Student Abstracts - Graduate College - Missouri State University


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Student Abstracts - Graduate College - Missouri State University

  1. 1. Graduate Interdisciplinary Forum<br />Oral and Poster Presentation Abstracts<br />Children and Armed Conflict: The Case in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)<br />Antoinette Afriyie<br />Global Studies<br />Faculty Advisor: Kernen Beat<br />Oral Presentation<br />The nature of conflict has changed; major armed conflicts have decreased, but have been replaced by intrastate conflicts which present new threats for children. An estimated number of 300,000 children under the age of 18 have been coerced or induced into becoming child soldiers. While most child soldiers are recruited into governmental armed forces under the age of 18, non-governmental military groups recruit children under the age 15. A child at the age of 7 can even be recruited, and girls are not spared. In June 2000, all states signed and ratified an optional protocol that prohibits the recruitment of children as soldiers yet children are still violated and abducted to carry up arms: no country is immune to this issue, whether a country is at peace or at war. However, in situations of war, the problem is aggravated. The situation in the DRC is worth researching due to the fact that since 1998, the civil war encompassing about 27 military groups and 7 countries which has become known as the Great War of Africa, has continued to violate and victimize children yet little attention has been given. According to the UN, the recruitment of children by armed groups across borders from refugee camps continues to be alarming.<br />E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Prospects<br />Marzouq Almarzouq<br />Business Administration<br />Faculty Advisor: Robert Luke<br />Poster Presentation<br />The notion and application of e-commerce represents one of the most important attributes of the internet. Nowadays, e-commerce has become a prominent aspect of how companies conduct business. Moreover, e-commerce has facilitated expanding products outreach. Nevertheless, consumers' perception of e-commerce sometimes represents a stumbling block in the path of the e-commerce. Saudi Arabia is a developing country and has taken significant steps toward adopting a wide range of technologies that will enable the Kingdom to establish and maintain a healthy IT infrastructure to satisfy its needs of the e-government and e-commerce. The study of e-commerce in Saudi Arabia hinges on various elements such as the culture, IT infrastructure, and consumer behavior. This paper highlights e-commerce in Saudi Arabia in general and the elements that may substantially influence the adoption of e-commerce by the Saudi consumer in particular. In addition, this paper will investigate the attitudes of the small businesses in the Kingdom toward going online, as well as some of the potential roles that electronic marketing can play toward stimulating the e-shopping in Saudi Arabia.<br />Farmers’ Markets in Missouri: Economic Importance and Vendor Characteristics<br />Jessica Bailey<br />Natural and Applied Science - MNAS<br />Faculty Advisor: Arbindra Rimal<br />Poster Presentation<br />Farmers' markets, as a direct marketing method, are growing, meeting today's demand for local, quality produce. The objective of this thesis was to determine the economic impact of farmers' markets in Missouri in terms of output and employment; characteristics of farmers' market vendors were also examined. It is expected that legislators and other interested parties will use the results to make informed decisions regarding farmers' markets in Missouri. The study's data source was a survey of 260 farmers' market producers, conducted during the 2009 seasons. The economic impact was estimated using the input-output modeling system, IMPLAN; the SPSS package was used for statistical analyses. Preliminary economic impact results indicate a total output impact of $16.97 million on the Missouri state economy including a direct impact of $11.63 million and an indirect impact of $3.11 million. Total employment impact was 238 full-time equivalent jobs, and total value added impact was $9.45 million. Producers were statistically characterized as equally either gender, college educated, satisfied with their business profit margin, producing on one or fewer acres and in the growth stage of business. The results indicate farmers' markets are an increasingly important part of the local and state economies and may build those economies.<br />Effectiveness of Marketing Techniques in Nonprofit Organizations<br />Nicole Baugus<br />Business Administration<br />Faculty Advisor: Robert Luke<br />Poster Presentation<br />With today's abundance of technology, nonprofit organizations have more low-cost options of marketing their products/services than ever before. However, finding the most effective combination of marketing can prove tricky, especially if the nonprofit's staff members have a limited knowledge of successful marketing techniques. My current employer, the Boys & Girls Clubs of Springfield, is always struggling to find the right mix of tools to get more information to current and potential donors. For this reason, I have conducted research on various types of marketing--both new and traditional methods--used by nonprofit organizations and assessed the effectiveness of each. After assessing the effectiveness of each method, I formed an opinion of what the most effective techniques are and compiled a plan for the Boys & Girls Clubs of Springfield to either continue using these techniques or to expand into new areas of marketing. I have also compiled a plan for the organization to expand on its current marketing methods to increase the effectiveness of each.<br />A Descriptive Study of eMINTS Instructional Technology Practices<br />Joshua Bennett<br />Elementary Education<br />Faculty Advisor: Cynthia Wilson Hail<br />Oral Presentation<br />The purpose of this study was to identify eMINTS instructors' perceptions of using instructional technology and inquiry-based learning strategies in the classroom. The research questions in this study addressed the most critical components of the eMINTS instructional model according to eMINTS instructors, the advantages and disadvantages of the model, as well as how the instructional model engages students in higher order thinking in the learning and instructional process. The study was conducted using a research-constructed survey which was given to teachers who have completed or were concurrently participating in eMINTS comprehensive professional development. The results of this descriptive study will be presented at the Interdisciplinary Forum. Conducting this study allowed stakeholders to take into consideration the beliefs of actual classroom teachers in regard to the value of the eMINTS program, and, in turn, made their own decisions to implement or not implement the program in their own school districts.<br />The Functional Synergy Between Yeast Dynamin and Key Membrane Recycling Factors<br />Christopher Berg<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Kyoungtae Kim<br />Oral Presentation<br />Endocytic recycling is the process by which cells recycle materials from the Golgi back to the cell membrane. Ypt31/32 are known to regulate the function of F-box protein Rcy1. GTPase Vps1 is required for vacuolar sorting. We have recently found that the endocytic trafficking defect caused by the loss of Vps1 was identical to that seen in cells lacking recycling factor, Rcy1. We therefore hypothesized that Vps1 might play a role in recycling, along with known recycling factors. To test whether Vps1 is synergistic with those factors, we created double mutants lacking both Vps1 and its functional partners. First, we checked the potential growth defects of double mutants and found that a double mutant of ypt31 vps1 grew significantly slower than single mutants. Whether the inactivation of both Ypt31 and Vps1 could result in defects of endocytic recycling to the membrane, FM4-64 dye, an endocytic vesicle marker, was used to measure the extent. We found that more FM4-64 carrying vesicles accumulated primarily in the cytoplasm in the double mutant cells at 30 degrees Celsius, suggesting the functional synergy between Ypt31 and Vps1. Since the double mutant grew slower at 37 degrees, we will observe FM4-64 accumulation at 37 degrees Celsius in order to determine the severity of the endocytic recycling defect in double mutant cells.<br />Consonant Sequences and Their Affect on Articulatory Timing and the Rate of Speech<br />Emily Blohm<br />Communication Sciences and Disorders<br />Faculty Advisor: Ronald Netsell<br />Poster Presentation<br />The universal speech rate across languages is considered to be 5 syllables per second. In order to maintain a speech rate of 5 syllables per second (200 milliseconds per syllable) the speaker would have to produce a longer syllable in shorter amount of time. This project is designed to identify what syllables or sounds the speaker shortens or lengthens in order to maintain speech rate when producing consonant clusters. In the study, 5 male participants were given a list of 3 sets of words provided by the clinician. The participants were asked to say each set of words 3 times. The participant said the target word in a carrier phrase, for example "Say ______ again." After the participants have completed three trials for each word, the words were measured, and stored using a computer program called PRAAT which is a speech analysis tool that helps one visualize and measure speech patterns. A second individual reviewed a sample of the recordings to determine inter-observer reliability of the data. Analysis of the data results indicated that vowels and vowel-like consonants were reduced in longer words in order to maintain speech rate. Further analysis of the data results is currently under-way.<br />Bat Presence and Abundance at Hibernacula in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri<br />Janelle Bowcock<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Lynn Robbins<br />Oral Presentation<br />Mist-netting and acoustic detection was utilized to assess habitat use by bat species at the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) in South Central Missouri. Weekly and monthly surveys began 2009 April 23 and continued for a full year, with emphasis placed on summer (April-October). Investigations at a priority 2 hibernaculum showed that species diversity and/or relative abundance is consistently changing throughout the summer. Six mist-net surveys conducted over this period, using a 2.6 x 4 m net near the cave entrance, showed total species presence changing from 6, 3, 3, 6, 4, and 3 consecutively. Seven species were captured at this site, including the endangered gray bat (Myotis grisescens) and Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). The total captured also changed from 86, 90, 12, 79, 14, and 52 respectively. Winter surveys at the above hibernaculum and 5 other hibernacula in the park showed higher amounts of activity than expected for hibernating bats. The effects of ambient and cave temperatures on this behavior will be evaluated in further investigations. Surveys will continue over the next two years to quantify species presence, absence, and activity. To monitor distribution and movement throughout the park select bats will be banded. These data will be useful in managing bats and beneficial in monitoring for white-nose syndrome.<br />Crayfish Predation on Juvenile Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae)<br />Rebecca Brondel<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Chris Barnhart<br />Oral Presentation<br />North American freshwater mussels are among the most endangered faunal groups in the world. Small juvenile mussels are potentially vulnerable to predators. This study examines predation by a crayfish, Orconectes neglectus, on juvenile mussels, Lampsilis siliquoidea. Crayfish preferred mussels to snails of similar size. Mussels buried in substrate were preyed upon and the presence or absence of substrate had little effect on predation. Large and small mussels were attacked at similar rates but small mussels were consumed more frequently. Larger crayfish were able to consume larger mussels, and crayfish consumed larger individuals of a thin shelled species, Potamilus alatus, than of a heavier shelled species, L. siliquoidea. It appears that some native mussel species may remain vulnerable to ringed crayfish predation up to 50 mm mussel length. Many aquatic animals are capable of detecting chemical cues from predators and will decrease movement in order to avoid predation. Mussel movement decreased when exposed to water that contained crayfish. When crayfish cues were absent, mussels burrowed more readily in fine substrate and tended to move horizontally in coarse substrate. When crayfish were present, movement was reduced and similar in both substrates. Mussel responses to O. neglectus chemical signals appear to be innate.