BIOGAS for Everyone : Simplified for all

14,925
-1

Published on

A TEXT BOOK : Complete and comprehensive inputs in Learning about Biogas and Biogas digestors:We have tried to take the mystery away from biogas.

Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and various excellent opportunities to use.
One main advantage of biogas is the waste reduction potential. Biogas production by anaerobic digestion is popular for treating biodegradable waste because valuable fuel can be produced while destroying disease-causing pathogens and reducing the volume of disposed waste products.

Biogas burns more cleanly than coal, and emits less carbon dioxide per unit of energy. The carbon in biogas was recently extracted from the atmosphere by photosynthetic plants. Releasing it back into the atmosphere adds less total atmospheric carbon than burning fossil fuels.

Thus, biogas production kills two birds with one stone: it reduces waste and produces energy. In addition, the residues from the digestation process can be used as high quality fertilizer. This closes the nutrient cycle.

Published in: Environment, Technology, Business
2 Comments
41 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
14,925
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
24
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
82
Comments
2
Likes
41
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

BIOGAS for Everyone : Simplified for all

  1. 1. BIOGAS THE COMPLETE MANUAL UNRAVELING THE MYSTERY BEHIND & UNDERSTANDING MADE SIMPLER CENTRE FOR APPLICATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGYCENTRE FOR APPLICATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY ** We apologize if some fonts may look distorted . Due to non support of fonts at the server s, Slideshare is working on the same Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india
  2. 2. OUR BIOGAS BASED PRESENTATIONS GUIDES AND MANUAL TO BUILD YOU OWN DIGESTORSGUIDES AND MANUAL TO BUILD YOU OWN DIGESTORS http://www.slideshare.net/careindia/build-your-own-digestor http://www.slideshare.net/careindia/kitchen-waste-to-biogas-214 htt // lid h t/ i di / i lt 37599940http://www.slideshare.net/careindia/vermiculture-37599940 Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  3. 3. THE MANTRA AND PHILOSOPHY humans tend to make the process li t d iblas complicated as possible by trying to improve on nature in complex machinesi p x hi s but a simple approach is still possible Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  4. 4. CLEAN ENVIRONMENT “CLEAN ENVIRONMENT FOR ALL, INCLUDING NATURE ITSELF"ITSELF . It is said that nature has suffered more because of man rather than other way d Wh th i NOTround. Wherever there is a human interference the environment has undergone considerable degradation. NOT THISg THIS Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  5. 5. ALARM BELLS FOR THE HUMAN RACE ……  So what should we do about it?  The realisation has come at a slower pace but it is better late than never. Since nothing new can be created in this world and while existing energy sources are getting depleted at alarmingly rapid rate We must use every available resource judiciouslyrapid rate We must use every available resource judiciously. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  6. 6. SCIENCE (BIOTECHNOLOGY) ..HELP IS ON THE WAY Humans tend to make the process as complicated as possible by trying to improve on nature in complex machines but a simple approach is still possible There are enough natural agencies which are tooThere are enough natural agencies, which are too keen to help us in this endeavor. Science has revealed these tools and we must use their potential to achieve the urgent call of naturepotential to achieve the urgent call of nature Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  7. 7. WHAT IS SO SPECIAL OF THESE MICRO-ORGANISMS? One resource is the waste organic matter that is generated in the kitchens , one of the natural agencies which will play an important role inwill play an important role in this utilisation is the tiny part of the huge world, of tiny microbes. 1. 1 They can thrive in extreme environments where ordinarily no one would even imagine that there would be life.. 2 The discovery of extremophiles has put a new life into the biotech industry and dreams2. The discovery of extremophiles has put a new life into the biotech industry and dreams of stock options in the minds of field biologists. 3. These organisms not only survive higher temperatures but also grow and reproduce. They have the ability to use sulphurous waste and convert it into non-toxic products. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN y p p
