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SIU Carbondale - Research, Graduate Education, and Economic ...

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    SIU Carbondale - Research, Graduate Education, and Economic ... SIU Carbondale - Research, Graduate Education, and Economic ... Document Transcript

    • SIUC ARRA Awards<br />Externally Funded Grants and Contracts<br />Processed to Date (10 September 2009)<br />--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Investigator(s)Amount<br />Title <br />Agency<br />FY BP# Account Dates of Award Type Reference<br />--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />1.Ramesh Gupta (Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)$118,059<br />RNA Splicing in Archaea <br />USDHHS/NIH/NIGMS<br />2010 520345 09/01/2009-08/31/2011 Research 3 R15 GM055945-04A1S1 <br />Award: A two-year supplement was awarded through ARRA for an existing NIH (NIGMS) award, "RNA Splicing in Archaea".<br />Relevance: Human Pus10 protein has been implicated in programmed cell death and archaeal Pus10 proteins are shown to be involved in biogenesis of transfer RNAs. This research will help us in identifying the activity of a protein involved both in normal cell activity and in programmed cell death.<br />Project Summary: Archaeal Pus10 proteins have been shown to convert uridines at position 54 and 55 of tRNAs to pseudouridines (Y). The human homolog of this protein has been implicated in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, though its involvement in Y synthesis in any RNA has not yet been determined. Pus10 homologs have been observed in nearly all sequenced archaeal genomes and in some higher eukaryotes, but not in yeast and bacteria. This coincides with the presence of Y54 in most of the tRNAs of Archaea and certain tRNAs of animals, and its absence in the tRNAs of yeast and bacteria. Our aim in this supplement is to compare the structure and function of different eukaryotic and archaeal Pus10 protein orthologs. In the funded parent grant of this proposal, we proposed to study the activity of a specific archaeal Pus10 by homologous expression in strains conditionally expressing this protein. To accelerate the tempo of scientific research, we propose here to bioinformatically identify candidate residues and structures, which confer tRNA Y54 and Y55 synthase activity in Pus10 using homology modeling and evolutionary trace methods, and further test these models by site directed mutagenesis of archaeal and eukaryotic Pus10. Furthermore, expression of Pus10 proteins will be determined in heterologous (E. coli and yeast) systems, both in the presence and in absence of their native proteins that normally modify uridine at tRNA positions 54 and 55 to ribothymidine and Y, respectively.<br />2.Cathy J. Reed (Affirmative Action); Seymour L. Bryson (Affirmative Action)$210,448<br />Head Start Basic FY2010 <br />USDHHS/OHD/ACF <br />2010 224674 07/01/2009-09/30/2010 Service 05SE5141/01 <br />Head Start—is a federally funded program administered by the Department of Health and Human Service/Administration to Children and Families/Office of Head Start that provides comprehensive services to income eligible, pre-school age children and their families in the geographic service area of Jackson and Williamson Counties.<br />This award will help support cost of living increases across all budget lines and provide funds for quality improvement that includes: credential certifications and continuing education/continuing professional unit opportunities for staff; extension of employee contracts; playground improvements and upgrades; assistance with school bus purchases; and employment of an additional staff person to assist classroom teachers. By implementing these activities in our communities, income opportunities will be made available to instructors/trainers, laborers, vendors, etc. <br />3.Boyd M. Goodson (Chemistry); Yong Gao (Chemistry)$16,694<br />Coating Effects on MR Relaxivities: Dendron-Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Models<br />USDHHS/NIH <br />2009 224651 06/01/2009-10/31/2009 Research 3 R15 EB007074-01S1<br />This Supplement will support the career development of two promising undergraduates considering lifelong careers in biomedical research; a positive research experience will greatly contribute to desired academic trajectories and career outcomes for these students. Moreover, their research will provide insight into the fundamental MR behavior of SPIONs, which should lead to the development of powerful new ‘molecular imaging’ agents for the early detection and treatment of a host of diseases, including various cancers.