<br />The Comparison of Co-Educational and Single-Gender Classrooms Based on On-Task Behavior and Study Skills<br />Janis E. Burton<br />Elementary Education<br />Faculty Advisor: Cindy Wilson Hail<br />Poster Presentation<br />The purpose of this study was to understand the dynamics of a single-gender math class compared to a co-educational classroom. The research questions used in this study were: What were the academic behaviors displayed in the single-gender and co-educational classroom? and What gender specific social behaviors were dominant in the classroom? An observational qualitative study was conducted at Central High School in Springfield, MO. The sample consisted of freshman students between the ages of 14-16 years old. Two math classes were observed; one class was a co-educational classroom with 10 girls and 13 boys, and the other class was an all-girls classroom consisting of 15 girls. Observations were made in each classroom on the same days. Observational data revealed that girls in the single-gender class were able to stay on-task longer than female students in the co-educational classroom. More students in the all-girls class participated in discussions compared to the co-educational classroom. Findings indicated single-gender classrooms are beneficial when it comes to eliminating external distractions, increasing work in a cooperative manner, and reducing intimidation to speak in class.<br />A Tale of Two Churches: Walmartization, Cultural Accommodation, and Modernization in Two Ozarks Megachurch Congregations<br />Travis W. Cooper<br />Religious Studies<br />Faculty Advisor: John Schmalzbauer<br />Oral Presentation<br />Joining the expanding body of academic literature on the megachurch phenomenon, this essay adds to the dialogue through an ethnographic comparison of two neighboring megachurches in the Ozarks. Interacting with the works of prominent scholars of the megachurch movement including Scott Thumma, Kimon Howland Sargeant, and Mark Chaves, I explore the social processes of Walmartization, modernization, and commercialization as they are experienced in the simultaneously similar but different megachurches: James River Assembly and North Point Church. In this essay, I argue that there are significant areas of contrast between these churches and explore differences in architecture and aesthetics, music and worship, preaching styles, social justice initiatives, and most importantly, target group. While I do not see the churches parting ways in terms of core Evangelical theological values, I argue that these values are expressed through strikingly different worldviews or perceptions. Of particular interest in this essay are the ways that the churches interact with popular culture and technology; in terms of cultural accommodation and resistance, James River Assembly utilizes cutting edge technology and contemporary music while North Point Church uses the above along with frequent implementation of pop-culture icons.<br />Influencing Factors in the Career Choice of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists<br />Kasey Crewse<br />Communication Sciences and Disorders<br />Faculty Advisors: Linda Barboa and Neil DiSarno<br />Poster Presentation<br />Knowledge of factors that influence a person to choose a career, specifically careers in speech-language pathology and audiology could be used to increase the profitability of the recruitment efforts in these two disciplines. This study looked at the factors that most influenced a person to choose a career in speech-language pathology or audiology in the Springfield, Missouri area. Questionnaire responses from 73 participants indicated that personal factors had the most influence in career choice. Implications for future research are discussed. <br />Grapevine Stilbene Synthase Genese Exhibit Unique Transcriptional Patterns During the Berry Development and the Fungal Infection<br />Ru Dai<br />Plant Science<br />Faculty Advisor: Wenping Qiu<br />Additional Authors: Mohammad B. Ali and Wenping Qiu<br />Oral Presentation<br />Grapevine stilbenic compounds have antimicrobial activities and some of them including resveratrol are beneficial to human health. Stilbene synthase (STS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of stilbenic compounds. Grapevine genome contains 43 STS genes, and the regulation of each STS gene needs to be understood for defining their roles. In this study, we selected five STS genes and employed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to characterize their transcriptional profiles during the berry development and infection by the powdery mildew fungus (PM), Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr., in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and Vitis aestivalis 'Norton'. We found that transcript levels of two STS genes increased along the berry development and were significantly higher in Cabernet Sauvignon than in Norton. Transcript levels of other three STS genes increased during the berry ripening, and were higher in Norton than in Cabernet Sauvignon. In response to PM infection, four STS genes were up-regulated in Cabernet Sauvignon leaves while three STS genes were induced in the Norton leaves. These results demonstrated that each STS gene plays a special role in the berry development and in the defense against fungal infection, and revealed new insights into the regulation of the STS gene family in grapevine.<br />Emergency Preparedness Survey Among Students at Missouri State University<br />Venkata Dalai<br />Public Health<br />Faculty Advisor: David M. Claborn<br />Poster Presentation<br />A survey was performed to evaluate emergency preparedness among students at Missouri State University. In the event of an emergency that closed the university, 64% of the students indicated they would evacuate to their parents' homes. More than 3% of respondents stated they would evacuate to an established emergency shelter or that they did not know where they would go. When asked what hazard Springfield residents are most likely to experience, respondents selected tornadoes (38.9%) followed by ice storm (35.4%) and power outage (14.6.) The survey suggests that Missouri students do not see themselves as endangered by the country's major hazards. Most of the students (82%) had personal transportation with which they could evacuate themselves; however, dormitory residents and international students were less likely to have such transportation (chi-square=4.74, p < 0.05). This survey suggests that students who live on campus are less prepared for self-evacuation. In addition, about 3% of students do not have a site to which to evacuate in the event of catastrophe. The University should make plans for these vulnerable populations in case of emergencies that have the potential to cause the closing of the university and the evacuation of all students. Such an emergency could be a mass power failure or a winter storm.<br />The Investigation of the Dan Backbone Through the Use of Two Dimensional NMR<br />Jason Edward Davenport<br />Chemistry<br />Faculty Advisor: Gary Meints<br />Poster Presentation<br />Understanding the local dynamics of DNA and DNA lesion sites can provide insight into many diseases. By understanding how these macromolecules change when not in its natural state can be investigated through the use of solution NMR, and solid state NMR. This investigation relies on solution NMR to understand the DNA backbone of native and non-native DNA sequences. The Dickerson Dodecemer sequence is the most studied DNA, and was the first solved crystallized DNA structure. Due to the vast knowledge regarding this sequence, it was chosen as our control. This sequence is then altered to a non-native state in which there are two test samples. The first step into investigating these sequences is to identify the ribose and its respective base protons. This is done by using the two dimensional NMR technique NOESY. NOESY (Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy) spectrum gives the investigator the ability of seeing interaction of protons that are close in space. If protons are within 2-5 angstroms from each other, there will be a correlation. If the proton chemical shift is known for each position within the oligonucleotide, then this information can be used to identify the phosphorus chemical shifts within the structure. <br />Examining the Relationship of Television and Academics for Children in Poverty<br />Dollie A. L. Davis<br />Early Childhood and Family Development<br />Faculty Advisor: Joanna Cemore Bridgen<br />Poster Presentation<br />The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant relationship between television viewing and perception of academic achievement for children living in poverty. The hypothesis that guided this study was that there would be a significant relationship between poor children's amount of television viewing and the perception of their academic achievement. Forty participants from after school programs in Southwest Missouri completed this study. The participants ranged from grades fourth through twelve. The researcher-constructed survey was given out at after school programs for the participants to complete. The questions included both structured (e.g. gender, grade level, when watching television how do you feel); and unstructured items (e.g. what is your favorite show on television, when you have free time what is your favorite thing to do). The results of this study will be presented at the Graduate Interdisciplinary Forum. <br />Polluted Sediment: Impacts on Growth and Antipredator Behaviors<br />Sarah Elizabeth Davis<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: John E. Havel<br />Poster Presentation<br />Biomonitoring uses living organisms to examine impacts of pollution and has been applied to studying the multiple impacts of sediment-bound toxic metals on invertebrate animals living in freshwater. Despite prior work on the behavioral and physiological responses of snails to toxic metals, little is known about the sublethal effects of stream sediments on life history of snails. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of metal-contaminated sediments on growth, reproduction, and behavior of the freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis. We collected sediments from five sites along Pearson Creek, Greene County, Missouri, which is known to be affected by lead and zinc in old mine tailings. In the first experiment, we grew snail hatchlings for 97 days and, surprisingly, found increased growth rates among snails exposed to the most heavily-contaminated sediments. After evaluating L. stagnalis for antipredator behaviors in response to predator cues, we tested its predator avoidance ability following exposure to stream sediments. Preliminary results suggest that this behavioral response is depressed by contaminated sediments. Overall, the current study shows that contaminated sediments can affect the fitness of freshwater snails, by affecting growth and depressing antipredator behavior.