  8. 8. THE MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIC WASTE Based on our understanding of th hili i g i ithermophilic microorganisms in particular and microbial processes in general, there are two important modifications made in the conventionalmodifications made in the conventional design of the biogas plant Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  9. 9. DRAWBACKS GOBAR GAS ??? A Gobar gas plant based on solid wasteA Gobar gas plant based on solid waste chokes the plant. This choking occurs due to thick biomass that is inaccessible to the microorganisms to digest it. 'The logical l i i i f h lidsolution is to conversion of the solid waste into slurry that is far more accessible for the microbial action. Convert the solid waste into slurry achieves this purpose. These twoto s u y ac e es t s pu pose ese t o modifications have improved the design of the traditional biogas plant Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  10. 10. DRAWBACKS GOBAR GAS ??? However, the use of cattle dung as the feedstock is the main factor limiting widespread use of methane as household fuel infactor limiting widespread use of methane as household fuel in rural India. Current domestic biogas plants require about 40kg of cattle dung (from 6 to 8 heads of cattle) every day. And because the dung has a retention period of about 40 days, the size of the bi l t i l l "R t i ti f dbiogas plant is also large. "Restriction of space, money and absence of sufficient animals prevent many aspirants from having a biogas plant Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  11. 11. REASONS FOR FAILURE Operators did not have the skills or the time required to keep a marginal system operating. Producers selected digester systems that were not compatible with their manure handling methods. Some designer/builders sold “cookie cutter” designs to farms. For example, of the 30 plug flow di t b ilt 19 b ilt b d i d 90digesters built, 19 were built by one designer and 90 percent failed. The designer/b ilders installed the rong t pe ofThe designer/builders installed the wrong type of equipment, such as incorrectly sized engine- generators, gas transmission equipment, and l t i l l Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN electrical relays.
  12. 12. REASONS FOR FAILURE The systems became too expensive to maintain and repair because of poor system designrepair because of poor system design. Farmers did not receive adequate training and technical support for their systemstechnical support for their systems. There were no financial returns of the system or returns diminished over timereturns diminished over time. Farms went out of business due to non-digester factorsfactors. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  13. 13. REASONS FOR SUCCESS The owner/operator realized the benefits biogas technology had to offer and wanted to make it work. The owner/operator had some mechanical knowledge and ability and had access to technical support. The designer/builder built systems that were compatible with farm operation. The owner/operator increased the profitability of biogas systems through the utilization and sale of man re b prod cts Some facilities generate moremanure byproducts. Some facilities generate more revenues from the sale of electricity and other manure byproducts than from the sale of milk. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  14. 14. REASONS FOR SUCCESS There is an increasing number of states and CENTRAL programs designed to cost share in the development of these systems; and the emergencedevelopment of these systems; and the emergence of new state. A ne gro ing concern of farm o ners abo tA new growing concern of farm owners about environmental quality. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  15. 15. TODAY’S EXPERIENCE The development of anaerobic digesters forp g livestock manure treatment and energy production has accelerated at a very face pace over the past few years Factors influencing this market demandyears. Factors influencing this market demand include: increased technical reliability of anaerobic digesters through the deployment of successful h d doperating systems over the past decade. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  16. 16. MANAGEMENT of ORGANIC WASTE The waste generated in kitchen in the form of vegetable refuse, stale cooked d k d f d t t d t d t ilk d ilk d tand uncooked food, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products can all be processed. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  17. 17. WASTE TO KITCHEN These factors add to the value of such plants. we can certainly handle the kitchen waste and other biodegradable biomass waste like paper, etc……. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN p p ,