<br />The parent grant has two specific aims: (1) developing new synthetic routes for constructing dendron-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (‘SPIONs’) that have various surface electrostatics and other properties; and (2) examining the NMR relaxation-inducing properties of our dendron-SPIONs—particularly regarding surface effects. In this Administrative Supplement we propose to host two undergraduates to perform research in support of the parent project and its aims. The students will perform research for an 11 week period during the summer; two outstanding students have already been recruited. Accordingly, two independent summer research Projects are planned: (P1) Effects of core size on SPION MR responses; and (P2) Effects of dendron charge characteristics on SPION MR responses. For (P1), the student will learn to synthesize SPION cores of different sizes, and will coat them with melamine dendrons of three different generations; the resulting dendron-SPIONs will be characterized to examine the effects of core size on (e.g.) dendron surface loading, MR relaxivity properties, and MR sensitivity to the environment (e.g. solution pH and ionic strength). For (P2), the student will learn to synthesize at least two types of hydrophilic dendrons (one neutral, one negatively-charged), and use these dendrons to functionalize SPION cores. MR properties will be compared with those previously obtained for (positively-chargeable) melamine dendron-SPIONs to study the role that surface functionality plays in modulating MR behavior. In the course of their research, the participating students will learn: aspects of organic chemistry and nanomaterials synthesis/characterization; aspects of NMR principles and practice (including spectrometer operation); fundamentals of magnetism; and principles of MRI contrast agent development (among others). Time permitting, experiments may also be performed using cell cultures (in continued collaboration with the Huggenvik Lab, SIUC Med). The students will also participate in the professional development, social events, and assessment protocols associated with SIUC’s established REU program in interdisciplinary materials research. Institutional matching funds will support travel for both students, including their attendance to a major NMR conference to present their results.<br />4.James A. MacLean (Physiology)$9,063<br />Regulation of Insulins by the RHOX5 Homeobox Gene Supports Spermatogenesis<br />USDHHS/NIH<br />2009 520332 06/01/2009-10/31/2009 Research 3R03HD055268-02S1<br />The research focus of my lab is identifying and characterizing the function of a recently discovered family of homeobox transcription factors, the Rhox genes. These genes are normally selectively expressed in reproductive tissues and are presumed to function in the development of the gonads and as regulators of fertility. Knockout mice lacking the founding member of the family, Rhox5, exhibit reduced spermatogenic output due to increased death of germ cells, partially due to aberrant metabolism and regulation of insulins.<br />The overall aim of my currently funded grant is to identify several novel putative cofactor proteins that interact with RHOX5 to regulate the Insulin2 promoter in Sertoli cells. The recovery act supplemental funding has allowed the hiring of two additional students to work full-time during the summer. These students will use “bait” molecules with different affinity tags to identify cofactors that work in conjunction with RHOX5 to regulate the insulin promoter in Sertoli cells. RHOX5 Halotag labeled proteins will allow us to perform magnetic resin-based pulldowns, provide fluorescent labels of multiple colors for multiplex analyses, and direct IR dye labeling for real-time EMSA analyses. These will be purified on the small scale using a variety of approaches until individual proteins are ready for microsequencing to attempt to determine the identity of the cofactor protein. The remainder of the project will be to characterize the expression of these new factors in the testes and determine whether they are ubiquitous or developmentally expressed like Rhox5.<br />5.Mesfin Tsige (Physics)$432,000<br />CAREER: Simulation Studies of the Time Evolution of Polymer Morphology at Interfaces<br />NSF<br />2009 224649 06/01/2009-05/31/2014 Research DMR-0847580<br />The proposed work focuses on the study of thin films of physisorbed molecules. Given that the magnitude and extent of the layering in films next to solid surfaces has pronounced effects on the electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of the film, it is extremely important to understand the stability or time-evolution of the molecular layering in the film. We are using atomic-scale computer simulations to understand the time evolution of the morphology of polymer films next to solid surfaces. The results of our simulation work will have a significant impact in a wide of range of technological applications ranging from coatings, lithography, and adhesives to light emitting diodes; and its immediate impact can be to solar cells and light-emitting diodes where their electrical and optical properties are governed by the ordering of the molecules in the film next to a solid substrate.