<br />Factors Impacting Student and Faculty Perceptions: Incongruent Expectations in the Advising Relationship<br />Stephanie L. Dixon<br />Psychology<br />Faculty Advisor: Adena D. Young<br />Poster Presentation<br />Limited studies empirically link academic advising with student persistence and success. This study was designed to assess advising beyond student satisfaction, to better understand student needs and expectations, to investigate advising as related to student success, and to improve advising based on results. Student participants completed an assessment package created for this study. The student sample (N = 611) was composed primarily of college freshmen aged 18-25. Psychology Faculty advisors completed an additional assessment created to match selected student items. The confirmatory factor analysis rotated solution yielded six interpretable factors: Advisor Accountability, Advisor Empowerment and Assistance, Student Responsibility, Student Self-Efficacy, Student Study Skills, and Perceived Support which served as dependent variables. Analysis of the advisor questionnaire yielded two factors (i.e. Advisor Accountability and Advisor Empowerment), comparable to factors extracted from the student assessment. Mean score comparisons indicated that students hold advisors more accountable than do advisors, but empowerment expectations were congruent between both groups. Results reveal that students and advisors approach the advising relationship with incongruent expectations in regard to advisor accountability.<br />Substituent and Conjugation Effects on the Homo-Lumo Bandgaps of 9-Fluorenone Derivatives<br />Galen Eakins<br />Chemisty<br />Faculty Advisors: Bryan Breyfogle and Chad Stearman<br />Poster Presentation<br />A study of the effects of extended conjugation, electron-withdrawing substituents, and electron-donating substituents on the HOMO-LUMO bandgap and HOMO-LUMO levels for a series of 9-fluorenone derivatives is described. Trends were explored in range of compounds, beginning with structures having highly electron-withdrawing substituents, and progressing to structures having highly electron-donating substituents. Structures with an increasing extent of conjugation were also examined. Electrochemical and optical measurements were used to calculate the HOMO-LUMO levels and bandgap for each structure. Results from both methods were compared and correlated to the differences in molecular structure. Increasing either the electron-donating character of the substituents or the extent of conjugation was observed to decrease the size of the HOMO-LUMO bandgap and increase the energy levels of the HOMO and the LUMO, while increasing the electron-withdrawing character of the substituents was observed to produce the opposite effects. These studies provide insight into developing materials with specific conductive properties and specific HOMO and LUMO energy levels for a variety of applications.<br />Viability of Seeds of Riparian Vegetation Ingested by Alligator Snapping Turtles (Macrochelys Temminckii)<br />Jean Elbers<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Don Moll<br />Oral Presentation<br />The alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) is a large freshwater turtle that inhabits water bodies in the Southeastern United States. The species consumes primarily fish but also consumes seeds of common persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), tupelos (Nyssa sp.), willow oak (Quercus phellos), and pecan (Carya illinoensis). Captive specimens of M. temminckii were fed the above-mentioned seeds to evaluate the potential role this species may play as a seed disperser. Ingestion reduced the percentage of seeds that germinated in comparison to uneaten controls in all species except Q. phellos. The percentage of seeds that germinated also decreased the longer seeds remained inside turtles. Ingestion reduced the germination rates of D. virginiana and N. aquatica seeds but increased germination rates for seeds of Q. phellos. Due to fungal contamination, conclusions could not be drawn regarding the effect of ingestion on germination of C. illinoensis seeds. This study suggests M. temminckii could potentially play some role as a disperser of Q. phellos and N. aquatica but is less likely for D. virginiana. Information regarding the post-dispersal fates of seeds ingested by M. temminckii and other freshwater turtles is needed in the evaluation of the importance of freshwater turtles as dispersers of riparian and wetland vegetation.<br />Diagnosis of Otosclerosis Using Widebrand Energy Reflectance<br />Alaaeldin Elsayed<br />Audiology<br />Faculty Advisor: Wafaa Kaf<br />Poster Presentation<br />Otosclerosis is a progressive disease of bone resorption and reformation that affects bones derived from the otic capsule. It causes conductive hearing loss that might progress to sensorineural hearing loss. Preoperative accurate diagnosis of otosclerosis is a challenging task particularly in developing countries due to the presence of other associated middle ear disorders. Standard single and multifrequency tympanometry have limitations in identifying otosclerosis. In contrast, Wideband Energy Reflectance (WBER) measures middle ear function over the speech frequency range (0.25 kHz- 8 kHz). This study aimed to examine WBER patterns in 10 patients with clinical otosclerosis and 17 normal adults. All participants underwent these audiological evaluations: otoscopy, pure-tone audiometry, 226Hz tympanometry and WBER. Stimuli for WBER recording were 65 dB SPL click stimuli at ambient pressure using WBT Interacoustics. Otosclerotic ears showed high WBER compared to the control group. WBER was abnormal in all otosclerotic ears in contrast to those with otosclerotic ears showing a normal Jerger type A tympanogram. Results suggest that WBER is more sensitive than 226Hz tympanometry in identifying otosclerotic ears. Further studies are required to investigate the WBER pattern at different clinical stages of otosclerosis.<br />Effects of Endophyte-Infested Tall Fescue on Post-Exercise Recovery of Horses in Hot Humid Climates<br />Jennifer Amy Ford<br />Natural and Applied Science - MNAS<br />Faculty Advisor: Gary Webb<br />Oral Presentation<br />This study was performed to determine the effect of ergovaline consumption on the recovery of exercised horses in hot, humid conditions. Nine horses were split into two groups (5 & 4). To ensure consumption of ergovaline, horses were fed either endophyte-infested seed (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) seed with sweet feed and alfalfa hay. During the first 28 d period, Group 1 received E+ and Group 2 received E-. Diets were reversed for the second 28 d. Three d/wk horses were subjected to 25 min conditioning: stops, turns and suppling exercises at a walk, trot and lope. Two d/wk horses were trained on a mechanical cow (20-25 turns in 5 min) except d 14, 28, 42 and 56 when they were ridden on a standardized exercise test (SET) designed to raise the heart rate (HR) beyond the anaerobic threshold (40 turns in 4 min.) SET arena humidity averaged 80.3% and temperature 27.3 C. Parameters measured were respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RTemp), HR and blood lactate (Lac). There was a horse effect (P < 0.05) on post SET RR, HR and Lac, but not RTemp. There was no horse x treatment interaction. Treatment did not affect RTemp or HR. RR were higher for E+ horses (P < 0.05) at 5 and 10 minutes post SET (P < 0.005), indicating ergovaline consumption increased recovery time from a SET of anaerobic work in hot, humid conditions.<br />Manifestations of Body Image Dissatisfaction Among Bariatric Surgery Patients<br />Jennifer Ann Ford<br />Psychology<br />Faculty Advisor: Danae L. Hudson<br />Oral Presentation<br />Body image is a multidimensional concept that includes cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. The current study examined the behavioral aspects of body image in obese patients seeking bariatric surgery, including body checking, body avoidance, and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the following measures: the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ); Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ); and the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ). The BSQ was significantly correlated with the BCQ (r = .54, p < .001) and the BIAQ (r = .53, p < .001), suggesting that participants with higher levels of body dissatisfaction are also engaging in behaviors such as body checking and body image avoidance. In this sample, the BSQ mean of 128.4 (SD = 25.4) was significantly higher than the "average" (t (143) = 22.1, p< .001) and "concerned" (t (143) = 9.1, p < .001) women, suggesting substantial body dissatisfaction. Body image avoidance was extremely high even surpassing the mean of women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (t (143) = 5.2, p < .001). However, a relatively low incidence of body checking behaviors was present.<br />Benefits of Animal Assisted Therapy with Atypical Communication<br />Kimberly N. Gaisford<br />Communication Sciences and Disorders<br />Faculty Advisor: Ronald Netsell<br />Poster Presentation<br />This project was designed to examine the history and benefits of combining Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) with speech-language therapy (SLT). A variety of sources were used to obtain information about the different aspects of speech-language therapy in which AAT could be beneficial. Analysis showed that patients participating in sessions including AAT demonstrated greater use of expressive and receptive language, social interaction, eye contact, attention, cognition, memory, lowered frustration, improved self-confidence, improved reading skills and comprehension, reduced pain, and increased mobility. Implications for future research are discussed.<br />Ancient-Futures: Theology and Innovation in Two Ozarks Churches<br />Matthew James Gallion<br />Religious Studies<br />Faculty Advisor: John Schmalzbauer<br />Oral Presentation<br />The story of progress and tradition has been of perennial interest to the study of the Ozarks. Based on field observations at two sites in Southwest Missouri, I argue that local religious expressions choose which aspects of the global faith are malleable and which aspects are not. In Ozarks Christianity, these questions often revolve around the relationship between technology and theology. I chose to conduct research at James River Assembly (JRA), an evangelical mega-church, and Brentwood Christian Church (BCC), a mainline congregation with explicit connections to the emerging church movement. In this paper, the differences between these two congregations will be considered on a scale of "ancient-future," being a combination of ancient ideas and rituals with modern (and post-modern) innovations in thought and practice. I suggest that JRA embodies an ecclesiology that endorses a "conservative" theology, maintaining a firm commitment to ancient beliefs, and "progressive" practices, using technology to express their ancient faith in a twenty-first century context. BCC preaches a "progressive" theology with roots in an ancient faith that changes and evolves with time. I will also demonstrate and explore the ways the theology of JRA is predominantly a "private" concern, but the theology at BCC is mostly "public."<br />Factors that Affect Identity Satisfaction in Retired Older Adults<br />Laura Glasbrenner<br />Communication<br />Faculty Advisor: Kelly Wood<br />Oral Presentation<br />The relationship between the level of loneliness and the level of perceived retirement stigma on retirement identity satisfaction among older adults was investigated in this study. Older adults (N=92; males = 30, females = 62) at two local Senior Centers participated with most being aged 70 and above (n=61). After running a Pearson's r correlation test, a significant positive relationship was found between levels of loneliness and levels of satisfaction with participants' retired identity. This result was not supported by any of the literature. A strong positive relationship was also seen between levels of perceived retirement stigma and levels of retired identity dissatisfaction. These results have practical application for Senior Centers nationwide.<br />The Importance of a Consistent Value in Sports<br />Andrew Grote<br />Business Adminstration<br />Faculty Advisor: Robert Luke<br />Poster Presentation<br />In our current economy, it is important for businesses to offer consistent value. Many consumers have their own standards for what they consider to be valuable. For a sports franchise, it can be hard to maintain their value and keep season ticket holders coming back. Franchises have to break down every instant of their product to improve their value. This study will focus on the behavior of season ticket holders and what keeps them coming back to the Cardinals. The Cardinals have taken many different strategies to keep their fans coming back and satisfied. They have added many features and promotions to do anything to keep their current fan base, while attracting new fans to the ball park. In closing, the Cardinals have been working hard, but how have they improved their product to meet current season ticket holders need? They must be able to adapt and consistently deliver a great way of entertainment.