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  1. 1. 1. Name: LEVVA SOFIA Number: 27108 E-mail: s_levva@hotmail.com2. Name: KOULINA ANASTASIA Number: 27076 E-mail: tkoulina@in.comBODY SYSTEM: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMStudent 1: Levva SofiaQuestion 1: How does the circulatory system work?Answer: Heart and circulatory system make up the cardiovascular system. The heart,works as a pump that pushes blood to the organs, tissues, and cells of the body.The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of the body (includingthe heart itself) and then back to the heart, through a complex network of elastictubes, called vessels. The body’s circulation has two parts, with the heart acting as a double pump.The pumping of the heart forces the blood on its journey. Blood from the rightside pump is dark red (bluish) and low in oxygen. It travels along pulmonaryartery to the lungs where it receives fresh supplies of oxygen. Then, it flowsalong pulmonary veins back to the heart’s left side pump. Blood leaves the leftside of the heart and travels through arteries, which finally branch into capillaries.Capillaries move the blood back through wider vessels called venules. Venuleseventually join to form veins. The blood then travels in veins back to the right sideof the heart, and the whole process begins again. The body’s circulatory system has three distinct parts, as they referred below.Each part must be working independently in order for them to all work together.Pulmonary circulation Pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood from the heart, to the lungs, and then back to the heart again. Throughout two large veins called vena cavae, all the veins of the body bring waste-rich blood back to the heart
  2. 2. entering the right atrium. The right atrium fills with the blood and then contracts,pushing the blood through a one-way valve, the tricuspid valve, into the rightventricle. The right ventricle fills and then contracts, pushing the blood into thepulmonary artery which leads to the lungs. At the same time, tricuspid and mitralvalves are closed. In the lung capillaries, takes place the exchange of carbondioxide and oxygen. The fresh, oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart, re-enteringthrough the left atrium throughout the pulmonary veins. The oxygen-rich bloodthen passes through mitral valve (a one-way valve) into the left ventricle where itwill exit the heart through aorta. The left ventricle’s contraction forces the bloodinto the aorta and then begins its journey throughout the body. The one-way valves are important for preventing any backward flow of blood.The circulatory system is a network of one-way streets. If blood started flowingthe wrong way, the blood gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) might mix, causinga serious threat to your body.Coronary circulation While the circulatory system is busy providing oxygen and nourishment toevery cell of the body, heart which works hardest of all, needs oxygen-rich bloodto survive. Coronary circulation refers to the movement of blood through thetissues of the heart. Blood is supplied to the heart by its own vascular system,the coronary arteries. The aorta branches off into two main coronary arteries. These branch off into smaller arteries, which supply oxygen- rich blood to the entire heart muscle. The heart tissue receivesnourishment through the capillaries located in the heart. The right coronary artery supplies blood mainly to the right heart. The right sideof the heart is smaller because it pumps blood only to the lungs. The leftcoronary artery, which branches into the left anterior descending artery and thecircumflex artery, supplies blood to the left side of the heart. The left side of theheart is larger and more muscular because it pumps blood to the rest of thebody.