  18. 18. WASTE TO KITCHEN The efficient disposal of kitchen waste is ecofriendly as well as cost effective. One has to consider more than monetary aspects. Th d i f k d f d i d l d tThe dumping of uncooked food in unmanned area leads to population growth of nuisance animals. It is undoubtedly unhygienic and poses a threat to the habitat. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  19. 19. WHAT IS BIOGAS ?? • WHAT IS BIOGAS ? WHAT IS IT’S COMPOSITION ?• WHAT IS IT’S COMPOSITION ? • WHERE TO LOOK FOR IT ? • HOW GOOD IS IT AS FUEL ?• HOW GOOD IS IT AS FUEL ? • CAN IT LIGHT UP MY HOME ? • DOES IT SMELL ? • IS IT SAFE ? • HOW DO I GET IT ? HOW CAN I MAKE IT ?• HOW CAN I MAKE IT ? • CAN IT HELP GENERATE ELECTRICITY ? Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  20. 20. COMPOSITION OF BIOGAS CH3COOH Acetic acid --> CH4 Methane + CO2 Carbon dioxide 2CH3CH2OH CO2 CH4 2CH3COOH2CH3CH2OH Ethanol + CO2 Carbon dioxide --> CH4 Methane + 2CH3COOH Acetic acid CO2 Carbon dioxide + 4H2 Hydrogen --> CH4 Methane + 2H2O Water Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  21. 21. COMPOSITION OF BIOGAS Composition of biogas Substances Symbol Percentage Methane CH4 50 70Methane CH4 50 - 70 Carbon Dioxide CO2 30 - 40 Hydrogen H2 5 - 10Hydrogen H2 5 10 Nitrogen N2 1 - 2 Water vapour H2O 0.3 Hydrogen Sulphide H2S Traces Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  22. 22. Wh t i BIOGAS ?What is BIOGAS ? C/N RATIO MATERIALS Raw Materials C/N Ratio  Duck dung  8 Human excreta 8  Chicken dung  10  Goat dung 12  Pig dung  18  Sheep dung  19  Cow dung 24 Buffalo dung  24  W  h i h    El h  d    Water hyacinth  25  Elephant dung  43  Straw (maize) 60  Straw (rice)  70  Straw (wheat) 90  Saw dust  >200 Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  23. 23. CALORIFIC VALUESCALORIFIC VALUES THERMAL EFFICIENCY Commonly Calorific Thermaly used fuels Thermal efficiency Bio-gas 4713/M 360% D k 2093/KDung cake 2093/Kg 11% Firewood 4978/Kg 17.3% Diesel (HSD) 4600/Kg 30% Kerosene 10850/Kg 50%Kerosene 10850/Kg 50% Petrol 11100/Kg --- Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  24. 24. BIOGAS PLANTSBIOGAS PLANTS A  realistic screening process for livestock  facilities to decide if biogas technology is  an appropriate match for the farm and  farm owner  From the vast array of Plants farm owner. From the vast array of Plants  and designs Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  25. 25. CLASSIFICATION OF BIOGAS PLANTS based on the plant components S. No. Bio-gas Plants with Movable Gas holder Fixed Dome Type Digester and gas holder Separate Flexible Bag Plant Plant Models i KVIC Design Sichuan Model Sulabh Model Neoprene Bag Model ii IARI Design Shanghai Model Bardoli Model Swastik Biogas Plant iii PRAI design (Two Chambers) Janta (Brick Masonry) PAU Model Red Mud Plastic Model iv Kamdhanu (baked clay) model Bhagya Laxmi Sangli Model v ASTRA Model Kalinga (RCC) CV Krishna Model (FRP Fixed ) vi JWALA Model ASTRA (Chinese type) vii Ganesh Model GAIC/ATRC (RCC segment) viii Khira model AFPRO (Horizontal RCC pipe ) i FRP M d l D B dh M d lix FRP Model Deen Bandhu Model x Ferro cement Digester Model Bharat Model xi SERC Model xii SPRERI Model Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN xii SPRERI Model
  26. 26. THE BIODIGESTER : KVIC Floating drum digester Experiment on biogas technology in India began in 1937. In 1956 Jasu Bhai J Patel developed a design of1956, Jasu Bhai J Patel developed a design of floating drum biogas plant popularly known as Gobar Gas plant. In 1962, Patel's design was approved by the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) of India and this design soon became popular in India and the world. In this design, the digester chamber is made of brick masonry in cement mortar Amade of brick masonry in cement mortar. A mild steel drum is placed on top of the digester to collect the biogas produced from the digester. Thus, there are two separate PLANTS structures for gas production and collection.. BIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN B