<br />The Benefits of Voluntary Simplicity from a Self-Determination Perspective<br />Tess Hagg<br />Psychology<br />Faculty Advisor: Chantal Levesque-Bristol<br />Poster Presentation<br />Voluntary simplicity is an intentional move to abandon materialism and instead focus on self-sustainability and ecologically responsible behaviors. Previous research, such as Brown and Kasser (2005), has shown that voluntary simplifiers report higher levels of overall well-being, more intrinsic life values (related to basic needs satisfaction), and more positive environmental behaviors. The present study examines the effects of voluntary simplicity, as moderated by self-determination, on overall well-being. This study used an online questionnaire with a college sample (N = 534) to assess whether students who engage in environmentally sustainable behaviors and who are self-determined to do so would report higher levels of intrinsic life values and well-being in their daily lives. This is in contrast to students who engage in high levels of environmentally sustainable behaviors, yet are not self-determined towards these behaviors. It was hypothesized that voluntary simplifiers would report the effects of self-determination towards the environment as having a positive impact on other elements of their lives. Overall the data suggest that being self-determined towards environmentally sustainable behaviors can increase well-being, create higher levels of basic needs satisfaction, and have a positive impact on life aspirations.<br />Methods for Reliable and Repeatable Searcher Efficiency for Post-Construction Surveys at Wind Energy Sites<br />Benjamin T. Hale<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Lynn Robbins<br />Oral Presentation<br />Wind turbines are a fast growing form of sustainable energy. Unfortunately, large numbers of bats have been killed at wind turbine locations due to blade impact and extreme pressure changes (barotrauma). The National Fish and Wildlife Service has made recommendations to wind energy companies to develop a habitat conservation plan to minimize the effects on bats, specifically the endangered Indiana bat, Myotis sodalis. To do this, a company must conduct pre-construction surveys of existing bat populations. Following construction, post-construction surveys are necessary to assess the effectiveness of the habitat conservation plan. As part of this, mortality searches must be conducted to estimate fatalities in project areas. Currently, the most widely used method for mortality estimates is human searches, which has a searcher efficiency as low as 25%. This project utilizes a modified pull-behind lawn and leaf sweeper to pick-up dead bats. Carcass searching using machines eliminate human bias allowing for a repeatable and more scientific approach. Without reliable searcher efficiency, effects of turbine construction cannot be accurately assessed and therefore types and level of turbine mitigation cannot be accurately determined.<br />“The Genital Herpes Helpcast”: An Educational Audio Podcast for Patients Newly Diagnosed with Genital Herpes<br />Diana Hannen<br />Nursing<br />Faculty Advisor: Charlotte Seckman<br />Poster Presentation<br />Genital herpes (GH) is a chronic, sexually transmitted infection. Patients newly diagnosed with GH often experience a barrage of psychosocial issues (Swanson, 1999). Education is key to helping patients cope with the diagnosis. However, health care providers are often unable to devote large amounts of time to educating patients about GH. Gilbert, Schulz, and Ebel (2002) also found three patient-identified educational barriers when discussing GH with providers, including embarrassment, trouble understanding the complexity of GH, and lack of provider time. The purpose of this project will be to create an educational audio podcast, "The Genital Herpes Helpcast", for young adults newly diagnosed with GH. An evidenced-based script will be created and then reviewed by a national herpes expert for accuracy. The podcast will be recorded through collaboration with Missouri State University. The podcast will then be embedded in the Springfield-Greene County Health Department website and submitted to Apple iTunes for distribution. The benefits of podcasts are the availability in the privacy of one's home via a personal computer, or the ability to be downloaded to an MP3 player and listened to on the go. A GH podcast will save providers time, allowing them to refer patients to the podcast for additional information about herpes.<br />Effects of Stream Crossings on Macroinvertebrate Assemblages of the Upper Current River, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri<br />Rachel Heth<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: John E. Havel<br />Poster Presentation<br />This study examined the impact of road crossings on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in a wadeable Ozark river. We collected macroinvertebrates during winter and summer from four riffle locations (upstream, at crossing, downstream, and farther downstream) at each of five sites in the upper Current River (mean discharge 12 cms). Sixteen environmental variables were measured at each location to characterize sites. Using digital photographs from trail cameras, traffic frequencies were calculated and largely consisted of hikers and horses. Based on counts of 68,353 individuals from 111 macroinvertebrate taxa, we calculated four metrics (taxa richness, Shannon's index, EPT, biotic index) combined into the Stream Condition Index. These metrics were used to assess the effects of stream crossings on stream macroinvertebrate communities during each season. All metrics showed strong differences among sites but inconsistent effects above and below crossings. Multivariate analyses (nonmetric multidimensional scaling and a nested analysis of similarity) also revealed strong differences in community composition among sites, as well as among locations. Together, the results suggest that crossing disturbances during summer and winter 2009 were either too infrequent or small in intensity to impair benthic invertebrate communities.<br />Mutual Cooperation or Hindrance: China’s North Korea Problem<br />Scott Hoban<br />Global Studies<br />Faculty Advisor: Beat Kernen<br />Oral Presentation<br />This research examines the People's Republic of China's options in regards to North Korea's nuclear weapons program. China is one of the most pivotal actors in the region, and the goal of this research is to determine what options are available and evaluate which option is best. This has been done by researching relevant literature examining the situation. Upon studying this literature, three options are weighed. The first option, military intervention, stands the greatest chance of ensuring that the nuclear weapons are secured; however, this option would result in heavy casualties and a new refugee problem. The second option is to continue the Six-Party Talks. This option is more peaceful, but it also gives North Korea time to develop more nuclear weapons. The final option is to impose harsh sanctions and cut off supplies. China is a major provider of food and fuel to North Korea, and this option could force Pyongyang to cooperate; however, it could also drive North Korea into further isolation. After weighing these options, it is recommended that continued negotiations are the most appropriate option. This conclusion indicates that it is in China's best interests to maintain its current peaceful development strategy.<br />Behavioral Responses of Juvenile Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) to Alarm Cues from Damaged Skin and Predator Diet<br />Robert Hunt<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: S. Alicia Mathis<br />Oral Presentation<br />Many animals are able to avoid predatory encounters by responding with appropriate anti-predator behaviors when they detect chemical cues associated with increased predation risk. Terrestrial animals often can avoid predation by responding to chemical cues that have been deposited on the substrate. In this study we tested the hypothesis that newly-metamorphozed, spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) would respond with alarm behaviors when exposed to two types of chemical cues on substrates: (1) damaged skin of other spotted salamanders (signaling a predatory attack), and (2) cues from a predator that had been fed a diet of spotted salamanders. We used fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a control stimulus during these tests. In the first experiment, salamanders showed stronger avoidance to damaged skin from salamanders than to damaged skin from minnows, indicating that the response was not simply a response to any damaged tissue. In the second experiment, we obtained cues from predatory water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) that had been fed either a diet of spotted salamanders or a diet of fathead minnows. Preliminary data suggest that salamanders tend to avoid substrate markings from snakes fed both types of prey. Tests that examine this question in more detail are ongoing.<br />Cultural Competence of Senior Nursing Students<br />Silvia Imanda<br />Nursing<br />Faculty Advisor: Susan Sims-Giddens<br />Oral Presentation<br />The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine students' perceived confidence to provide culturally competent care. There is a lack of empirical studies investigating the confidence of nurses and nursing students in providing culturally competent care. Therefore, the research question will be, "What are Southwest Missouri senior baccalaureate student nurses' self-perceptions of their competence in providing cultural care for diverse ethnic clients?" A convenience sample of baccalaureate nursing students, enrolled during the fall 2009 semester, from two universities in Southwestern Missouri will be recruited for this study. Students will complete the Bernal and Froman's Cultural Self-efficacy Scale (CSES), a 26-item questionnaire that measures confidence levels for culturally competent care from three aspects: 1) knowledge about cultural concepts, 2) knowledge about cultural patterns, and 3) skills in performing transcultural nursing functions. Analysis will be conducted using descriptive and inferential statistics. The current nursing colleges' curriculum and exposure to cultural concepts may play an important role in the findings. It is anticipated this study will support the nurse educators' continuing efforts to incorporate cultural concepts and skills in the nursing curriculum. NOTE: The topic was presented in a form of poster presentation at the 16th IDF.<br />What Does the Body Condition of Little Brown Bats (Myotis Lucifugus) Reveal about White-Nose Syndrome?<br />Amanda Janicki<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Tom Tomasi<br />Poster Presentation<br />White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) is a large-scale epidemic that is killing at least 6 species of cave-dwelling bats in the eastern United States. Though the ultimate cause of death is unknown, the proximal cause seems to be depletion of fat reserves before hibernation is over. Fat reserves were measured indirectly by body mass and plasma leptin levels (via RIA). Body mass data and blood samples were collected throughout the 2008-2009 hibernation season at a New York mine (WNS-affected site), at a Pennsylvania cave (unaffected by WNS at the beginning of study), and at a Missouri cave (unaffected site). We hypothesized that little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) affected with WNS will have smaller body masses than unaffected bats in mid to late hibernation. We also hypothesized that leptin levels will decrease over the course of the winter, and will be lower in New York bats than Pennsylvania and Missouri bats. Mean body mass did not significantly differ between sites (P = 0.123), but decreased from October to March. Although we only had blood samples from New York bats in early hibernation, plasma leptin levels decreased throughout hibernation for Pennsylvania bats (P = 0.003) and Missouri bats (P = 0.010).