  3. 3. Serious heart damage may occur if the heart tissue does not receive a normalsupply of food and oxygen.Systemic circulation Systemic circulation supplies nourishment to all the tissue of the human body,with the exception of the heart and lungs. The blood vessels are responsible forthe delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissue. The forceful contraction of theheart’s left ventricle forces the oxygen-rich blood into the aorta which thenbranches into many smaller arteries which run throughout the body. The bloodenters the capillaries where the oxygen and nutrients are released. The wasteproducts are collected and the blood which transfers them flows into the veins inorder to circulate back to the heart where pulmonary circulation will allow theexchange of gases in the lungs. During systemic circulation, blood passesthrough the kidneys. This phase ofsystemic circulation is known asrenal circulation. During this phase, thekidneys filter much of the waste fromthe blood. Blood also passes through thesmall intestine during systemiccirculation. This phase is called portalcirculation. During this phase, the bloodfrom the small intestine collects in theportal vein which passes through the liver.Question 2: Which are the main parts of the circulatory system?Answer: The circulatory system includes the heart, lungs, arteries, arterioles (smallarteries), and capillaries, the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood awayfrom the heart. It also includes venules (small veins) and veins, the blood vesselsthrough which blood flows as it returns to the heart and which carry oxygen-poorblood. If all the vessels of this network in human’s body were laid end-to-end,they would extend for about 60,000 miles!Tubular circulation
  4. 4. Located throughout human’s body, blood vessels are hollow tubes that circulate the blood. There are three varieties of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries. During blood circulation, thearteries carry blood away from the heart. The capillaries connect arteries toveins, and finally the veins return the blood back to the heart. Besides circulating blood, the blood vessels provide two important means ofmeasuring vital health statistics: pulse and blood pressure. Heart rate or pulse ismeasured by touching an artery. The rhythmic contraction of the artery keepspace with the beat of the heart. To measure blood pressure, we use the bloodflowing through the arteries because it has a higher pressure than the blood inthe veins. The blood pressure is measured using two numbers. The first one,which is higher, is taken when the heart beats during the systole phase. Thesecond number is taken when the heart relaxes during the diastole phase.Normal blood pressure ranges from 110 to 150 millimeters (as the heart beats)over 60 to 80 millimeters (as the heart relaxes). It is normal for the bloodpressure to increase when people are exercising and to decrease when they aresleeping.Arteries Arteries are tubes that carry blood away from the heart. The heart pumps blood out through one main artery called the dorsal aorta. The main artery then divides and branches out into smaller arteries so that each region of the body has its own system of arteries supplying it with fresh, oxygen-rich blood. An artery has three layers: an outer layer of tissue, a muscular middle, and an innerlayer of epithelial cells. The inside layer is very smooth, allowing the blood to flowquickly and easily without any obstacles in its path. The muscle in the middle iselastic and very strong. Finally, the outside layer is very strong, allowing theblood to flow forcefully. The muscular wall of the artery helps the heart pump theblood. When the heart relaxes, the artery contracts, exerting a force in order topush the blood along. Then, arteries deliver the oxygen-rich blood to thecapillaries.Capillaries
  5. 5. Capillaries connect arteries and veins. They are thin and fragile. Capillaries areactually one epithelial cell thick, and blood cells can only pass through them inone single file. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place through the thin capillary wall. The red blood cells inside the capillary release their oxygen which passes through the wall and into the surrounding tissue. The tissue releases its waste products, like carbon dioxide, which passes through the wall and into the redblood cells. Capillaries are also involved in the body’s release of excess heat.Blood delivers the heat to the capillaries which then rapidly release it to thetissue. The result is that the skin takes on a flushed, red appearance.Veins Veins are tubes that return blood to the heart. They are not as strong as the arteries because they transport blood at a lower pressure. They consist of three layers: an outer of tissue, muscle in the middle, and a smooth inner layer of epithelial cells. The layers are thinner than those of arteries, containing less tissue. Veins receive blood from the capillaries and also transport waste- rich blood back to the lungs and heart. It isimportant that the waste-rich blood keeps moving in the proper direction andagainst the force of gravity (e.g. the blood from the foot), and not be allowed toflow backward. This is accomplished by one-way valves that are located insidethe veins. Because it lacks oxygen, the waste-rich blood that flows through theveins has a deep purplish color. Heart The heart is a muscular organ located between the lungs in the middle of the chest, behind and slightly to the left of the breastbone (sternum). It is about the size of human’s fist and it pumps 4300
