Peeling Design Patterns

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Peeling Design Patterns

  1. 1. PEELING DESIGN PATTERNS-To All Our Readers
  2. 2. Copyright Β© by All rights reserved. Designed byCopyright Β©2012 CareerMonk Publications. All rights reserved.All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronicor mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without writtenpermission from the publisher or author.
  3. 3. AcknowledgementsFirst and foremost, we would like to thank our , and dear whose supportand encouragement throughout our lives have made it possible for us to build the skill setnecessary to succeed.We would like to express our gratitude to many people who saw us through this book, to allthose who provided support, talked things over, read, wrote, offered comments, allowed usto quote their remarks and assisted in the editing, proofreading and design. In particular, wewould like to thank the following individuals.  , IIT Bombay  , IIT Kharagpur, Xilinx Pvt. Ltd.  , Founder, Vegayan Systems Pvt. Ltd.  , Senior Manager, Microsoft India Pvt. Ltd.  , IIT Kanpur, Mentor Graphics Pvt. Ltd.  , IIT Kanpur, Microsoft India Pvt. Ltd.  , Nokia Pvt. Ltd.  , IIT Bombay, Google India Pvt. Ltd.  , IIT Bombay, De-Shaw India Pvt. Ltd.  , IIT Roorkee, Microsoft India Pvt. Ltd.  , Founder, StockMonks Pvt. Ltd.  , Founders, Impression Design Studio Pvt. Ltd. -π‘ƒπ‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘“ π‘†π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘’π‘›π‘–π‘£π‘Žπ‘ π‘Ž π‘…π‘Žπ‘œ π‘€π‘’π‘‘π‘Ž -π‘π‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘ π‘–π‘š π‘Ž πΎπ‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘’π‘šπ‘Žπ‘›π‘ 𝑖 Ph. D., Director, School of IT, M. Tech, 𝐼𝐼𝑇 π΅π‘œπ‘šπ‘π‘Žπ‘¦ JNTU, Hyderabad Founder of πΆπ‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘’π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘€π‘œπ‘›π‘˜ π‘π‘œπ‘š
  4. 4. PrefaceDear Reader,Please Hold on! We know many people do not read preface. But we would like to stronglyrecommend reading preface of this book at least. This preface has something fromregular prefaces.This book assumes you have basic knowledge about computer science. Main objective of thebook is to provide you the of design patterns and questions.Before writing the book, we set the following : ο‚· The book be written in that readers without any background in software design should be able to understand it and . ο‚· The book should present the concepts of design patterns in and straightforward manner with a explanation. ο‚· After reading the book, they should be in a position to come up with designs than before and participate in design discussions which happen in their office work. ο‚· The book should provide enough examples so that readers get better understanding of the design patterns and also useful for the interviews. We mean, the book should cover questions. ο‚· After reading the book, the programmers should be in a position to try for software architect positions.Design patterns were introduced to programming practices at the end of as a result ofdissatisfaction with software’s state of affairs. In those days, few means of abstraction(algorithms and data structures) suited well for procedural/functional programming. Theywere well connected with object-oriented programming.The introduction of design patterns marks a turning point in the history of software design.In we have seen the publication of a catalogue ( , , & , ) with - design patterns written by four experienced object-orienteddesigners. The catalogue, which came to be known as the ( ) catalogue,was a super success.Design patterns novices (and ) to avoid common and encourageexperienced programmers to build better software.This book is an enthusiastic celebration of design patterns, especially those which are givenby . In the recept past, most of the object-oriented architectures are built with ofdesign patterns.In this book, explained the design patterns with simple examples which helpsand in understanding them easily. At the end of book, he gave common which helps job seekers to perform better in their interviews.A thorough understanding of the design patterns, processes, and methods in this book willlikewise help you develop better software applications and infrastructure. If you want
  5. 5. thorough coverage of the key patterns then read this book. We have learned much from itand I am confident that you will too.As a job seeker if you read complete book with good understanding, we are sure you willchallenge the interviewers and that is the objective of this book.This book is very much useful for the students of engineering degree and masters duringtheir academic preparations. All the chapters of this book contain theory and their relatedproblems. If you read as a student preparing for competition exams, content of this bookcovers all the required topics in full details.It is that, at least reading of this book is required to get fullunderstanding of all the topics. In the readings, you can directly go to anychapter and refer. Even though, enough readings were given for correcting the errors, due tohuman tendency there could be some minor typos in the book. If any such typos found, theywill be updated at www. .com. We request you to constantly monitor this sitefor any corrections, new problems and solutions. Also, please provide your valuablesuggestions at: . Wish you all the best. Have a nice reading. -π‘ƒπ‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘“ π‘†π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘’π‘›π‘–π‘£π‘Žπ‘ π‘Ž π‘…π‘Žπ‘œ π‘€π‘’π‘‘π‘Ž -π‘π‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘ π‘–π‘š π‘Ž πΎπ‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘’π‘šπ‘Žπ‘›π‘ 𝑖 Ph. D., Director, School of IT, M. Tech, 𝐼𝐼𝑇 π΅π‘œπ‘šπ‘π‘Žπ‘¦ JNTU, Hyderabad Founder of πΆπ‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘’π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘€π‘œπ‘›π‘˜ π‘π‘œπ‘š