<br />Hearing in Noise Ability Measured with P300 in Normal Hearing Adults<br />Yawen Jiang<br />Audiology<br />Faculty Advisor: Letitia White<br />Poster Presentation<br />Binaural interaction (BI) and binaural enhancement (BE) are auditory processes that are associated with the ability to hear in the presence of background noise. The aim of this study was to measure BI and BE at the cortical level in quiet and noise. Twelve young adults with normal hearing were recruited. Electrophysiological recordings (P300) were obtained in quiet and noise by stimulating each ear individually (monaural) and both ears simultaneously (binaural). Speech stimuli were presented through insert earphones and speech noise was presented in the sound field. Participants were instructed to press a button when they heard target sounds. Results indicated that BI existed in quiet, but not in noise. BE was not present in quiet, but was present in noise in some conditions. In conclusion, binaural responses were enhanced by noise, compared to monaural responses, which indicates a binaural advantage in noise. Monaural responses were similar to binaural responses in quiet, but not in noise, which indicates a lack of inhibition in noise at the cortical level. The present investigation may be used as a precursor study for evaluating people with auditory processing difficulty or elderly who have difficulty hearing in noise.<br />Differentiated Instruction: A Research Study of Differentiated Instruction on 2nd Grade Students Math Skills Performance<br />LaMesha Shanette Johnson<br />Elementary Education<br />Faculty Advisor: Cynthia Wilson Hail<br />Poster Presentation<br />A causal comparative study was conducted to determine if there was a difference in the acquisition of practical math skills when using differentiated instruction vs. a traditional approach. Students from an intact second grade classroom were taught two different units of comparable difficulty using one of the two methods. Data from two teacher-created assessments were harvested and compared using an Independent t-test at the .05 level of significance. Finding will be presented at the Graduate Interdisciplinary Forum.<br />Perceptions of Likeability and Competence of Males in Female-Typed Occupations<br />Diamond M. Jones<br />Psychology<br />Faculty Advisor: Michelle Visio<br />Poster Presentation<br />This purpose of this study is to explore the relationship among sexist attitudes, religiosity, and ratings of likeability and competence of males in traditionally female-typed job roles. Introductory psychology students were invited to complete the surveys and received credit for their participation in the study. Participant's (N=396) completed an on-line survey that assessed their sexist attitudes and religiosity. The participants read a performance description of a male and a female in one of three jobs: elementary school teacher, registered nurse, and administrative assistant. Participants rated both the male and the female job holder on their competence, likeability, and achievement orientation. Past research shows that women who perform male-typed jobs receive lower ratings on competence, likeability, and achievement orientation. This study will examine if the same holds true for men in female-typed jobs. It is hypothesized that men in female-typed jobs will receive lower competence ratings, be viewed as less likeable, and seen as less achievement orientated.<br />The UN Humanitarian Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Role of its Security Council: Somalia and Liberia<br />Abdoul K. Kaba<br />Global Studies<br />Faculty Advisor: Beat Kernen<br />Oral Presentation<br />The contemporary sub-Saharan Africa has been characterized by the rise of violence since the first wave of decolonization of the region, in 1950s. It has become a place of instability, where people are animated by material incentives that push them to act to the detriment of the civilians. That violence mostly occurs between factions, rebel groups, and religious ideologies. Those behaviors engendered considerable humanitarian crisis through the region and attract the attention of international community. In looking at the specific cases of Somalia, in the horn of Africa and Liberia, in West Africa, the project will look at the types of conflicts that take place in the region and the inefficiency of the African leadership during the crisis. The study will explain the failure and success of the UN humanitarian interventions in the region according to the natures of the crisis. The research will also explain the role of the UN Security Council in implementing policies to either prevent or end the conflicts; or to help civilians who are victim of the crisis, by providing them the basic need, including food, cloths, education and health. Finally it will outline the role of United States as a major player during the humanitarian interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially in the case of Somalia in the early 1990s.<br />Implications of SLM Genes in Endocytosis and the Organization of Eisosome<br />Chitra Kamble<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Kyoungtae Kim<br />Poster Presentation<br />Slm1 and its homolog Slm2 have been implicated in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and its inactivation causes defects in the actin cytoskeleton organization at an optimal temperature. We investigated the potential endocytic defects in a number of temperature sensitive slm mutants. First, it was observed that FM4-64, a bulk-phase endocytic marker, was efficiently delivered to the vacuole in WT, slm1null, and slm2 null, whereas three temperature sensitive SLM gene mutants showed a severe endocytic defect. To examine the potential role of Slm proteins on endosome motility en route to the vacuole, we plan to trace FM4-64 carrying endosomes originated from the membrane to determine the significance of Slm1 and Slm2 on receptor-mediated endocytic (RME) pathway. We found that Abp1-RFP was recruited, albeit slowly, and remained much longer in three slm temperature sensitive mutants when compared to WT and slm1Δ/ slm2Δ. Slm1 has been identified as a component of eisosome, a static site for endocytosis. We previously discovered that Pil1 is required for Slm1 recruitment to eisosome, not vice versa. We here further investigated the localization of Pil1 in slm temperature sensitive mutants, and the spatial relationship between Slm1 and Abp1. <br />Making the Cut: Online Social Support After an Unwanted Cesarean Section<br />Amanda Kuda<br />Communication<br />Faculty Advisor: Stephanie Norander<br />Oral Presentation<br />Statistics from organizations concerned with childbirth and women’s health indicate that the rate of deliveries by cesarean section has risen beyond national recommendations. While these statistics may indicate patients are requesting the procedure, a more pervasive reasoning is found in literature: physician choice. Due to the traumatic physical and emotional effects resulting from cesarean (particularly unnecessary cesarean) delivery, women often seek social support as a coping mechanism. Women may struggle to find social support in their physical communities and thus often turn to online venues to find support during their recovery. The purpose of this research is to investigate the experiences of women who have had cesarean births and seek social support in the online forum for the International Cesarean Awareness Network (ICAN).<br />Predicting Habitat Use and Temporal Activity of the Indiana Bat<br />Joseph Robert Lemen<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Lynn Robbins<br />Oral Presentation<br />Protecting endangered species is vital to the preservation of biodiversity and can be approached in different ways. Understanding how and when a group of animals utilize their habitat is a key to making recommendations on how to best preserve it. Multiple sampling sites are located across the state providing us with species presence data. Along with presence and absence, we also are defining habitat and climatic variables for all bat captures. Macro and micro habitat variables will be compiled in ArcGIS 9.3.1. The Spatial Analyst extension, Hawth's Tools and others will be used for prediction. A general additive model(GAM) will extrapolate all the weighted attributes into a predictive habitat model. In addition, ground-truthing will be conducted at multiple sites within the predicted areas. This will provide a value for the accuracy of the models. Many entities, including power companies and transportation departments, must establish the presence/absence of endangered species within their project boundaries before moving forward with construction. These models could play an intricate role in this process by working to eliminate unnecessary trapping efforts, saving valuable resources. Also, they could locate optimal bat habitat that was previously unknown.<br />Binaural Interaction Component of Auditory Evoked Potentials: ABR vs. 80 Hz ASSR and AMLR vs. 40 Hz ASSR<br />Katie Lewis<br />Audiology<br />Faculty Advisor: Wafaa Kaf<br />Poster Presentation<br />The Binaural Interaction Component (BIC) is an electrophysiological index to evaluate binaural auditory processing. The generators of the auditory steady-state (ASSR) response to high and low modulation frequency are possibly similar to generator sites of the ABR and AMLR, respectively. The aim of this study was to compare the BIC ABR with the BIC ASSR using high modulation frequency and the BIC AMLR with the BIC ASSR using low modulation frequency in the same subject. The BIC of ABR and ASSR with high (79Hz and 94Hz) and AMLR and ASSR with low (39Hz and 49Hz) modulation was studied in 15 adults with normal hearing, using 75 dB nHL clicks presented monaurally and binaurally. Results showed that the baseline-peak amplitudes (uV) of the BIC of the ASSR to 79Hz and 94Hz were smaller than the BIC ABR (p < 0.0005). In contrast, 39Hz and 49Hz ASSR amplitudes were significantly larger than the BIC AMLR Na and Pa amplitudes (p < 0.005). Latency findings for the ABR-BIC and 80 Hz ASSR-BIC suggest presence of similar BI mechanisms at the brainstem level. In contrast, prolonged latency of the AMLR-BIC than 40 Hz ASSR-BIC suggests presence of different BI mechanisms at the subcortical level. Results suggest that different neural mechanisms may be responsible for fast stimulation rate versus low stimulation rate components.<br />Electron Microscopy Imaging Platinum Nanoparticles Supported on Different Carbon<br />Qianqian Liu<br />Materials Science<br />Faculty Advisor: Lifeng Dong<br />Poster Presentation<br />Fuel cells have been receiving increased attention due to the depletion of fossil fuels and the increase in environmental pollution. However, there are still some critical obstacles inhibiting broad applications of direct methanol and ethanol fuel cells, including low electrocatalytic activity of anodes and the high cost of noble metal platinum (Pt)-based catalysts. Vulcan XC-72R carbon black has been the most widely-used carbon support for the preparation of fuel cell catalysts. During the past several years, a number of research groups have investigated carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene as catalyst supports and have demonstrated that both can improve electrocatalytic activity of Pt nanoparticle for methanol and ethanol oxidation compared to Vulcan XC-72R carbon black. In this study, we utilized the same reaction parameters to synthesize Pt nanoparticles on different carbon nanostructures, such as CNT, graphene, and Vulcan XC-72R carbon black. A series of electron microscopy techniques, using secondary electrons, backscattered electrons, and transmitted electrons, were employed to characterize these nanoparticles. These systematic characterizations provide detailed information on the morphology and structures, which will help us to design and synthesize desirable catalyst supports for fuel cell applications.