  6. 6. gallons of blood a day. A double-layered membrane called the pericardiumsurrounds the heart like a sac. The outer layer of the pericardium surrounds theroot of the heart’s major blood vessels and is attached by ligaments to the spinalcolumn, diaphragm, and other parts of the body. The inner layer of it is attachedto the heart muscle. A coating of fluid separates the two layers of membrane,letting the heart move as it beats, yet still be attached to your body. The heart weighs between 200 to 425 grams. It has four chambers. The upperchambers are called the left and right atria, they receive blood from the body orlungs. The lower chambers are called the left and right ventricles, they pumpsblood to the rest of the body. A wall of muscle called the septum separates theleft and right atria and the left and right ventricles. The left ventricle is the largestand the strongest chamber in the heart. A valve connects each atrium to the ventricle below it. The mitral valve connects the left atrium with the left ventricle. The tricuspid valve connects the right atrium with the right ventricle. There are also another two valves: the pulmonary valve and the aortic valve. The top of the heart connects to a few large blood vessels. Two of them are arteries- the aorta and the pulmonary artery- and the other two are veins- the superior and the inferior vena cava. The heart’s structure make’s it an efficient, never-ceasing pump. The averagecardiac muscle contracts and relaxes about 70 to 80 times per minute. Nervesconnected to the heart regulate the speed with which the muscle contracts.Blood The blood is the transport system by which oxygen and nutrients reach thebody’s cells, and waste materials, by those cells, are carried away. In addition,blood carries substances called hormones, which control body processes, andantibodies to fight invading germs.Question 3: How does the heart work?Answer: The role of the heart is to deliver the oxygen-rich blood to every cell in thebody. As the cardiac muscle contracts it pushes blood through the chambers intothe vessels. Blood flows continuously through the circulatory system, and theheart muscle is the pump which makes it all possible.How does the heart pump blood?
  7. 7. Heart does it by a sequence of highly organized contractions of its fourchambers. As blood collects in the upper chambers, the heart’s naturalpacemaker sends out an electric signal that causes the atria to contract. Thiscontraction pushes blood through the tricuspid and the mitral valves into theresting lower chambers. This part of the two-part pumping phase (the longer oftwo) is called the diastole. The second part of it begins when the ventricles arefull of blood, then the mitral and tricuspid valves are closed. The electrical signalsfrom the SA node cause the ventricles to contract. This is called systole. As the tricuspid and mitral valves shut tight to prevent a back flow of blood, thepulmonary and aortic valves are pushed open and the blood is supplied to thelungs and the other parts of the body. Continuing, the ventricles relax, and thepulmonary and aortic valves close. The lower pressure in the ventricles causesthe tricuspid and mitral valves to open, and the cycle begins again. This series ofcontractions is repeated over and over again, and it is affected by differentfactors. The human heart is a muscle designed to remain strong and reliable fora hundred of years or longer.The conduction system The heart also has an electrical system which includes a permanentpacemaker to regulate the heartbeat rate and specialized wiring to transmit thepacemaker beat to all parts of the heart, and cause the heart to beat (contract).The pacemaker (sinoatrial node) is located at the top of the right atrium. Thispacemaker creates a miniature electrical impulse. The signal then passesthrough the atrioventricular (AV) node, which creates a short delay in the impulseto allow the atria to contract and forces blood into the ventricles before theycontract.
  8. 8. The AV node checks the signal and sends it through the muscle fibers of the ventricles, causing them to contract. The SA node sends electrical impulses at a certain rate, but your heart rate may still change depending on physical demands, stress, or hormonal factors.Question 4: Draw and label the major parts of the heart.Answer:
  9. 9. Student 2: Koulina Anastasia BLOOD
  10. 10. Question 1: What blood is made up and why is so important?Answer: Blood is a liquid tissue. It moves in blood vessels and is circulated by the heart,a muscular pump. It passes to the lungs to be oxygenated and then is circulatedthroughout the body by the arteries. It diffuses its oxygen by passing through thecapillaries. It then returns to the heart through the veins.Blood is vital for life; without it the body would stop working. Its functions are: to transport  Oxygen from the lungs to body tissue and carbon dioxide from body tissue to the lungs  Nourishment from digestion throughout the body  Hormones from glands throughout the body  Disease fighting substances to the tissue  Waste to the kidneysBlood is composed of living cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytesconstitute about 45% of whole blood) and plasma (the other 55%). Erythrocytes (red blood cells) They contain a protein called hemoglobin by which they deliver oxygen to body tissues and carry carbon dioxide back from the tissues. Human erythrocytes have a flattened ovate shape, depressed in the centre and lack a nucleus and organelles. They are flexible so as to fit through tiny capillaries. Their diameter is about 6-8 m. Adult humans have approximately 4-6 million erythrocytes per cubic millimeter of blood (women 4-5,men 5-6). Erythrocytes are produced in the red bone marrow, develop in about 7days and live about 120 days.
