France 0.993 30.31 31.30 22.55 52.68 75.23 1.2 3.2–5.1 1,100–2,000 30.0–55.0 OLAR ENER Netherland 0.582 1.023 1.605 5.3 48 53.3 3.3 3.3–4.5 1,000–1,200 1.21–9.7 Switzerland 0.2 6.3 6.5 3.6 32.6 36.2 4.9 3.18–3.30 1,200–2,000 9.53–50.8 Austria 0.055 2.061 2.116 3.224 24.48 27.70 3.4 3.6–4.3 1,200–2,000 >0 ANDING SO Canada[ 3.888 3 888 1.403 1 403 5.291 5 291 22.86 22 86 2.911 2 911 25.78 25 78 0.8 08 3.76 3 76 900–1,750 900 1 750 0–29.48(ON) 0 29 48(ON) Mexico] 0.869 0.15 1.019 20.45 0.3 20.75 0.2 5.44–6.42 1,700–2,600 Nonepreparation by s.r.kushero United Kingdom 0.16 3.65 3.81 1.47 16.62 18.09 0.3 3.67–5.72 900–1,300 0–11.74(exprt) Portugal 0.2 14.25 14.45 2.841 15.03 17.87 1.7 1,600–2,200“UNDERSTA Norway 0.32 0.004 0.324 7.86 0.132 7.992 1.7 11.2 800–950 None Sweden 0.271 1.121 1.392 4.566 1.676 6.242 0.7 3.24–7.02 900–1,050 None Denmark 0.05 0.125 0.175 0.385 2.69 3.075 0.6 5.36–8.04 900–1,100 None Israel 0.5 05 0 0.5 05 1.794 1 794 0.025 0 025 1.819 1 819 0.3 03 4.3 43 2,200–2,400 2 200 2 400 13.13–16.40 13 13 16 40“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 41. Solar Engineering Payback Energy Payback Time and Energy Returned on Energy Invested The energy payback time is the time required to produce an amount of energy as great as what was consumed during production. The energy payback time is determined from a life cycle analysis of RGY “ MAD EASY energy. Another key indicator of environmental performance, tightly related to the energy payback time, is DE the ratio of electricity generated divided by the energy required to build and maintain the equipment. This ratio is called the energy returned on energy invested (EROEI). Of course, little is gained if it takes as much energy to produce the modules as they produce in their lifetimes. OLAR ENER This should not be confused with the economic return on investment, which varies according to local energy prices, subsidies available and metering techniques. Life-cycle analyses show that the energy intensity of typical solar photovoltaic technologies is rapidly evolving. In 2000 the energy payback time was estimated as 8 to 11 years[75], but more recent studies suggest that technological ANDING SO progress h reduced thi t 1 5 t 3 5 years f crystalline silicon PV systems has d d this to 1.5 to 3.5 for t lli ili tpreparation by s.r.kushero Thin film technologies now have energy pay-back times in the range of 1-1.5 years (S.EuropeWith lifetimes of such systems of at least 30 years, the EROEI is in the range of 10 to 30.“UNDERSTA They thus generate enough energy over their lifetimes to reproduce themselves many times (6-31 reproductions, the EROEI is a bit lower) depending on what type of material, balance of system (or BOS), and the geographic location of the system.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 42. Solar Engineering Average cost in Paisa/kWh over 20 years for solar power panels Paisa per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated by a photovoltaic system as function of the investment cost and the efficiency, p yg y p y y, assuming some accounting parameters such as cost of capital and depreciation period. The row headings on the left show the total cost, per peak kilowatt (kWp), of a photovoltaic installation. The column headings across the top refer to the annual energy output in kilowatt-hours expected from each installed peak kilowatt. This varies by geographic region because the average insolation depends on the average cloudiness and the thickness of atmosphere traversed by the sunlight. It also depends on the path of the sun relative to the panel and the horizon. Panels can be mounted at an angle based on latitude, which can add to total energy output.[65] Solar tracking can also be utilized to access even more perpendicular sunlight, thereby raising the total energy output. The calculated values in the table RGY “ MAD EASY reflect the total cost in Paisa per kilowatt-hour produced. They assume a 10% total capital cost (for instance 4% interest rate, 1% operating and maintenance cost, and depreciation of the capital outlay over 20 years). DE 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 Cost kWh/kWp• kWh/kWp• kWh/kWp• kWh/kWp kWh/kWp kWh/kWp kWh/kWp kWh/kWp kWh/kWp y y y •y •y •y •y •y •y 10000 Rs/kWp 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.5 30000 Rs/kWp 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.8 4.3 5.0 6.0 7.5 OLAR ENER 50000 Rs/kWp 4.2 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.3 7.1 8.3 10.0 12.5 70000 Rs/kWp 5.8 6.4 7.0 7.8 8.8 10.0 11.7 14.0 17.5 90000 Rs/kWp 7.5 8.2 9.0 10.0 11.3 12.9 15.0 18.0 22.5 ANDING SO 110000 Rs/kWp / 9.2 92 10.0 10 0 11.0 11 0 12.2 12 2 13.8 13 8 15.7 1 18.3 