<br />The Political Impact of the Instability of Somalia to the Horn and East Africa<br />Moses Sanyanda Masibo<br />Global Studies<br />Faculty Advisor: Beat Kernen<br />Oral Presentation<br />The instability in Somalia has caused the region a tremendous effect to the point that countries within the horn and East Africa have to deal with for quite a long time to come. There are so many small arms and weapons that have come through the border of Somalia-Kenya that have been infiltrated into the Kenyan towns and cities. To completely wipe them out to render the society free from illicit arms will require concerted efforts of good leadership and cooperation from the Kenyan people. This will take a long time to happen, if it will happen anyway. The paper will address issues like the infiltration of small arms to the region, refugees, piracy and Somalia as a factor in the conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea.<br />Examination of DNA Structure Using 1H and 31P Solution State NMR<br />Brianna L. Medrano<br />Chemistry<br />Faculty Advisor: Gary Meints<br />Poster Presentation<br />Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is an integral part of life. It carries all the information that is necessary for life. In order for this information to be passed it is necessary for the DNA to be able to interact with proteins. This protein-DNA interaction can be interrupted if there is damage within the DNA sequence. The damage within DNA, if left unrepaired, can have severe consequences such as aging, cancer, and other serious health problems. The specific damage being investigated is the 1,N6-Ethenodeoxyadenosine, which is an etheno base adduct of adenosine. This particular type of lesion is repaired via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. This pathway includes base-flipping. The key protein in BER is DNA glycosylase; it is this protein that flips the base out of the double helix and then removes it. It is the aim of this project to determine if the confirmation of the phosphorous in the DNA backbone is different if a lesion is present than if the base is undamaged. If there is a significant difference it could point to a possible recognition mechanism for the DNA glycoslyase, and lead to a better understanding of the BER pathway.<br />The Effects of Anger Management on Violent Recidivism<br />Melissa Melton<br />Criminology<br />Faculty Advisor: Brett Garland<br />Oral Presentation<br />Anger management treatment attempts to assist inmates in understanding their anger, identifying emotional triggers, and ultimately, managing and controlling their aggressive emotions in order to avoid violent criminal behaviors in the future. The present study examined a random sample of 106 male inmates placed within the Missouri Department of Corrections between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2006 who were given anger management treatment. A portion of the sample group with no violent criminal history was compared to the rest of the group who did have a violent criminal history in order to study the effects of anger management treatment on both groups in regards to recidivism, particularly violent recidivism, in the three years following the period of incarceration and treatment.<br />Loss of Pil1 Disrupts Cell-Eating Ability<br />Erin Ruth Murphy<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Kyoungtae Kim<br />Oral Presentation<br />Endocytosis is the process by which cells uptake extracellular materials at sites termed eisosomes. The protein Pil1 is known to control the assembly of eisosomes. The loss of Pil1 leads to accumulation of large aggregates of endocytic vesicles on the membrane, therefore, we hypothesized that Pil1 is required for proper endocytosis. The extent of actin cable disruption correlates with the severity of endocytic defects. Therefore, we first examined the actin organization in both pil1 null and WT cells. Unexpectedly, actin cables in pil1 null cells were not disrupted. We next found that the loss of Pil1 results in a significant delay in bulk-phase and receptor-mediated endocytosis. To find the potential mechanism of Pil1, we tested whether the PIL1 gene interacts genetically with key genes required for endocytosis. We show that PIL1 interacts with RVS161 and RVS167 and the interactions are essential for cell viability at the non-permissive temperature. Since Rvs161 and Rvs167 are both key components of endocytic scission machinery, it is most likely that PIL1 is involved in the membrane pinch-off. Though no genetic interaction between PIL1 and SJL2 was observed, it appears that Pil1 is required for the proper recruitment of Sjl2. Surprisingly in a strain lacking PIL1 and SJL2 all tested scission markers were mistargeted.<br />A Comparison Between Contralateral Suppression in Cochlear Microphonics and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions<br />Fadi Jamil Najem<br />Audiology<br />Faculty Advisor: Wafaa Kaf<br />Poster Presentation<br />The suppressive effect of the auditory efferent system on the outer hair cells (OHCs) of the cochlea is thoroughly investigated by recording Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs), the gold standard measure. Cochlear Microphonic (CM) is an auditory evoked potential that also reflects the OHCs instantaneous activity. Little is known about the suppressive effect of the auditory efferent system on the CM in humans. This study aims to examine and compare the effect of contralateral noise stimulation of the efferent system on the OHCs activity using CM vs. distortion-product OAEs (DPOAEs). The CM and DPOAEs were recorded from 16 normal young female adults. The DPOAEs stimuli consisted of 500, 2000, and 4000 Hz tones. The CM was recorded to rarefaction and condensation clicks and tone-bursts (TB-500 & TB-2000 Hz). They were recorded from the right ear with- and without-noise in the left ear. Results showed that noise suppressed (9dB) or enhanced (8dB) the DPOAEs amplitudes mainly at 500 Hz. Also, the CM amplitudes were suppressed (0.143-0.156 MV) or enhanced (0.087-0.138 MV) at 500 Hz at both stimulus polarities. These findings suggest that contralateral stimulation of the efferent system has a direct effect on the CM amplitude. Similar to DPOAEs, suppression of the CM is best measured at lower frequency than higher frequency or clicks.<br />Elementary Teachers’ Attitudes Towards and Knowledge of Service-Learning<br />Melissa J. Netzer<br />Elementary Education<br />Faculty Advisor: Cynthia Wilson Hail<br />Poster Presentation<br />The purpose of this study was to determine elementary teachers' attitudes towards and knowledge of service-learning. The research questions guiding this study included: What attitudes do elementary teachers have towards service-learning? and What knowledge do elementary teachers have about service-learning? The study sought to broaden the current knowledge regarding service-learning at the elementary level. In this descriptive study, a researcher-designed survey based on a Likert scale was distributed to 137 K-6 teachers in a rural southwest Missouri school district. Findings will be presented at the Interdisciplinary Forum.<br />Why Rock Climbing Rocks: Increasing Well-Being Through Vitality, Flow, and Basic Needs Satisfaction<br />Laura D. Nichols<br />Psychology<br />Faculty Advisor: Chantal Levesque-Bristol<br />Poster Presentation<br />The psychological impact of rock climbing has received little attention from the field of psychology. Most rock climbers view their sport not only as fun, but also as life altering. It tests a person's strength, stamina, dexterity, and balance as well as his or her mental control. This empirical research aimed to shed light on what makes outdoor rock climbing such an engaging and life altering sport by examining various psychological constructs such as basic needs satisfaction, vitality, flow and subjective well-being. Climbing indoors and outdoors are very different experiences. Indoor climbing is to train, practice, and learn. People climb outdoor for the enjoyment of being outside, the feel of the rock, and the ability to find their own unique way to climb a route. Climbing outside gives individuals the freedom to choose the route they want to climb and how to do it. Because of these different experiences it is expected that rock climbers will feel higher levels of vitality, basic needs satisfaction, and subjective well-being when climbing outside compared to inside. Twenty rock climbers participated in the study and were assessed while climbing indoor and outdoor at pre and post test. Results of repeated measures ANOVA showed significant changes in climber's basic need satisfaction, vitality, and subjective well-being.<br />A Deuterium Solid-State NMR Study of the Furanose Ring Dynamics in DNA Containing 1,N6-Ethenoadenine<br />Sarah Elizabeth Nichols<br />Chemistry<br />Faculty Advisor: Gary Meints<br />Poster Presentation<br />Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic blueprint property for all life. In order to function properly, DNA must have the ability to bind and interact with proteins. Damage to DNA can alter its sequence and shape, thereby hindering the ability to effectively interact with proteins. Left unrepaired, damaged DNA can lead to cancer and other serious health problems. The particular type of DNA damage being investigated is the etheno base adduct, 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine. This is formed during exposure to vinyl chloride, a known carcinogen used widely in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The etheno-adducts are eliminated through base excision repair (BER). Although the final steps of BER are well characterized, what remains unclear is how the repair enzymes identify the damaged base. We propose that the damage may lower the energy barrier to allow for conformation changes and aid in the base flipping process during BER. Through the means of Solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy we are able to study the local dynamics of DNA. A comparative study will be employed to analyze the difference in local motions between proper DNA and DNA containing the etheno-adduct. The results of this study will contribute to the overall understanding of the recognition process in BER. <br />Simulating the Effects of Carbon Sequestration on the Lamotte Sandstone in SW Missouri Using Geochemist’s Workbench<br />Lea Nondorf<br />Geospatial Sciences in Geography and Geology<br />Faculty Advisor: Melida Gutierrez<br />Oral Presentation<br />City Utilities in Springfield, Missouri is considering a carbon sequestration project within the Lamotte Sandstone, located at approximately 2,000 ft depth beneath the Southwest Power Station. Geochemical models were used to help determine reactions occurring within the Lamotte generated by CO2 injection. Lamotte Sandstone parameters of temperature and fugacity are assumed at 30C and 53.3 bar, respectively. Mineralogic analysis of the sandstone shows quartz, feldspars, and clays are present. Because no public water data exists for the Lamotte Sandstone in southwest Missouri, water data reported from several sandstones aquifers were used in the model. Kinetic data of the minerals within the sandstone were also added to the model. The parameters were entered into Geochemist's Workbench (standard 8.0) as a proxy for the Lamotte Sandstone beneath the proposed site and prograde and retrograde phases of CO2 injection were simulated. The modeling results of these phases estimate 53-73 g CO2/kg water will be trapped within the formation fluid and 12 to 25 g/kg water of CO2 is trapped within carbonate minerals, mainly as dolomite, siderite, and magnesite. This material is based upon work sponsored by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory under Award Number DE-NT0006642 to City Utilities of Springfield, MO. NOTE: Also presenting at Missouri Academy of Science.<br />Exploratory Analysis of the Use of Social Media During Crises<br />Jeff Norris<br />Communication<br />Faculty Advisor: Samuel Dyer<br />Poster Presentation<br />Internet communication between organizations and their audience has been an attractive topic for public relations professionals and researchers in recent years. With the Internet still developing, how people use the Internet has also been changing. The Internet has been used to find information in a linear model, but never to communicate instantaneously in a two-way or transactional model. Recently, the evolvement of the Internet and its sites has developed a hybrid medium between both information and communication. During an organizational crisis, public relations professionals need to use all tools necessary to manage the situation at hand, including social media. Social media would potentially allow an organization to communicate directly to key stakeholders and audiences at the same time. This analysis looks at three main sections describing crises and social media: First, it examines what a crisis is and models used to analyze a crisis. Second, it inspects social media and four basic social media applications. Finally, it looks at how public relation professionals can use social media to their advantage and what advantages social media has during a time of crisis.