  11. 11. Leukocytes (white blood cells) Leukocytes help to defend body against infectious disease and foreign materials as part of the immune system. There are normally between 4,000-10,000/μl of them at any time. There are many types of white cells:Granulocytes  Neutrophile: (50-70% of whole leukocytes) they are the primary cells of acute inflammatory response and act by phagocytosing foreign materials and pathogens.  Eosinophile: (1-2%) they have a role in the allergic response and in defending parasites.  Basophile: (0-1%) their purpose is not clear.Other White Cells  Lymphocytes: (20-40%) there are three types of lymphocytes, B cells (they make antibodies that bind to pathogens and destruct them), T cells (they co-operate the immune system) and natural killer cells (they kill cells of the body that are infected by virus).
  12. 12. .  Monocytes: (3-6%) they phagocytose pathogens Thrombocytes (platelets) Platelets are cells that stick together to form blood clots. They are irregularly-shaped, colorless broken-off pieces of megacaryocyte cytoplasm released from the red bone marrow into the blood stream. When there is a disturbance in the blood vessels (such as a broken vessel) they stick together at that point and prevent blood from coming out of the vessel. A normal platelet count in a healthy person is between 150,000 and 300,000/μl. Blood plasmaPlasma is mainly composed of water (90%), proteins and mineral salts (calcium,sodium, magnesium and potassium). It serves as a transport medium for theblood cells, glucose, lipids, hormones, products of metabolism, carbon dioxide,oxygen and microbe-fighting antibodies.Question 2: Conditions (3) associated with the heart andtreatments/research.Answer:
  13. 13. HypertensionIt is the medical term for high blood pressure. According to new guidelinesreleased by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHGBI) in 2003,people with a blood pressure above 140/90 mm Hg are classified within thecategory “hypertension”Category Systolic (mm Hg) Diastolic (mm Hg)Normal Lower than 120 Lower than 80Prehypertension 120-139 80-89HypertensionStage 1 140-159 90-99Stage 2 160 or higher 100 or higherHigh blood pressure results from the hardening of very small arteries, arterioles,which regulate the blood flow through the body. It can affect the health in fourmain ways:  Hardening the arteries. Their walls thicken and they become narrower.  Enlarged heart. The amount of heart’s work is increased, causing the heart grow bigger. The bigger the heart is, the less able is to maintain proper blood flow.  Kidney damage.  Eye damage.About 90-95% of all cases, the real cause is not known (primary or essentialhypertension), although there is a number of risk factors associated (familyhistory, male, older than 60, African Americans, stress, smoking, overweight, diethigh in salt or saturated fat, alcohol, physical inactive, diabetes). The restpatients have secondary hypertension, which is a result of other conditions(kidney disorders, acromegaly, pregnancy, problems with the parathyroid gland,reactions to medicines).Symptoms: The patients usually have no symptoms, or some of them may havea pounding feeling in their chest or head, a feeling of lightheadedness ordizziness.Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by a doctor during a medical check-up.Treatment: The treatment involves lifestyle changes and, if it is necessary,administration of medicines (diuretics, ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, calciumchannel blockers, vasodilators) which control the blood pressure. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)Congestive Heart Failure is a condition in which the heart can not pump enoughblood to meet the needs of the body’s other organs. It usually develops slowly; apatient may go for years without symptoms, and the symptoms become worse