  6. 6. Table of Contents1. Introduction-------------------------------------------------------------- 11 1.1 What Is This Book About? ----------------------------------------------------- 11 1.2 Brief History Of Design Patterns ---------------------------------------------- 11 1.3 Should I Take This Book? ------------------------------------------------------ 12 1.4 Is It Useful For Interviews? ---------------------------------------------------- 12 1.5 How To Use this book? --------------------------------------------------------- 12 1.6 Organization Of Chapters ------------------------------------------------------ 13 1.7 Source Code Disclaimer -------------------------------------------------------- 14 1.8 Tools Used For Book ----------------------------------------------------------- 142. UML Basics --------------------------------------------------------------- 15 2.1 What Is UML? ------------------------------------------------------------------ 15 2.2 Why UML? --------------------------------------------------------------------- 15 2.3 UML Notations ----------------------------------------------------------------- 15 2.4 Object Oriented Concepts ------------------------------------------------------ 16 2.5 OO Analysis and Design (OOAD) --------------------------------------------- 18 2.6 UML Building Blocks and Notations ------------------------------------------- 19 2.7 Things--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 2.8 Relationship -------------------------------------------------------------------- 25 2.9 UML Diagrams ----------------------------------------------------------------- 293. Design Patterns Introduction -------------------------------------------- 38 3.1 What Are Design Patterns? ---------------------------------------------------- 38 3.2 Brief History Of Design Patterns ---------------------------------------------- 38 3.3 Why Design Patterns?---------------------------------------------------------- 38 3.4 Categories Of Design Patterns ------------------------------------------------- 39 3.5 What To Observe For A Design Pattern? -------------------------------------- 40 3.6 Using Patterns To Gain Experience -------------------------------------------- 40 3.7 Can We Use Design Patterns Always? ----------------------------------------- 41
  7. 7. 3.8 Design Patterns vs. Frameworks ------------------------------------------------ 414. Creational Patterns ------------------------------------------------------ 43 4.1 Creational Design Patterns ------------------------------------------------------ 43 4.2 Categories Of Creational Design Patterns -------------------------------------- 43 4.3 Factory Method Design Pattern ------------------------------------------------ 44 4.4 Abstract Factory Design Pattern ------------------------------------------------ 48 4.5 Builder Design Pattern ---------------------------------------------------------- 52 4.6 Singleton Design Pattern -------------------------------------------------------- 60 4.7 Prototype Design Pattern ------------------------------------------------------- 655. Structural Patterns ------------------------------------------------------- 70 5.1 Structural Design Patterns ------------------------------------------------------ 70 5.2 Categories Of Structural Design Patterns --------------------------------------- 70 5.3 Adapter Design Pattern --------------------------------------------------------- 71 5.4 Bridge Design Pattern ----------------------------------------------------------- 77 5.5 Composite Design Pattern ------------------------------------------------------ 80 5.6 Decorator Design Pattern ------------------------------------------------------- 86 5.7 Facade Design Pattern----------------------------------------------------------- 93 5.8 Proxy Design Pattern ----------------------------------------------------------- 99 5.9 Flyweight pattern ------------------------------------------------------------- 1026. Behavioral Patterns ----------------------------------------------------- 109 6.1 Behavioral Design Patterns --------------------------------------------------- 109 6.2 Categories Of Behavioral Design Patterns ------------------------------------ 109 6.3 Chain of Responsibility Design Pattern -------------------------------------- 110 6.4 Command Design Pattern ----------------------------------------------------- 116 6.5 Interpreter Design Pattern ---------------------------------------------------- 121 6.6 Iterator Design Pattern -------------------------------------------------------- 125 6.7 Mediator Design Pattern ------------------------------------------------------ 132 6.8 Memento Design Pattern ----------------------------------------------------- 138 6.9 Observer Design Pattern ------------------------------------------------------ 142 6.10 State Design Pattern --------------------------------------------------------- 147 6.11 Strategy Design Pattern ------------------------------------------------------ 150