<br />Further Investigation of an IAT for Workplace Integrity<br />Emmanuel Osafo<br />Pyschology<br />Faculty Advisor: Donald Fischer<br />Poster Presentation<br />The assesment of integrity and character is of interest, especially in the wake of a seemingly endless litany of scandals involving criminal conduct by those in leadership positions in both corporate and governmental organizations. This study examined the validity of a new measure of workplace integrity based upon the Implicit Association Test (IAT) using a temptation paradigm to elicit relevant behaviors (breaking rules and lying or following rules and telling the truth). Relationships with theoretically relevant explicit and implicit measures of cognitive constructs and overt behavioral indices replicate and extend results of previous studies and provide additional support for the IAT measure's validity. In particular, both implicit and explicit measures made independent contributions to the criterion behavior.<br />Influence of Prior Exposure to Predator Cues on the Territoriality of the Ozark Zigzag Salamander, Plethodon Angusticlavius<br />Jennifer Parsons<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: S. Alicia Mathis<br />Oral Presentation<br />Detection of chemical cues is important for avoidance of predation for many prey animals. Previous experiments have shown that territorial Ozark zigzag salamanders (Plethodon angusticlavius) make behavioral changes when in direct contact with predatory chemical cues. We predicted that prior exposure to a predator cue would also affect the subsequent behavior of these salamanders during territorial contests. We collected chemical cues from ringneck snakes (Diadophis punctatus) which are known predators of these salamanders. During testing salamanders were removed from their home chambers and exposed to the either the predator cue or to blank water (control treatment). After 5 min of exposure, salamanders were gently rinsed to remove any snake cues and were then returned to either their home chamber alongside an intruding salamander or they were introduced into the home chamber of a resident salamander. Territorial behaviors were recorded for an additional 15 min. Our results suggest that prior predatory stress influences the territoriality of the Ozark zigzag salamander, but this effect was especially important for intruding salamanders by making them less aggressive toward residents.<br />Victimization and Criminal Behavior of Homeless Youth<br />Chandra A. Pastel<br />Criminology<br />Faculty Advisor: Karl Kunkel<br />Oral Presentation<br />Research indicates the role of "victim" and "offender" frequently overlap. Homeless youth are vulnerable to victimization and often engage in criminal behavior. This paper aims to obtain a deeper understanding of the interaction between these roles by examining the processes through which homeless youth experience victimization and engage in status offenses, delinquency, and criminal behavior. Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative analysis was conducted on 50 life-history interviews with youth utilizing a drop-in center in a Midwestern city. The results portray both victimization and criminality within developmental and ecological contexts consistent with differential association, strain and labeling theories.<br />Effects of Lead and Zinc on Fish Diversity in the Spring River Basin, Missouri<br />Bailey Pearson<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Daniel Beckman<br />Poster Presentation<br />The main objective of this thesis project is to determine if fish diversity is impacted by zinc and lead contamination in the Spring River basin, southwest Missouri. Fish were collected along the Tri-State mining district watershed where zinc and lead were once heavily mined (Wilkinson et al. 1996). Fish were collected with an electroshocking device at 15 sites throughout the basin beginning in June of 2009 and identified on site; habitat data were also collected at fish sampling sites. Sites were chosen where zinc and lead contamination data were provided by the EPA. After fish identification was completed the data were used to calculate an IBI index using eleven metrics. Upon analysis of the IBI index, metals contamination, and habitat assessment several trends appeared. As zinc contamination concentrations increased so did the lead contamination for each site. There was no correlation between IBI score and lead and zinc concentrations. There was a strong correlation between increased lead and zinc concentrations and the loss of sensitive species and benthic species.<br />Regulation of Synergistic Inducible Gene Expression in Response to IL-10 and LPS<br />Brian A. Peterson<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Brian K. Weaver<br />Oral Presentation<br />Macrophages play an important role in the sensing of microbial infection and initiating innate immune responses. The pro-inflammatory response is tightly regulated through the parallel induction of anti-inflammatory genes in response to the host cytokine Interleukin-10 (IL-10). Previously, we identified ABIN-3 as an IL-10-inducible gene capable of inhibiting the action of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-kB in human macrophages. Interestingly, IL-10 can induce expression of ABIN-3 only in macrophages concurrently responding tobacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Herein, we present studies into the mechanism by which IL-10 synergizes with LPS to induce ABIN-3 gene expression. LPS+IL-10 inducible expression of ABIN-3 falls into the category of a secondary response gene which requires new protein synthesis for its induction. We examined whether the induction of ABIN-3 expression is regulated at the level of transcription or at a post-transcriptional level involving an increase in its mRNA stability. Our data indicate that IL-10 synergizes with LPS to induce ABIN-3 gene transcription as opposed to inducing stabilization of its mRNA. These studies should ultimately lead to a better understanding of the crosstalk mechanisms between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory signaling pathways.<br />Springfield Public Schools Teacher Job Satisfaction in the 2009/2010 School Year<br />Stacie Lynn Pollock<br />Elementary Education<br />Faculty Advisor: Cynthia Wilson Hail<br />Poster Presentation<br />The purpose of this study was to determine teacher job satisfaction in Springfield Public Schools during the 2009/2010 school year. Data were collected with the Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire covering nine constructs including: supervision, colleagues, working conditions, pay, responsibility, work, advancement, security, and recognition. Teachers were asked to complete the survey and return it to their respective schools. It was voluntary and anonymous. With approximately 50% of teachers leaving the field within the first five years, this is a concern considering the requirements needed to obtain a teaching certificate. Teacher satisfaction is important to retain highly qualified teachers. Findings from the survey will be presented that the Interdisciplinary Forum. <br />The Effectiveness of Whole Language Instruction<br />Stephanie Nicole Powell<br />Elementary Education<br />Faculty Advisor: Cynthia Wilson Hail<br />Oral Presentation<br />Whole Language is a philosophy of language learning, where reading and writing are learned from whole to part. Many educators and professionals have used the whole language approach with other approaches, such as phonics. After adding whole language to the curriculum it has been shown how effective the approach was in the reading and writing process. The whole language approach is an approach commonly used within today’s schools and continues to be an effective approach to teaching reading and writing.<br />Habitat Occupancy and Detection of the Indiana Bat (Myotis Sodalis) in North Central Missouri<br />Shannon Elizabeth Romeling<br />Natural and Applied Science - MNAS<br />Faculty Advisor: Lynn Robbins<br />Poster Presentation<br />Occupancy analysis and analysis of variance were used to quantify Myotis sodalis activity and its relationship to percent forest cover, distance to forest edge, distance to roost tree, distance to roads, distance to water, month, and detector group (A-C) in north-central Missouri. Acoustic detectors were set in four arrays (each array contained an A, B and C detector) in four locations from April 10th to October 31st, 2009. Following occupancy modeling, regression analysis and ANOVA were then used to analyze the relationships between the covariates included in the top ranked models. Indiana bat occurrence and detection were most closely associated with the month of the survey, distance to forest edge and distance to water. Indiana bat activity was positively associated with percent forest, negatively associated with distance to forest edge, distance to water and group. Distance to roads and roost trees had only slight correlations. ANOVA results indicated a significant relationship between activity and percent forest cover (p = 0.003) and group (p = 0.001). This method of analysis of occurrence and detection data collected with multiple automated detectors could be used to compare the likelihood of detecting bats and bat occupancy among habitats and regions as well as to better understand how habitat influences bat activity.<br />The Contemporary Critique of Ethnographic Exhibits: A Case Study of a Cultural Exhibit at Discovery Center, Springfield, Missouri<br />Megan Scales<br />Applied Anthropology<br />Faculty Advisor: Elizabeth Sobel<br />Oral Presentation<br />The recent scholarly critique of cultural museum exhibits clearly calls for the increased incorporation of four main themes: contextuality, reflexivity, multivocality, and interactivity. Unfortunately, many if not most current exhibits on culture do not incorporate all or any of these themes. Consequently, most ethnographic exhibits are less representative and respectful of the presented culture and less educational and engaging for visitors than they otherwise might be. I aim to help solve this problem by designing an ethnographic exhibit on the Osage Nation that incorporates contextuality, reflexivity, multivocality, and interactivity for the WorldWise Gallery at Discovery Center in Springfield, Missouri. I will complete this project by collecting ethnographic data on Osage culture and gaining feedback from Osage Nation representatives, anthropologists and museum staff at Discovery Center Springfield. The kiosk will be an important addition to the WorldWise Gallery at Discovery Center in that it will give the Osage Nation an opportunity to have a hand in its own representation. It will also help the Discovery Center meet the objectives of the WorldWise gallery, and as a consequence provide better opportunities for cultural education in Springfield, Missouri. <br />The Metacognition of Expectant Mothers in Relation to Childhood Speech and Language Development<br />Emily Schoeberl<br />Communication Sciences and Disorders<br />Faculty Advisor: Linda Barboa<br />Poster Presentation<br />Knowledge of childhood speech and language developmental milestones is an important aspect of becoming a first time mother. Additional knowledge of childhood development can greatly impact a first time mother's competence in raising their first child. This investigation examined the metacognition and knowledge of twenty-three first time expecting mothers at a local OB/GYN office. Analysis of questionnaire results completed by these mothers indicates there is a need to educate this population. Implications for future research are discussed.