18 3 22.0 22 0 27.5 2preparation by s.r.kushero 130000 Rs/kWp 10.8 11.8 13.0 14.4 16.3 18.6 21.7 26.0 32.5 150000 Rs/kWp 12.5 13.6 15.0 16.7 18.8 21.4 25.0 30.0 37.5 170000 Rs/kWp 14.2 15.5 17.0 18.9 21.3 24.3 28.3 34.0 42.5“UNDERSTA 190000 Rs/kWp 15.8 17.3 19.0 21.1 23.8 27.1 31.7 38.0 47.5 210000 Rs/kWp 17.5 19.1 21.0 23.3 26.3 30.0 35.0 42.0 52.5 230000 Rs/kWp 19.2 20.9 23.0 25.6 28.8 32.9 38.3 46.0 57.5 250000 R /kW Rs/kWp 20.8 20 8 22.7 22 7 25.0 25 0 27.8 27 8 31.3 31 3 35.7 35 7 41.7 41 7 50.0 50 0 62.5 62 5“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 43. Solar Engineering Pros : Cons ANDING SO RGY “ MAD EASY OLAR ENER DEpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 44. Solar Engineering Environmental impacts Unlike fossil fuel based technologies, solar power does not lead to any harmful emissions during operation, but the production of the panels leads to some amount of pollution. This is often referred to as the energy input to output ratio. In some analysis, if the energy input to produce it is higher than the output it produces it RGY “ MAD EASY can be considered environmentally more harmful than beneficial. DE Also, placement of photovoltaics affects the environment. If they are located where f ff f photosynthesizing plants would normally grow, they simply substitute one potentially renewable resource (biomass) for another OLAR ENER It should be noted, however, that the biomass cycle converts solar radiation energy to electrical energy (plants make electricity? check again) with significantly less efficiency than photovoltaic cells alone. And if they are placed on the sides of y p y p ANDING SO buildings (such as in Manchester) or fences, or rooftops (as long as plants wouldpreparation by s.r.kushero not normally be placed there), or in the desert they are purely additive to the renewable power base.“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 45. Solar Engineering Greenhouse gases Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions are now in the range of 25-32 g/kWh and this could decrease to 15 g/kWh in the future RGY “ MAD EASY For comparison, a combined cycle gas-fired power plant emits some 400 DE g/kWh and a coal-fired power plant 915 g/kWh and with carbon capture and storage some 200 g/kWh. Only nuclear power and wind are better emitting 6-25 g/kWh and 11 better, OLAR ENER g/kWh on average. Using renewable energy sources in manufacturing and transportation would further drop photovoltaic emissions. ANDING SOpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 46. Solar Engineering Cadmium One issue that has often raised concerns is the use of cadmium in cadmium telluride solar cells (CdTe is only used in a few types of PV panels). Cadmium in its metallic form is a toxic substance that has the tendency to accumulate in ecological food chains. RGY “ MAD EASY The amount of cadmium used in thin-film PV modules is relatively small (5-10 y ( DE g/m²) and with proper emission control techniques in place the cadmium emissions from module production can be almost zero. Current PV technologies lead to cadmium emissions of 0.3-0.9 microgram/kWh over the whole life- cycle.[74] Most of these emissions actually arise through the use of coal power OLAR ENER for the manufacturing of the modules, and coal and lignite combustion leads to much higher emissions of cadmium. ANDING SO Life-cycle cadmium emissions f Lif l d i i i from coal i 3 1 microgram/kWh, li it 6 2 and l is 3.1 i /kWh lignite 6.2, d natural gas 0.2 microgram/kWh. Note that if electricity produced by photovoltaicpreparation by s.r.kushero panels were used to manufacture the modules instead of electricity from burning coal, cadmium emissions from coal power usage in the manufacturing“UNDERSTA process could be entirely eliminated“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 47. Solar Engineering Disadvantages 1. Cost may not cover lifespan savings unless a preferential feed-in tariff is offered by the grid network. But this depends on location and energy prices. RGY “ MAD EASY 2. Solar electricity is often initially more expensive than electricity generated by other sources. DE 3. Solar electricity is not available at night and is less available in cloudy weather conditions from conventional silicon based technologies. Therefore, a storage or complementary power system is required. However, the use of germanium in OLAR ENER amorphous silicon-germanium thin film solar cells provides residual power generating capacity at night due to background infrared radiation. 4. 4 Limited power density: Average daily insolation in the contiguous U S is 3-7 and U.S. 3 7 ANDING SO on average lower in Europe.preparation by s.r.kushero 5. Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC (using a grid tie inverter)“UNDERSTA when used in currently existing distribution grids. This incurs an energy loss of 4- f 12%.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 48. Solar Engineering Advantages 1. The 89 petawatts of sunlight reaching the earths surface is plentiful - almost 6,000 times more than the 15 terawatts of average power consumed by humans. Additionally, solar electric generation has the highest power density (global mean of 170 W/m²) among renewable energies energies. RGY “ MAD EASY 2. Solar power is pollution free during use. Production end wastes and emissions are manageable using existing p g g g pollution controls. End-of-use recycling technologies are y g g DE under development. 3. Facilities can operate with little maintenance or intervention after initial setup. OLAR ENER 4. Solar electric generation is economically superior where grid connection or fuel transport is difficult, costly or impossible. Examples include satellites, island communities, remote locations and ocean vessels. ANDING SOpreparation by s.r.kushero“UNDERSTA“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 49. Solar Engineering Advantages 5. When grid-connected, solar electric generation can displace the highest cost electricity during times of peak demand (in most climatic regions), can reduce grid loading, and can eliminate the need for local battery power for use in times of darkness and high local demand; such application is encouraged by net metering. RGY “ MAD EASY Time-of-use net metering can be highly favorable to small photovoltaic systems. DE 6. Grid-connected solar electricity can b 6 G id t d l l t i it be used ld locally th ll thus reducing d i transmission/distribution losses (transmission losses were approximately 7.2% in 1995). OLAR ENER 7. Once the initial capital cost of building a solar power plant has been spent, operating costs are extremely low compared to existing power technologies. ANDING SO 8. C Compared to f fossil and nuclear energy sources, very little research-money haspreparation by s.r.kushero been invested in the development of solar cells, so there is much room for improvement. Nevertheless, experimental high efficiency solar cells already have efficiencies of over 40% and efficiencies are rapidly rising while mass production“UNDERSTA costs are rapidly falling.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 50. Solar Engineering Photovoltaics research institutes 1. Some universities and institutes which have a photovoltaics research department. 2. Solar Energy Materials Research Group (http://emat-solar.lbl.gov/) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 3. The Center for Functional Nanomaterials (http://www.bnl.gov/cfn/) at Brookhaven National Laboratory 4. Solar Energy Laboratory (http://www.soton.ac.uk/~solar) at University of Southampton 5. National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL (http://www.nrel.gov) 6. Energy & Environmental Technology Application Center (http://www.e2tac.org/) at the College of Nanoscale Science RGY “ MAD EASY and Engineering SUNY at Albany 7. Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE (http://www.ise.fhg.de) at the Fraunhofer Institute 8. Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) (http://www.ecn.nl/en/zon/) DE 9. 9 Imperial College London: Experimental Solid State Physics (http://www.imperial.ac.uk/research/exss/) (http://www imperial ac uk/research/exss/) 10. Instituto de Energía Solar (http://www.ies.upm.es/) , at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (http://www.upm.es/) 11. Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/el/research/crest/) , at Loughborough University (http://www.lboro.ac.uk) 12. School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering at The University of New South Wales OLAR ENER 13. 13 Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems (http://solar anu edu au) at the Australian National University (http://solar.anu.edu.au) 14. Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (http://www.epfl.ch/) Prof. Graetzel invented dye sensitized cells here 15. Advanced Energy Systems (http://www.hut.fi/Units/AES) at Helsinki University of Technology 16. Institute of Materials Research, Salford University (http://www.imr.salford.ac.uk/) 17. The Centre for Electronic Devices and Materials (http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/meri/electronic/) at Sheffield Hallam ANDING SO University 18. The Centre for Advanced Investigations on Electric Engineering (http://www.sees.cinvestav.mx/) at The National Polytechnicpreparation by s.r.kushero Institute of Mexico 19. The Solar Caliometry Lab (http://me.queensu.ca/people/harrison/research/solar/index.htm) at Queens University 20. Institute of microtechnology (http://www2.unine.ch/pv) at University of Neuchatel Switzerland (http://www2.unine.ch)“UNDERSTA 21. 