  8. 8. 6.12 Template Method Design Pattern ------------------------------------------- 153 6.13 Visitor Design Pattern ------------------------------------------------------- 1567. Glossary and Tips ------------------------------------------------------- 161 7.1 What Are Design Patterns? --------------------------------------------------- 161 7.2 How To Use Design Patterns?------------------------------------------------- 161 7.3 Why Design Patterns?--------------------------------------------------------- 162 7.4 What To Observe For A Design Pattern? ------------------------------------- 162 7.5 Using Patterns To Gain Experience ------------------------------------------- 162 7.6 How To Choose A Design Pattern? ------------------------------------------- 163 7.7 Can We Use Design Patterns Always? ---------------------------------------- 163 7.8 Categories Of Design Patterns ------------------------------------------------ 164 7.9 Creational Design Patterns ---------------------------------------------------- 164 7.10 Structural Design Patterns --------------------------------------------------- 165 7.11 Behavioral Design Patterns -------------------------------------------------- 166 7.12 What Are Antipatterns? ----------------------------------------------------- 167 7.13 Refactoring ------------------------------------------------------------------- 168 7.14 Design Patterns vs. Frameworks --------------------------------------------- 168 7.15 Tips --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1688. Design Interview Questions -------------------------------------------- 171 8.1 Design Interview Questions--------------------------------------------------- 171 8.2 Sample Design Questions For Practice---------------------------------------- 2509. Miscellaneous Concepts ------------------------------------------------- 252 9.1 Java Interview Questions------------------------------------------------------ 252
  9. 9. PEELING DESIGN PATTERNS (FOR BEGINNERS AND INTERVIEWS)Other Titles by π‘π‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘ π‘–π‘š π‘Ž πΎπ‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘’π‘šπ‘Žπ‘›π‘ 𝑖 Success keys for Big Job Hunters Data Structures and Algorithms Made Easy (C/C++) Data Structures and Algorithms Made Easy in Java Data Structures and Algorithms for GATE Coding Interview Questions
  10. 10. Peeling Design Patterns Introduction Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION1.1 What Is This Book About?A pattern is a documented solution that has been applied successfully in multipleenvironments to solve a problem that repeatedly occurs in a specific set of situations. Adesign pattern is an . A design pattern is a documented best way of solving aproblem that is observed during the study of many software systems. patterns capture the experience of expert software developers, and present commonrecurring problems, their solutions, and the consequences of those solutions in systematicway.This book explains: ο‚· patterns are useful and important for object-oriented design and development? ο‚· How patterns are , , and ? ο‚· patterns should be used? ο‚· patterns are implemented? ο‚· Common interview questionsDesign patterns provide a structure in which problems can be solved. When solving a realproblem, we have to consider many small variations of a solution to that problem to seewhether any fits a design pattern.To understand and get used to design patterns is really difficult. It can be done by studyingapplications of design patterns, not just the patterns.This book is not just about design patterns. This book is from designpattern books because it is not about catalog of patterns, but presents a way of decomposing aproblem space that maps easily to patterns.It also gives great introduction to object-oriented programming, notations and design interview questions.1.2 Brief History Of Design PatternsPatterns originated as an concept by who is aengineer. In 1987, and began experimenting with the idea1.1 What Is This Book About? 11
  11. 11. Peeling Design Patterns Introductionof applying patterns to and presented their results at a conference that year.In the following years, , and others followed up on this work.Design patterns gained popularity in computer science after the book Design Patterns:Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software was published in 1994 by the so-called Gangof Four ( ).1.3 Should I Take This Book?This book is for programmers who to learn design patterns to improve their object-oriented design, development skills and also for those who want to apply for companieswhich need these skills.After reading this tutorial you will: ο‚· Understand what design patterns are and how they are described and categorized. ο‚· Be able to use design patterns as a vocabulary for understanding and discussing object-oriented software design. ο‚· Understand a few of the most common design patterns and know when and how they should be used. ο‚· Understand the commonly asked design questions in technical interviews.This book assumes that you are familiar with language and with basic object-orientedconcepts such as , , and .Some understanding of the Unified Modeling Language ( ) is helpful, but not required;this book will provide an introduction to the basics of UML.1.4 Is It Useful For Interviews?Peeling Design Patterns ( ) is a book that aims to help software engineers interviewingfor software development positions as well as their interviewers. It consists of concepts andsolved design problems as well.It covers basic required concepts, for example, UML notations, and covers all fundamentaldesign patterns in detail.It also gives tips which help readers as a quick reference. team is with extensiveacademic and industrial experience. They have published many articles on algorithms,applied their skills at , , , and a number of smaller softwarestartups, and conducted many job interviews for various computer science jobs.1.5 How To Use this book?We would like to recommend at least two readings of this book. Upon first reading, you willstart to recognize these patterns in the frameworks you see.1.3 Should I Take This Book? 12