<br /> 6.Kara E. Huff Hartz (Chemistry)$41,291<br />Collaborative RAPID: Investigating SOA Increases Due to Beetle Infestation<br />Across the Western United States<br />NSF <br />2009 224660 06/15/2009-05/31/2010 Research ATM-0938940<br />Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosytems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere composition. Other insects, such as the weevil (Strophosoma melanogrammum) attacks on spruce trees in Denmark, have a significant local effect on monoterpene emissions. In fact, a single weevil induced a three-fold increase in monoterpene emission, and the response lasted for several weeks. Mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have infested the forests in the vicinity of Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. We propose to sample gaseous emissions from the headspace of bark at the trunk and from the tree branches in the canopy from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees. The emissions will be collected onto scent traps, containing 110 mg of Porapak Q sorbent, using PAS-500 micro air samplers. After collection, the scent traps will be spiked with a recovery standard and extracted with hexane solvent. The analytes in the extracts will be separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The analytes will be identified and quantified using calibration curves from authentic standards, and when authentic standards were not available, the NIST mass spectra library, Adams retention time indices, and surrogate standards will be used. Prelimary work shows that the samples from lodgepole pine trees suggest an enhancement in the 3-carene, beta-phellandrene, and estragole (methyl chavicol) emissions upon bark beetle infestation. The samples from the Engelmann spruce trees suggest an enhancement in the 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, and beta-phellandrene emissions upon bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions due to bark beetle infestation may lead increases in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from these forests and negatively impact local and regional air quality, since potent SOA precursors are found in infested trees. The proposed work improves our understanding of the sources and the factors that affect air quality.<br />7.Laura L. Murphy (Physiology)$181,875<br />Ginseng and Its Constituents in Complementary Breast Cancer Therapy<br />USDHHS/NIH/National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine<br />2009 520320 06/01/2009-05/31/2010 Research 1R21AT004513-01A2<br />Ginseng is a top-selling herbal supplement that is purported to increase vitality and improve health and, consequently, is used as a complementary therapy by cancer patients. There are some reports that ginseng use may be associated with increased survival and quality of life in breast cancer patients. In our preliminary data, we demonstrate that ginseng increases the anti-cancer efficacy of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin on breast cancer cells in vitro and on tumor growth in vivo, and further prevents the weight loss associated with doxorubicin treatment. Ginseng contains over 30 different ginsenosides and polysaccharide components and these are considered the major bioactive constituents in the ginseng root. We provide preliminary evidence that ginseng polysaccharides stimulate the innate immune system and induce macrophages to produce increased cytokine release. In turn, the ginsenosides may act directly to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Our preliminary studies using cultured human breast cancer MCF-7 cells show that together the cytokines and ginsenosides may be responsible for the ability of ginseng to exert anti-cancer effects. What remains is to test these findings in an in vivo model and determine how ginseng's constituents contribute to the complementary effectiveness of ginseng during doxorubicin treatment. First, female nude mice will be inoculated with human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and the effects of supplemental ginseng on the ability of doxorubicin to prevent tumor growth and induce systemic tOXicity will be measured. We will utilize two treatment paradigms that are designed to simulate the individual who starts taking ginseng as soon as the breast cancer is diagnosed (pre-chemotherapy), or the individual who starts taking ginseng when chemotherapy is initiated. At the end of the stUdy, tumor tissues will be analyzed for proliferation and apoptotic indices, blood for activation of innate immune responses and systemic toxicity, and heart tissue will be analyzed for cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin treatment. Lastly, human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cell lines wili be treated with ginsenosides and/or cytokines to determine the signaling and apoptotic pathways that may be responsible for ginseng-induced sensitization to doxorubicin therapy. We hypothesize that the bioactive ginseng constituents will act in concert through different mechanisms of action to maximize the safety and complementary effectiveness of ginseng. These data will provide the first translational step towards proViding evidence-based information to heath care professionals and the public regarding the use of ginseng and its constituent-enriched extracts in complementary breast cancer therapy.