21 University of Konstanz (http://www uni-konstanz de/photovoltaics/) (http://www.uni-konstanz.de/photovoltaics/) 22. Arizona State University Photovoltaic Testing Laboratory (http://www.poly.asu.edu/ptl/) 23. Institute of Energy Conversion (http://www.udel.edu/iec) at University of Delaware (http://www.udel.edu) 24. World Alliance for Decentralized Energy (http://www.localpower.org) 25. Florida Solar Energy Center at University of Central Florida (http://www.ucf.edu) 26. 26 Linz I tit t for Organic S l C ll (LIOS) (htt // Li Institute f O i Solar Cells (http://www.lios.at) li t)“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 51. Solar Engineering This Solar Home runs a freezer, computer, 27 inch color tv, microwave, and assorted other lights and devices In the winter I run devices. RGY “ MAD EASY my generator for 45 to 60 minutes per day to charge the batteries up to about 90%. DE Since some winter days are sunny the sunny, generator is not used every day. OLAR ENER For a small to medium sized Solar Energy System, a 4KW to 7KW watt generator will work nicely. The price range is Rs. 50,000 to 200,000 depending on brand & features You can spend much more on Auto-Start features. Auto Start ANDING SO capability, diesel fueled, or propane fueled generators but I believe onlypreparation by s.r.kushero large systems would make these generators economical. Although you can buy a 7000 watt model with electric start at Home Depot for Rs. 300,000“UNDERSTA and after almost 5 years of use, realize it is bigger than your need. Still, its nice to have the extra power.“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 52. Solar Engineering Frequently Asked Questions How much do PV cells degrade with rising/falling How do I know what size PV system I need? temperature? The best indicator for sizing a PV system is your The electrical outputs of PV cells are specified for a historical electrical usage, or the number of kilowatt given temperature (usually +25C). The behaviour when hours (kWh) you consume each year. It is especially the temperature rises above or falls below the optimum p p important to determine an annual average for your kWh given by the manufacturer depends upon the physical usage, because many families experience seasonal RGY “ MAD EASY properties of the photovoltaic material used. As a general spikes in usage. This average gives you a starting point rule, the output will drop. For precise information on a for comparing the energy output of various systems. particular cell or module, see the manufacturers data sheet. DE What is Net Metering? ? What are Building Integrated photovoltaics? If you take the AC output of your inverter and run it to the mains coming from your utility power meter, any excess BIPV or Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics is an industry power you generate will feed back into the utility grid and buzz phrase, which indicates photovoltaic modules drive your power meter backwards. This is called Net integrated into various construction materials Solar roof materials. OLAR ENER Metering. Effectively, you will be paid the going retail tiles are an example. Similar combination materials can price for your electricity up to the amount of energy you be used on any other well illuminated surface. use per billing period. Any excess energy you generate will be credited at a lower rate, or perhaps not at all. What is a Solar Tracker? ANDING SO A Solar Tracker is a device which aims a solar panel In many countries, all PV electricity generated is directly at the sun in order to maximize energy output.preparation by s.r.kushero purchased by the utility company at a rate higher than The mechanisms for achieving this can be as varied as the tariff applied for consumed electricity. In this case, a human ingenuity allows. dedicated metering exists for PV generation, plus a second metering for domestic consumption. Each applies“UNDERSTA What happens if the sun doesnt shine? different tariffs. So, in this case, not only the excess Your PV system will continue to produce electricity electricity is remunerated, but so too is the total amount during cloudy weather at a slower rate. At night or during of PV production. inclement weather, additional electricity is provided to y your home through your utility connection. g y y“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 53. Solar Engineering Frequently Asked Question Can I sell excess solar electricity back to my utility? How do grid