<br />Protein Detection with Aptamer-Gold Conjugates Coupled with Dynamic Light Scattering<br />Tiffany Severs<br />Chemistry<br />Faculty Advisor: Adam Wanekaya<br />Poster Presentation<br />This presentation describes an extremely facile, rapid specific and selective method for detecting proteins using aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticles coupled with dynamic light scattering (DLS) at ambient conditions. DLS measurements afforded the advantages of being very time, space, and sample size efficient. The linear increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticles as a result of forming dimmers, oligomers or aggregates upon addition of thrombin formed the analytical basis of the assay. Unlike the traditional plate-based assays, this assay occurs in solution thus allowing fast and efficient aptamer/protein interaction in solution. Further, this assay does not involve any washing cycle which enables rapid turnover of results. A wide linear dynamic range was realized using thrombin as the model analyte enabling the detection of low concentrations of thrombin under non-optimized conditions. While the utility of the assay was demonstrated for protein binding/detection, the assay could easily be designed for the detection of other targets by the modification of GNPs with appropriate aptamers. Therefore, the technology has the potential to positively impact broad analytical applications in clinical, biomedical and other sectors.<br />Perceptions of Sexual Orientation Affects Judgment of Guilt in Child Sexual Abuse Cases<br />Kristen Shanahan<br />Forensics Child Psychology<br />Faculty Advisor: Matthew Fanetti<br />Oral Presentation<br />The relationship between assumed sexual orientation of perpetrators in child sexual abuse cases and judgments of guilt is examined. It was hypothesized that subjects’ beliefs about the sexual orientation of alleged perpetrators would affect their judgments of guilt or innocence in child sexual abuse cases. Results support this hypothesis.<br />Physical Punishment and Child Abuse: Where Do Parents Draw the Line?<br />Kristen Shanahan<br />Forensics Child Psychology<br />Faculty Advisor: Matthew Fanetti<br />Oral Presentation<br />On a physical punishment continuum, participants (introduction to psychology students and parents in the community) determined where the hierarchically listed methods switched from "acceptable under some circumstances" to "always unacceptable". They also indicated where they believe their parents would make such a distinction. Factors that influenced the level where participants made the distinction between punishment and abuse will be examined.<br />Intergenerational Service-Learning: The Effects of Service-Learning on Attitudes Toward Older People<br />Lydia Snavely<br />Communication Sciences and Disorders<br />Faculty Advisor: Linda Barboa<br />Poster Presentation<br />Experience with individuals in the community gives students the ability to gain knowledge and a greater understanding of the concepts they are learning in the classroom. Intergenerational service-learning provides students with the opportunity to work with older people as well as use the skills they are gaining through their education. Research has shown that a high percentage of students have negative attitudes toward older people. That attitude may be changed after time is spent with this population. This investigation examined the attitudes of students with and without a service-learning experience among older people. Students completed Kogan's Attitudes Toward Old People Scale. Surveys were completed by first and second year Speech-Language Pathology graduate students at Missouri State University. Results indicated that attitudes for students with intergenerational service-learning experiences became more positive, yet results were not statistically significant. While overall attitudes did not significantly improve, attitudes did improve significantly on specific issues. Implications of intergenerational service-learning experiences and attitudes toward ageism are discussed.<br />Time-Series Relationships in an Urban Karst Watershed in Springfield, Missouri<br />Barrett Stanke<br />Geospatial Sciences in Geography and Geology<br />Faculty Advisor: Doug Gouzie<br />Oral Presentation<br />In an urban karst system, the characterization of transport properties is based on natural tracers observed at the outlets of a system. A comparison analysis of inlet recharge and outlet discharges of the watershed to storm events using hydraulic responses may be a key in understanding the karst system internal processes. The project area consisted of the central portion of the Ward Branch watershed in Springfield, Missouri. A six month continuous monitoring of water temperature at four exit points of the karst system (springs) and one entrance point (disappearing stream into a sinkhole) were used to compare the responses of the karst system using a time-series relationship. Thermograph analysis has shown rapid responses and high thermal variability involving inefficient heat exchange for all the spring sampling sites during storm events. The goal of this project was to infer the structure of the karst conduit system and to determine the human impact on the karst system in an urban area. This will allow the overall watershed system and its intricacies to be better understood and future urbanization planning can use this knowledge to better manage water resources in the Ward Branch watershed.<br />Geochemical Variation of the Lamotte Sandstone in Southwest Missouri<br />Molly Starkey<br />Geospatial Sciences in Geography and Geology<br />Faculty Advisor: Doug Gouzie<br />Oral Presentation<br />In response to concerns that carbon dioxide is contributing to global climate change, the scientific community has been investigating ways to reduce anthropogenic carbon emissions. One method is geologic carbon sequestration: the injection of carbon dioxide into subsurface rock units for disposal. Southwest Missouri has none of the conventional locations for geologic carbon sequestration, so an alternative is of interest. This project will investigate the basal sedimentary unit in southwest Missouri, on which there is little data, and contribute to the Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project. The primary objectives of this project are to develop a method of using X-Ray Fluorescence on whole rock samples and to model spatial variation in the unit's bulk elemental composition. Results from preliminary studies will be presented, along with tasks planned for the next phase of the project. The data from this study will greatly expand understanding of deep sedimentary geology in southwest Missouri. The data will also help determine the feasibility of shallow carbon sequestration in southwest Missouri. This material is based upon work sponsored by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory under Award Number DE-NT0006642 to City Utilities of Springfield, MO.<br />One Student’s Journey to Alternative Assessment<br />Jessica Danyelle Stennett<br />Secondary Education<br />Faculty Advisor: Cynthia Wilson Hail<br />Oral Presentation<br />Many schools and teachers have adopted new methods for testing in the classroom. As testing formats have evolved, it has become common practice for educators to use alternative assessments rather than traditional paper and pencil tests to evaluate student learning. Alternative assessments allow for a more hands-on approach to learning. They also incorporate real-world situations. This retrospective study focused on an historical review of how alternative assessments differ from traditional ones. An in-depth review of different types of alternative assessments along with advantages and disadvantages in the classroom helped this researcher understand her personal position on alternative assessments. The self-study concentrated on my previous teaching experiences dealing with these testing styles. Interviews with colleagues also provided support to my confidence in using and evaluating alternative assessments. Findings for the study were uncovered through the use of coding and salient patterns within the data.<br />Quantitative Dye-Tracing Investigation of Groundwater Flow in the Ward Branch Watershed, Springfield, Missouri <br />Katherine Tomlin<br />Geospatial Sciences in Geography and Geology<br />Faculty Advisor: Douglas Gouzie<br />Oral Presentation<br />Quantitative groundwater traces provide valuable information about groundwater movement. Four groundwater tracing experiments were performed in Springfield, Missouri to establish connections between sinkholes and springs within the Ward Branch Watershed. Two of the four traces reconfirmed traces reported in the 1970s, and the other two established new connections. Hourly water samples collected during each of the traces were analyzed using a spectrofluorometer. The results from the water samples were used to develop hydrographs for each trace. Analysis of each hydrograph provided information about arrival time, mean travel time, and trailing time. Additional data collected for the fourth trace includes the percent of mass dye recovery. Cave size and geometry of the conduit linking the sinkhole to the spring were estimated with the data from the fourth trace. Each of the four sinkholes was found to connect to the same springs within the watershed. This research provided insight into the complexity of the underground water networks along Ward Branch.<br />A Comparison of Career Decisions Chronometry Between Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists<br />Jessica Ulbrich<br />Communication Sciences and Disorders<br />Faculty Advisor: Linda Barboa<br />Poster Presentation<br />With the need for capable professionals in Communication Sciences and Disorders comes the need for qualified graduates to choose speech-language pathology or audiology as a career. There is also a need for an increase of minority and male professionals in the fields. This investigation examined the point at which students pursuing a degree in speech-language pathology or audiology made the decision to enter the field. Analysis of the survey results completed by students attending the graduate school at Missouri State University indicate a majority of the respondents decided to enter the field while completing undergraduate coursework. Programs designs to recruit individuals can deduce from the results that their efforts would be most profitable when targeting individuals during earlier time periods, such as during high school. Implications for future research and career guidance are discussed.<br />The Importance of Returning Offenders to Society as Productive Citizens<br />Elizabeth Unruh<br />Criminology<br />Faculty Advisor: Adia Hass<br />Poster Presentation<br />For a society that is run by anomie, the probation and parole offices of today are doing everything they can to reintegrate these offenders back into the community as useful and productive citizens. A majority of the offenders in the Department of Corrections are on probation for possession of a controlled substance/distribution/or use thereof. There are a number of programs and counseling agencies to address substance abuse offenders, as well as technical skills training to help the offender gain an employable skill. Efforts provided by the probation and parole offices are concentrated on being able to return the offender back to society as a productive citizen.<br />The C-Terminal CTPase Effector Domain of Yeast Dynamin Plays an Important Role in Early Endocytosis and Interacts Genetically with Amphiphysin<br />Daobing Wang<br />Biology<br />Faculty Advisor: Kyoungtae Kim<br />Oral Presentation<br />Vps1 shares high homology with dynamin in its N-terminal GTPase and C-terminal GED domains. To test the significance of two conserved domains in early endocytosis, an endocytic maker, Abp1, was fused with GFP in GTPase mutants and a GED truncated mutant. First, we found that the lifespan of Abp1-GFP at the endocytic sites was significantly increased in GED-truncated vps1 mutant when compared to that of WT cells. In particular, the lifespan of Abp1 in GEDnull was essentially identical to vps1null, suggesting the significance of the GED for the proper assembly or maturation of endocytic components at endocytic sites. Second, we analyzed the motile behavior of Abp1-GFP as it moves away from the endocytic sites. Abp1-GFP in WT moved inward in a rapid/directed fashion and dissociated from the post-internalized patch within 5-7 s, whereas Abp1-GFP in GEDnull exhibited not only random motion as is the case in vps1null, but also a slow dissociation from the patch. In addition, we observed that both the full-length of VPS1 and the C-terminal half of the gene lacking th