  27. 27. THE BIODIGESTER : DCS PLANTS DCS uses a taper design for high water table areas BIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN B
  28. 28. THE BIODIGESTER : DCS PLANTS DCS uses a straight design for low water table areas BIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN B
  29. 29. THE BIODIGESTER : JANTA Janta designs are relatively easy to construct and maintain because they have no moving parts and because corrosion is not a problem. One drawback is that Janta plants may require periodic cleaning duebecause corrosion is not a problem. One drawback is that Janta plants may require periodic cleaning due to scum build-up. As gas pressure increases in a fixed volume, the pressure pushes some of the slurry out of the digester and back into both the inlet and outlet tanks, causing the slurry level in each tank to rise. PLANTSBIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN B
  30. 30. THE BIODIGESTER : CHINA FIXED DOME Fixed dome Chinese model biogas plant (also called drumless digester) was built in China as early as 1936. It consists of an underground brick masonry compartment (fermentation chamber) with a dome on the top for gas storage. In this design, the fermentation chamber PLANTS ) p g g g , and gas holder are combined as one unit. This design eliminates the use of costlier mild steel gas holder which is susceptible to corrosion. The life of fixed dome type plant is longer (from 20 to 50 years) compared to KVIC plant. BIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN B
  31. 31. THE BIODIGESTER : DEENBANDHU The Deenbandhu Model is a semi continuous-fed fixed dome Biogas plant. The design essentially consists of segments of two spheres of different diameters joined at their bases. The structure thus formed comprises of (i) the digester (fermentation chamber) (ii) the gas storage chamber and (iii) the empty space just above the PLANTS (i) the digester (fermentation chamber), (ii) the gas storage chamber, and (iii) the empty space just above the gas storage chamber. The higher compressive strength of the brick masonry and concrete makes it preferable to go in for a structure that could be always kept under compression. A spherical structure loaded from the convex side will be under compression and therefore, the internal load will not have any effect on the structure BIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN effect on the structure. B
  32. 32. THE BIODIGESTER : MCRC Sri A.M.M. Murrugappa Chettiar Research Center (MCRC), Madras,(M ), M , has developed a brick digester with a high-density polyethylene gas holder supported by a g d i f Th f i PLANTS geodesic frame The frame is bolted to the digester walls, and the plastic gas holder is retained by a water seal. BIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN y B
  33. 33. THE BIODIGESTER : JYOTI This ensures that the heavier, partially digested material settles to the digester floor unimpeded by the lighter biomass. The JSEI innovation could be an important breakthrough in the use of agricultural and forest residues in biogas systems. In addition to solving the problem of scum build-up, theg p p, JSEI technique also seems to eliminate the necessity of excessive shredding or drying of residues, making the handling of these materials far less cumbersome and time-materials far less cumbersome and time consuming. Biomass is merely chopped into 2- 3 cm (.75-1.25") squares and then is pushed into the digester through a cylindrical tube i t d i t th fl ti g g h ld Th t b PLANTS inserted into the floating gas holder. The tube is always in contact with the slurry, even with the dome at maximum height, so that no gas can escape. BIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN B
  34. 34. THE BIODIGESTER : ASTRA Comparison of KVIC and ASTRA designs For similar Biogas Plants(40) KVIC ASTRA Rated daily gas output 5.66 5.66 Gas holder diameter (m 1.83 2.44 Gas holder height (m) 1.22 0.61 Gas holder volume ([m.sup.3]) 3.21 2.85([ p ]) Digester diameter (m) 1.98 2.59 Digester depth (m) 4.88 2.44 Digester depth-diameter ratio 2.46 0.94 Digester volume ([m.sup.3]) 15.02 12.85 Capital cost of plant (Rs) 8 10000 4 76500Capital cost of plant (Rs) 8,100.00 4,765.00 Relative costs 100.00 58.80 Daily loading (kg fresh dung) 150.00 150.00 Mean temperature (Celsius) 27.60 27.60 Daily gas yield ([m.sup.3]/day) 4.28 [+ -] 0.47 4.39[+ ] PLANTS -] 0.60 Actual capacity/rated capacity 75.6% 86.4% Gas yield (cm/g fresh dung) 28.5 [+/-] 3.2 32.7 [+ or -] 4.0 Improvement in gas yield -- +14.2% BIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN p g y B