  14. 14. with time. This slow onset and progression of CHF is caused by the heart’s ownefforts to deal with its graduate weakening. The heart tries to make up for thisweakening by enlarging and by forcing itself to pump faster to move more bloodthrough the body.Previous heart attacks, coronary artery disease, hypertension, irregularheartbeat, heart valve disease (especially of the aortic and mitral valves)cardiomyopathy, congenital heart defects are considered as risk factors for CHF.Symptoms: If the left side of the heart is not working properly, then blood andfluid back up to the lungs and the patient feels short of breath, very tired and hasa cough.If the right side of the heart is not working properly, fluid is built up in the veins.The feet, legs and ankles swell (edema). Sometimes edema is spread to thelungs, liver and stomach. The patient may need to go to the bathroom moreoften, especially at night.Other symptoms are chest pain, irregular or fast pulse, cold and sweaty skin.Diagnosis: It is usually diagnosed by the presence of edema and shortness ofbreath. The imaging techniques used are chest X-ray, electrocardiography,echocardiography, nuclear ventriculography and angiography.Treatment: It includes lifestyle changes, medicines (diuretics, digitalis,vasodilators, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, etc), transcatheter interventions(angioplasty, stenting) and surgical procedures (pacemaker insertion, coronaryartery bypass surgery, heart valve repair or replacement, correction of congenitalheart defects, mechanical assist devices, heart transplantation). StrokeStroke is a form of a cerebrovascular disease, meaning it affects the vessels thatsupply blood to the brain. A stroke is caused when blood flow to the brain isblocked, either by a blood clot or by a weaken artery that bursts in the brain.  A blood clot or a blocked artery leading to the brain causes about 80% of all strokes (ischemic stroke).Oxygen supply is cut off and brain cells begin to die. The longer the brain is without blood, the more severe the damage will be.  The other 20% of strokes are caused by ruptured or leaky blood vessels in or around the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). Hemorrhagic strokes cause more deaths than ischemic ones, but patients who survive a hemorrhagic stroke recover more fully and have fewer long-lasting disabilities.Effects: In people who survive stroke, there may be paralysis, emotionalproblems, or trouble with speech, memory or judgment. If the right side of thebrain is affected, the left side of the body may become paralyzed. The effectsmay be severe or mild, short-term or permanent.Diagnosis: Tests that show images of the brain (CT scan, MRI), measure thebrain’s electrical activity (electroencephalography) and show the blood flow to thebrain (carotid duplex scan) are used to find out the type and severity of stroke.
  15. 15. Treatment: Treatment includes anti-clotting drugs, hospital care, hospital care,rehabilitation and, rarely, surgery.Question 3: How can we maintain a healthy circulatory system?Answer:In order to keep a healthy circulatory system, people should:  Get plenty of exercise  Follow a good diet and manage their weight  Control risk factors Physical activity Daily physical activity reduces the risk of heart disease and keeps weight under control. Other benefits are that it improves blood cholesterol levels, prevents and manages high blood pressure. A successful exercise program involves exercises that are rhythmic, repetitive, challenge the circulatory system and use large muscles (aerobic exercises). It must increase the blood flow to themuscles for an extend period of time. Some aerobic exercises are walking,hiking, jogging, bicycling, swimming, jumping rope and roller skating.( Diet In order to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system and reduce the risk for heart diseases, people should follow a balanced diet. A balanced diet excludes foods that are rich in fat, especially saturated fat. These foods add many useless calories (obesity contributes to heart diseases) and can raise the level of cholesterol in the blood –which can lead to risk for heart diseases.On the contrary, a suitable diet includes:  6-11 servings from the Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta Group  at least 3-5 servings from the Vegetable Group  2-4 servings from the Fruit Group