<br />8.Jodi I. Huggenvik (Physiology); Michael W. Collard (Physiology)$218,250<br />DEAF-1 Interactions and Protein Modifications in Prostate Cells<br />USDHHS/NIH<br />2010 520336 07/17/2009-06/30/2011 Research 1 R15 CA137556-01<br />A two-year $218,250 National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institutes grant was awarded to Jodi Huggenvik and Michael Collard, Associate Professors in the Department of Physiology in the SIU School of Medicine, to study protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions of DEAF-1 in prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer in American males. Genotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and oxidizing compounds that are generated in normal cellular processes, can damage DNA and are a major cause of cancer. Cells respond to these genotoxic stressors by inducing gene expression and mobilizing proteins to induce DNA repair for cell survival or to trigger pathways that lead to cell death thereby eliminating a potentially cancerous cell. Deformed Epidermal Autoregulatory Factor-1 (DEAF-1) is a protein increased in response to genotoxic stressors and can regulate gene expression and may facilitate cell death. The proposed studies model genotoxic stresses that are naturally occurring in cells and produced by chemotherapeutic agents used in treating cancer. We hypothesize that protein modifications of DEAF-1 will regulate its subcellular localization and interaction with protein partners, which will in turn determine the balance between cell survival and cell death. The results of these studies may give mechanistic insights into additional targets for the treatment of prostate and other cancers.<br /> <br />Funds will used to support undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty salaries.<br />9.Michael R. Hoane (Psychology)$218,250<br />Effects of Vitamin B3 on Traumatic Brain Injury<br />USDHHS/NIH<br />2010 224673 07/16/2009-06/30/2011 Research 2 R15 NS045647-04<br />Two million Americans suffer a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. In addition, current military action is resulting in a large spike in the number of additional TBI cases. These injuries produce enduring disabilities that include cognitive, sensory, motor and emotional impairments. The associated health care costs from these injuries can be staggering. Confounding this major public health issue is the fact that currently there are no pharmacological treatment options for patients who have suffered a TBI. One potential cause of these failures is the lack of preclinical assessment of dosing factors (e.g., treatment windows, dose responses, and mechanism studies); in addition, preclinical studies are rarely performed in animals over 4-5 months of age. We have recently demonstrated that administration of nicotinamide, vitamin B3 (B3), following cortical contusion injury (CCI) and fluid percussion injury (FPI) resulted in a significant improvement in the recovery of sensorimotor and cognitive function, as well as in a reduction of many of the secondary pathophysiological changes that occur following injury (e.g., neurodegeneration, edema formation and reactive gliosis). However, when B3 was investigated in middle-aged (14 month old) rats following CCI, we found that the preclinical effectiveness observed in the young rats did not occur in the middle-aged rats. This is a unique and troubling finding because few studies, if any, have addressed the potential preclinical efficacy of novel therapies in the middle-age or aged rodent populations. This age range would account for a large number of TBI patients in the clinical setting. If the treatment looses efficacy in the aged population, then the clinical trial might be more likely to fail. Thus, the primary objectives of this proposal are aimed at the continued examination of B3 in aged rats following TBI. The specific aims of this study are to: 1) Determine the age window at which B3 treatment looses efficacy following TBI in rats; 2) Determine the effect of B3 treatment on NAD/NADH metabolism following TBI at different age points; 3) Evaluate the preclinical efficacy of sustained infusion of B3 in middle-aged rats (14-month old); 4) Compare B3 treatment following bilateral frontal CCI to treatment with progesterone (Prog) (currently in Phase II trials and has been shown to be effective in aged rats) and to the combination of both in middle-aged rats. By examining many of these clinically relevant factors (e.g., dosing regimens, long-term behavioral outcomes, and potential mechanisms) in aged subjects, we hope to build a strong case for the potential translation of B3 into clinical trials. It is also hoped that these investigations will shed light on our initial findings demonstrating reduced efficacy with B3 therapy in middle aged rodents.