  35. 35. BIOGAS SYSTEMS : Covered Lagoon PLANTS Bag digester. This design was developed in 1960s in Taiwan. It consists of a long cylinder made of PVC or red mud plastic BIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN B
  36. 36. TYPICAL BIODIGESTER : SYSTEM Horizontal Feedstock collection — Sump Pulper / Mixer Anaerobic digester — Effluent storage — Manure Gas handling — GGas use. PLANTSBIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN B
  37. 37. TYPICAL BIODIGESTER : SYSTEM FEEDSTOCK COLLECTION  — SUMP  PULPER / MIXER/ ANAEROBIC DIGESTER — EFFLUENT STORAGE — MANURE GAS HANDLING — GAS USE. PLANTSBIOGASP Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN B
  38. 38. BIOGAS SYSTEMS : Table A Characteristics Plug Flow Digester Fixed Film Digestion Vessel Above Ground Tank Rectangular in d d g g Ground Above Ground Tank Level of Technology Medium Low Supplement Heat Yes No Total Solids 11 to 13 % 3 % Solid Characteristics Coarse Very Fine HRT Days 15+ 2 to 3 Farm Type Dairy Only Dairy Optimum Location All Climates Temperate and Warm Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN Warm
  39. 39. BIOGAS SYSTEMS : Table AA Characteristics Covered Lagoon Complete Mix Digester Digestion Vessel Deep Lagoon Round /Square InDigestion Vessel Deep Lagoon Round /Square In Level of Technology Medium Low Supplement Heat No YesSupplement Heat No Yes Total Solids 0.5 to 3% 3 to 10 % S lid Characteristics Fine C arseSolid Characteristics Fine Coarse HRT Days 40 to 60 15 + F Ty D i y H gFarm Type Dairy Hog Optimum Location Temperate and Warm All Climates Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  40. 40. BIOGAS SYSTEMS : 60’s Monthsning06M etersPlus Commission CubicMe menttoC ors220 Commencem orDigesto Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN C fo
  41. 41. BIOGAS SYSTEMS : 60’s Months s ning06M etersPlus Commissio 0CubicM ementtoC ors220 Commence orDigesto Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN C f
  42. 42. BIOGAS SYSTEMS : BASED ON OLD SYSTEMS SL. No Plant Capacity Av. Daily Feedstock and Slurry (ratio of 1 Kg. Feedstock:1 Lt. Water) Requirement Approx. No. of Av. Size Cattle No. of family members (cooking and lighting requirement) Average cost as on Sept 1, 2010 q q ) Feedstock Fresh Slurry (M3) (Ft3) (Kg) (Lt.) (Nos.) (Nos.) (Indian Rs.) Commencement to Commissioning 06 Months for Digestors 2 20 Cubic Meters Plus (M ) ( ) (Kg) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 35 2.5 5.0 2-3 3-4 10000 2 2 70 5.0 10.0 4-6 6-8 18000 3 3 105 75 15.0 6-9 9-12 25000 4 4 140 10.0 20.0 8-12 12-16 34000 5 6 210 15.0 30.0 12-18 18-24 44000 Commencement to Commissioning 30 - 90 Days for Digestors from 1m3 200 m3 Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN for Digestors from 1m3 200 m3
  43. 43. BIOGAS SYSTEMS : C.A.R.E Process About two kg dry starchy matter mixed in about 10 litres of water is the daily input The retention A household digester unit or family size biogas plant normally has the gas production capacity to meet 10 litres of water is the daily input. The retention time ranges from 12 to 24 hours, depending upon the temperature. g p p y all the cooking and 2-4 hours of lighting (using biogas lamps with single mental) needs of a family. In India 1 m3 biogas plant refers to The CARE model Has a gas holder tank of 550 litres capacity, having about 500 litres usable gas holding space. We advice the housewife to introduce a kg ofIndia 1 m3 biogas plant refers to the rated capacity of that particular unit which has been designed to produce 1 m3, 1000 lt. We advice the housewife to introduce a kg of feedstock once in the morning and again in the evening. Every time she gets about 500 litres of gas, which is enough to cook one meal for a family ofg p or 35 ft3 gas per day under optimal conditions five. Families eating only rice may require just half of this quantity of gas. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  44. 44. INSTITUTIONAL SIZED BIO GAS PLANT Serving Over 15,000 People Main digestion tank (35 m3), Manure pits, Gas lamps for utilisation of the biogas generated in the plant Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN plant.