  12. 12. Peeling Design Patterns IntroductionIn the second reading, youll begin to see how these patterns can help you in your owndesigns, and may also start to see new patterns not listed in the book.Once you become familiar with the pattern concept, you will be able to originate your ownpatterns, which will serve you well in the future.One of the most valuable contributions of this book is that it is designed not merely to helpyou identify patterns, but to give you a sense of which patterns are appropriate in whichcontexts.In the subsequent readings, you can directly go to any chapter and refer.1.6 Organization Of ChaptersThe main objective of writing this book is to present design patterns in an easy tounderstand manner with simple examples. This book discusses all the design patterns givenby .In addition, it also covers few concepts (Design Interview Questions, JavaInterview Questions, MVC pattern etc..).The chapters are arranged in the following way: 2. : Gives introduction and necessary concepts of UML which are used in all the remaining chapters. 3. : Provides introduction to design patterns, categories of patterns etc.. 4. C : Discusses creational patterns (Abstract Factory, Factory Method, Builder, Prototype and Singleton patterns). 5. : Discusses structural patterns (Adapter Design, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, Facade, Flyweight and Proxy patterns). 6. : Discusses behavioral patterns (Chain of Responsibility, Command, Interpreter, Iterator, Mediator, Memento, Observer, State, Strategy, Template Method, and Visitor patterns). 7. : Provides summary of all design patterns and gives few tips for beginners. 8. : Covers common interview questions with real-time examples. 9. : Covers Java interview questions and few other concepts like MVC pattern etc..Each design pattern discussion starts with an explanation of the pattern followed by anexample implemented in Java programming language. How a given pattern is applied in theexample is discussed in detail along with code segments and UML diagrams.At the end of each pattern discussion, a few questions are provided for you to improve yourunderstanding of the pattern. Wherever applicable, patterns are compared with other similarpatterns.1.6 Organization Of Chapters 13
  13. 13. Peeling Design Patterns IntroductionThe examples in this book are kept simple for easy understanding. The objective is toenhance the explanation of each pattern with examples for a better understanding.The chapter provides an overview of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) anddiscusses various elements of class and sequence diagrams.In chapter, few real time problems were discussed which usesdifferent design patterns. This chapter discusses how various patterns can be used indesigning and also covers common interview questions as well.1.7 Source Code DisclaimerBoth the author and the publisher make no representations or warranties about thesuitability of the software, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to theimplied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement.Both the author and the publisher shall not be liable for any damages suffered as a result ofusing, modifying or distributing the software or its derivatives.1.8 Tools Used For BookThe examples in this book are all written in the language. It is possible and sufficient toread the code as a mental exercise, but to try out the code requires a minimal Javadevelopment environment.A simple text editor (such as in Windows or in a UNIX environment) and theJava Development Kit (version 1.2 or later) are all you need. A number of tools are alsoavailable for creating UML diagrams (say, Start UML).1.7 Source Code Disclaimer 14
  14. 14. Peeling Design Patterns UML Basics Chapter-2 UML BASICS2.1 What Is UML? stands for . It was initially started to capture thebehavior of complex software and non-software system and now it has become a standard.UML follows the object oriented concepts and methodology. So object oriented systems aregenerally modeled using the pictorial language.UML diagrams are drawn from different perspectives like design, implementation,deployment etc. UML can be as a modeling language to capture the architectural,behavioral and structural aspects of a system. UML is a standard modeling language, not asoftware development process. UML is different from the other common programminglanguages like C++ and Java, and COBOL etc... UML is not a programming language buttools can be used to generate code in various languages using UML diagrams.UML can be described as a visual modeling language to visualize, specify, construct anddocument software system. Although UML is generally used to model software systems butit is also used to model non software systems as well like process flow in a manufacturingunit etc...2.2 Why UML?Objects are the key to object oriented world. The basic requirement of object orientedanalysis and design is to identify the objects efficiently. After that responsibilities areassigned to them. Once this task is complete the design is done using the input from analysis.A is worth a thousand words, this absolutely fits while discussing about UML.Object oriented concepts were introduced much earlier than UML. So at that time there wasno standard method to organize and consolidate the object oriented development. At thatpoint of time UML came into picture. The UML has an important role in this object orientedanalysis and design. The UML diagrams are used to model the design. So the UML has animportant role to play.2.3 UML NotationsUML notations are the most important elements in modeling. Efficient and appropriate useof notations is very important for making a meaningful model. The model is useless unless itspurpose is depicted properly.2.1 What Is UML? 15

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