  16. 16.  2-3 items from Milk, Yoghurt and Cheese  2-3 servings from the Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs and Nuts  small quantities from Fats, Oils and Sweets( Risk factors Smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, and stress are the main risk factors. Stress is the body’s response to change. Great range of stress can lead to habits like smoking, drinking, overeating or drug abuse. Even if someone does not feel stress at all, the body suffers from it. Smoking, taking drugs or drinking alcohol excessively give heart extra work, which the heart is not able to handle for along period of time. Smokers have double risk of having a heart attack, evenquadruple risk of sudden cardiac death and high risk of developing chronicdisorders, such as atherosclerosis. Additionally, the ratio of high-densitylipoprotein (or good) cholesterol to low-density lipoprotein (or bad) cholesterol islower in smokers than in nonsmokers. Former smokers can completely lowertheir risk of sudden cardiac death within ten years of quitting.Drinking alcohol in large quantities poses a serious hazard to the heart, becausethe blood cannot nourish the heart properly. The moderate intake of alcohol is anaverage of one or two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women.( of academic wordsTERM Example in Word class Dictionary Greek context information definition translationMajor The major Adjective Very large or Μεγαλύτερος, factor that important κύριος
  17. 17. affects ’serious heart’s function is…Affect The blood Verb To have an Επηρεάζω oxygen influence on affects sb/sth heart’s pulse.Phase This phase of Noun a stage in a Φάση systemic process of circulation…. change or developmentMedium The medium Adjective In the middle Μέτριος, layer of between two μεσαίος arteries is sizes, consisted of amounts, muscular lengths, etc. fibers.Layer An artery has Noun A level or part Στιβάδα, three layers: within a στρώμα an outer layer system of tissueTreatment …he is Noun Something Θεραπευτική receiving that is done αγωγή treatment for to cure an sock illness or injury, or to make sb feel goodTechniques …teachers Noun A particular Τεχνικές learn various way of doing techniques sth, for dealing especially with problem one in which students. you have to learn special skillsAbuse ...what she Noun The use of Κατάχρηση did was an sth in a way abuse of her that is wrong position as a or harmful manager.Challenge …he is Noun A new or Προκαλώ looking difficult task forward to the that tests sb’s challenge of ability and his new job skill
  18. 18. Obesity …obesity can Noun The condition Παχυσαρκία increase the of being very risk of heart fat, in a way disease. that is not healthyList of medical wordsTERM Example in Word class Dictionary Greek context information Definition translationTissue …pushes Noun Collection of Ιστός blood to the cells organized organs, in a tissues, and cooperative cells of the arrangement body. for the purpose of performing a particular functionRenal This phase of Adjective Something Νεφρικός(circulation) systemic that ha to do circulation is with the kidney known as systemic circulation.Aorta The aorta Noun The main trunk Αορτή branches off of the systemic two... arteries.Pulse ..measuring Noun The rhythmical Σφυγμός, vital health expansion and παλμός statistics: contraction of pulse and an artery blood produced by pressure. waves of pressure caused by the ejection of blood from the left ventricle of the heart as it contracts.Intestine Blood also Noun The section of Έντερο passes the alimentary through the canal from the small intestine stomach to the during anus. It
  19. 19. systemic includes the circulation. small intestine and the large intestine.Diuretics …diuretics Noun A substance or Διουρητικά help rid your drug that tends body of water to increase the and sodium discharge of urineHormones ...oestrogen is Noun A chemical Ορμόνες a female sex substance hormone produced in the body that encourages growth or influences how the cells and tissues functionAngioplasty …angioplasty noun The surgical Αγγειοπλαστική is used to repair of a open arteries blood vessel narrowed by fatty plaque buildupAtherosclerosis …a diet rich in noun A type of αθηροσκλήρωση saturated fats arteriosclerosi may cause s atherosclerosis characterized by the deposition of plaques containing lipids and cholesterol on the inner layer of the walls of arteriesEdema …ankles begin Noun An excessive Οίδημα to swell if fluid accumulation is built up in of serous fluid the veins; this in tissue swelling is spaces or a called edema body cavity
  20. 20. Websites consulted: Human_Heart.gif Open_Heart.gif