connected PV systems work? Electric utilities in many countries give retail credit to solar customers Solar electric systems use PV technology to convert sunlight into who feed excess solar electricity back to the power grid. Known as electricity during daylight hours. If your home or office requires more "net metering," this utility policy is implemented by letting your electricity than can be provided by your PV system, the balance is electric meter spin backwards when you feed excess electricity into the grid. In many countries, all PV electricity generated is purchased provided through your utility connection. by the utility company at a rate higher than the tariff applied for consumed electricity. I thi case, a d di t d metering exists f PV d l t i it In this dedicated t i i t for Isnt PV electricity expensive? generation, plus a second metering for domestic consumption. Each RGY “ MAD EASY applies different tariffs. So, in this case, not only is the excess No. The cost of PV technology has dropped dramatically in the past electricity remunerated, but so too is the total amount of PV ten years and, thanks to government incentives or subsidies, a PV production. system may be your most cost-effective power solution. DE Does my grid connected PV system have to include batteries? What is a grid connected PV system? No. Batteries are only essential if you want back-up power in the Grid connected means that your system is connected to the utility case of a utility outage. Otherwise, your grid connected PV system lines, or the "grid". A grid connected PV system is designed to meet will send any excess generated electricity back to the utility, using the utility grid (rather than batteries) as the storage medium. all, or a portion of your daily energy needs. This connection enables you to obtain the balance of your electricity from your local utility. It also allows you to send excess solar electricity back to your power What is an Inverter? OLAR ENER company for later use use. An electrical device which converts direct current [DC] to alternating current [AC]. Solar cells produce a direct current. Unfortunately, most of the electrical devices we commonly use expect a standard I already have utility power, so why should I choose PV? AC power supply. An inverter takes the DC from the solar cells and Photovoltaic systems allow you to lock your electricity rates at creates a useable form of AC. Besides doing this, an inverter may todays prices. With fossil fuels likely to become more expensive in also be connected to the electric grid and/or a battery backup syste system. the future, purchasing a PV system today is a smart economic move. ANDING SO In some countries, there is the possibility of enjoying f f feed-in tariffs, ff or investment incentives. PV systems also offer greater self- Can I use a grid connected PV system as a back-up sourcepreparation by s.r.kushero during a utility power outage? sufficiency, reduce dependence on imported oil and are far better for the environment than power from conventional power plants. A grid connected PV system can continue to provide electricity to your home during an outage if it has an inverter and batteries. How long has PV been around? g“UNDERSTA What is photovoltaic technology? PV has been used as the primary source of electricity on satellites Solar electric systems use a technology called photovoltaics, or PV, since the 1950s. Since the 1970s, PV has been used more and more that converts sunlight into electricity. PV cells are made from for "earth-based" applications as costs declined tenfold. Today, the semiconductive material, usually silicon. They are silent and non- PV industry is a billion dollar per year industry with primary markets polluting, utilise a source of energy that renews itself, and require no in developing countries. In many countries, PV is the most reliable special training to operate. and least costly form of electricity available. y y“ a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com
  • 54. Solar Engineering Contact Us ANDING SO RGY “ MAD EASY OLAR ENER DE **For Soft and hard copies or consultancy :preparation by s.r.kushero centre for application of renewable energy Navi Mumbai 400706 (India)“UNDERSTA email :care@ care-india.com Home Page :http://www.care-india.com **WE HAVE BEEN RECEIVING A LOT OFREQUEST FOR SOFT COPIES , WE HAVE MADE A PDF FILE IS AVAILABLE ON OUR WEBSITE FOR FREE“ OWER POINT PRESENTATION WE DO ASKFOR A SMALLFEEOF u$d2/- TTOENABLE OUR RESEARCH PAYABLE AT APYAPL AT THIS EMAIL ADDRESS a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero email : Care.@care-india.com http://www.care-india.com

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