  45. 45. INSTITUTIONAL SIZED BIO GAS PLANT A biogas plant in a vegetable oil factory Cost and savings in slide C t t C i i i g 10 D y f Dig t b 30 C bi M tCommencement to Commissioning 10 Days* for Digestors above 30 Cubic Meters Institutional Plant with solar and pulper Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  46. 46. INSTITUTIONAL SIZED BIO GAS PLANT A biogas plant in a vegetable oil factory Cost and savings . Before KWP Installation After KWP Installation LPG Consumed 60 kg/day 30 kg/day Before installing the Kitchen Waste Plant (KWP) 60 kg per day of LPG is being used in the Canteen kitchen as cooking fuel. The KWP will utilize 600g y g y Cost of LPG/annum Rs. 4.95 Lakhs Rs. 2.47 Laces Net Annual Savings Rs. 2.47 Laces C t f Kit h W t Pl t R 325 L cooking fuel. The KWP will utilize 600 kg/day of Kitchen Waste generated and generate 60 m3/day of biogas, which is equivalent to about 30 kg/day of LPG. This will replace 30 Cost of Kitchen Waste Plant Rs. 3.25 Laces Less 100% Dep. Benefit in 1st year Rs.1.15 Laces Net cost of Kitchen Waste Plant Rs.2.35 Laces kg/day of LPG. This will replace 30 kg/day of LPG used in the canteen kitchen. KWP serves duel purpose of disposing the Kitchen Waste, thus maintaining hygienic and clean Simple Payback 0.95 Years Net Reduction in Cooking Energy Cost 50 % ma n a n ng hyg en c and c ean surroundings and replacing 50% of Cooking Fuel with Biogas generated Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  47. 47. A PERSPECTIVE AND COMPARATIVE Parameters Conventional Systems CARE System Time needed for construction to commissioning for 1CUm / 20 CUM 25 days / 90 to 120 days 1 Day / 30 Days Fermentor Volume for Family of Four to Six Large 4000 Litres Small 1000 Litresto Six. 4000 Litres 1000 Litres Construction Materials Conventional MS Dome prone to corrosion Composite New Age PVC non corrosive Percentage of Methane by weight 60 % 25%Percentage of Methane by weight 60 % 25% Quantity needed from system for a family of four 1980 Litres 800 Litres Carbon Dioxide 20 % to 30 % 5 % to !5 %Carbon Dioxide 20 % to 30 % 5 % to !5 % O & M Intensive Easy Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  48. 48. A PERSPECTIVE AND COMPARATIVE Parameters Conventional Systems CARE System Amount of required feedstock 40 kg + 40 lit water 1-1.5 kg + 15 lit waterAmount of required feedstock 40 kg 40 lit water 1 1.5 kg 15 lit water Nature of required feedstock Dung organic material Any starchy material Kitchen Waste. Left over Food, A t d N t f l y tAmount and Nature of slurry to be disposed 80 lit, sludge 15 lit, watery HRT Retention Time for full utilization of feedstock 40 days 48-72 hours Standard size for household 4000 lit 1000-1500 lit Capital Investment per unit i l di g INR 20 000 INR 10 000 including stove INR 20,000 INR 10,000 Running Expenses per meal INR 25 0 to INR 5 Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  49. 49. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india
  50. 50. BIOGAS TO ELECTRICAL GENERATION Kind of  l Manure type Amount k d Solid amount  k d Biogas per  animal  Energy per  animal animal Manure type (kg/day) (kg/day) animal  (m3/day)* animal (kWh/yr) Cow Slurry 51 5,4 1,6 3400 Cow Dry 32 5,6 1,6 3400 Sow Slurry 16,7 1,3 0,46 970 Sow Dry 9,9 2,9 0,46 970 Hen Dry 0,66 0,047 0,017 36 Quantity of feedstock from farm animals and Potential Captive Energy Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  51. 51. A COMPARATIVE Equivalent Quantity of Fuel for 1 m3 of Bio-Gas Name of the fuel Kerosene Firewood Cow dung Charcoal Biogas and Biomass Name of the fuel Kerosene Firewood Cow dung cakes Charcoal Equivalent quantities to 1 0620 3474 kg 12296 1458 kgquantities to 1 m3 of Bio-gas 0.620 3.474 kg 12.296 kg 1.458 kg Name of the fuel Soft coke Butane Furnace Oil Coal gas Electricity Oil Equivalent quantities to 1 m3 of Bio-gas 1.605 kg 0.433 kg 0.4171 1.177 m3 4.698 kWhm of Bio gas kWh Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  52. 52. THE Biogas Engine Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  53. 53. THE Biogas Engine •THE Biogas Engine “CARE” •Biogas specific Engines using 100 %g p g g Biogas •Works without battery ideal for rural areas. •Gas cooled, water cooled air cooled •Spark ignition 1500 to 1800RPM •Automatic air and fuel control to take•Automatic air and fuel control to take variable load •Single Phase and Three Phase •Alternator and Engine coupled on single•Alternator and Engine coupled on single rigid frame •Gas Consumption of 600 Cft per KWH Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  54. 54. F. A. Q.’S? FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION?FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION? Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  55. 55. HOW MUCH DOES AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTION FACILITY COST? The cost of an AD facility depends on many factors, and would be calculated before any work was started. A key decision point is not only how much the facility costs; it's how much revenue the facility generates. t f li ti f bl gy’ bi ti f highCentre for Application of Renewable Energy’s combination of higher energy production and waste management revenue means a superior ROI and greater lifetime revenue stream over other options. We invite you to fill in our information request form or contact us for more information. We would be happy to show what we can do for you. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  56. 56. HOW DO BIOGAS ENERGY SYSTEMS?HOW DO BIOGAS ENERGY SYSTEMS? COMPARE with other anaerobic digestion technologies? C t f A li ti f R bl E gy t h l gy th t h bCentre for Application of Renewable Energy uses technology that has been perfected in digesters over the past decade, with more designed and built each year. Centre for Application of Renewable Energy ' digesters are 30-100% more efficient in producing energy than other digesters. The fact coupled with the ability to take a variety of waste input means CentreThe fact, coupled with the ability to take a variety of waste input means Centre for Application of Renewable Energy ' facilities generate far superior revenue over time.. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  57. 57. WHAT IS YOUR COW TO KW RATIO? In other words, how efficiently do your digesters produce energy? Unfortunately this ratio, which is often used by digester developers, has little meaning in the real world since our digesters are able to accept alittle meaning in the real world since our digesters are able to accept a variety of substrates and therefore create far more methane than manure digesters alone. By adding high energy inputs like grease or fats, there is no comparison to our competitors who are only able to accept gmanure or a limited amount of lower-energy inputs Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  58. 58. What materials can "feed" your digesters? Centre for Application of Renewable Energy operate with a base material of manure from cattle or pigs. In addition, the digesters thrive with other inputs like kitchen waste brewery waste industrial foodwith other inputs, like kitchen waste, brewery waste, industrial food processing waste, energy crops like corn, fish and poultry remnants, ethanol production waste, and more. h g g h g hThis is a significant advantage over other types of digesters that can only process manure, and adds an enormous amount of power generation capacity to the facility Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  59. 59. BESIDES BIOGAS, WHAT COMES OUT OF THE DIGESTERS? The liquid that results from the anaerobic digestion processThe liquid that results from the anaerobic digestion process have a slurry which is separated out, and sold to local gardeners, landscapers and farmers. Some farmers use the solids as bedding for their cows and sell it as bedding to neighbors since the pathogen treatment is so effective. The liquids are returned to the farmer as nutrient rich natural fertilizer, which replaces imported nutrients and thereby cuts costs. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  60. 60. Does a biogas facility smell? Actually, anaerobic digesters alleviate odor problems, especially as suburban growth surrounds farms and introduces neighbors who complain about manure smells. By installing an anaerobicp y g digester. The farmer solves odor issues to everyone's satisfaction. Since th dig t i tight th ll t y ithi d th li idthe digesters are airtight, the smell stays within, and the liquids and solids coming out of the digester have only a very slight odor compared to raw slurry. Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  61. 61. A bi Dig t T h l gyAnaerobic Digester Technology Improvements and Optimizations Anaerobic digestion is gaining popularity in India due to several factors not least of which is the continuing improvement offactors, not least of which is the continuing improvement of biogas production technology. In India. In Europe, where anaerobic digestion facilities are in operation, optimization of digester technology continues to this day. The improvements and optimizations that have been made in Europeimprovements and optimizations that have been made in Europe are now coming to India through Centre for Application of Renewable Energy . Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  62. 62. LOW MAINTENANCE, HIGH EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY Farmers already have enough work, so our anaerobic digesters require minimal labor and maintenance without sacrificing efficiency of methane production or pathogen treatment. By continually improving techniques and equipment that have been built Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN
  63. 63. Centre for Application of Renewable Energy Inc. was founded in 2006 t address India's rural masses pressing need f rin 2006 to address India's rural masses pressing need for domestically produced, renewable, power. Centre for Application of Renewable Energy licenses the most li bl ffi i t t i d d t t d bi dig tireliable, efficient, tried and tested anaerobic digestion technology to the Indian market.. ** We apologize if some fonts may look distorted . Due to non support of fonts at the server s, Slideshare is working on the same Home pages:/ : http://www.care-india.com : http://www.careindia.co.nr : http://www.biogas.co.nr email : care@care-india.com care.india@live.co.uk : Skype : care.india BIOGAS SIMPLIFIED FOR THE LAYMAN

×