<br />10.Grant R. Miller (Curriculum and Instruction); Justin T. Schoof (Geography); <br />Matthew D. Therrell (Geography)$186,439<br />Track 1: Southern Illinois Undergraduate Recruitment and Retention in<br /> Geoscience Education (SURRGE)<br />NSF<br />2010 224686 08/01/2009-07/31/2012 Research GEO-0914565<br />Southern Illinois Undergraduate Recruitment and Retention in Geoscience Education (SURRGE) is a three-year project funded by the National Science Foundation that seeks ways to enhance diversity in the geosciences at Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC) by: 1) identifying the factors responsible for the low recruitment and retention of underrepresented minorities in the geosciences and contributing to this literature, 2) establishing a program of classroom and field experiences to increase the number of underrepresented minorities who choose and complete an academic degree in the geosciences, and 3) exposing students to the cultural relevance of the geosciences at critical junctures (e.g., high school to college) toward this career path and balancing the academic challenge of these endeavors with instructional strategies derived from Universal Design for Learning (UDL). Partners involved in this project include SIUC’s Departments of Curriculum & Instruction and Geography, Research-Enriched Academic Challenge (REACh), and McNair Scholars program; and the Illinois Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (ILSAMP). The project expands and strengthens several programs and courses at SIUC by aligning these resources to establish a secondary-through-graduate school “pipeline” of underrepresented minorities in the geosciences. In courses such as CI212 and GEOG104 this interdisciplinary approach will expose students to the cultural, political, and economic impact of past and present episodes of human and environment interaction. Through opportunities to engage in hands-on, field-based research related to the cultural relevance of the geosciences, students will be able to develop academic skills related to reading comprehension, historical thinking, media literacy, and quantitative reasoning. The expected outcomes for this project are a positive impact on participants’ academic achievement and an epistemological shift in their beliefs about the geosciences, thus influencing their career aspirations. Over the course of three years, an estimated 1200 undergraduate students and 50 high school students will engage with the curriculum developed for this project.<br />11.Jodi I. Huggenvik (Physiology); Michael W. Collard (Physiology) $218,250<br />Regulatory Mechanisms of DEAF-1 in Development <br />USDHHS/NIH<br />2010 520344 08/15/2009-07/31/2012 Research 1R15HD060122-01<br />A three-year $218,250 NIH/NICHD grant was awarded to Michael Collard and Jodi Huggenvik, associate professors in the department of physiology at the SIU School of Medicine, to study the regulatory mechanisms of DEAF-1 in embryonic development. Neural tube defects (such as anencephaly and Spina bifida) result from the embryonic failure of the neural tube to close followed by the outward expansion of the neural tissue. It is estimated that neural tube defects occur in 1 in 1,000 births in humans, and both environmental and genetic factors contribute to these complex disorders. DEAF-1 is a transcriptional regulator that is required for embryonic development and neural tube closure. We hypothesize that DEAF-1 protein is essential for neural tube closure through the transcriptional regulation of target genes and by interactions with protein partners controlling cell proliferation and cell death. To test this hypothesis, we will evaluate cellular proliferation, cell death, and potential alteration of DEAF-1 protein interactions or signaling partners during neural tube closure in the mouse embryo. We will also examine the effects of genotoxic stress on mouse embryo fibroblasts isolated from mouse embryos deficient in DEAF-1. The results of this study will give insight into how dysregulation and mutations in DEAF-1 may contribute to neural tube defects in humans.<br />Students or staff supported: 2-3 undergraduate students<br /> 12. Shaikh Ahmed (Electrical and Computer Engineering); Mesfin Tsige (Physics); <br />Mark S. Byrd (Physics); Tonny J. Oyana$360,779<br />(Geography); Qiang Shawn Cheng (Computer Science)<br />11-NEW: Southern Illinois PC Infrastructure (SIHPCI)<br />NSF<br />2010 224702 09/01/2009-08/31/2010 Research CNS-0855221<br />This project involves the building of a high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructure at Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIHPSI – Southern Illinois HPC Infrastructure), a facility first-of-its-kind not only within the campus but in the greater Southern Illinois region also. High-performance computing refers to the use of supercomputers and/or computer clusters to accelerate the solution of fundamental problems in science, engineering and business that have broad economic and scientific impact. SIHPCI will initially consist of a 110 nodes Linux cluster with Intel Xeon dual CPU quad-core 2.3 GHz processors, 6 GB RAM, and 90 TB data storage facility. <br />SIHPSI will expand the scope and quality of research at SIUC in two broad areas: (1) Computational nanoscience and engineering (CNE): Projects include—multimillion atom quantum simulations of nanoscale devices with tens of millions of complex degrees of freedom; computational design of catalysts at the molecular level; molecular dynamics studies of polymer morphology at interfaces; fundamental studies of the relation between structure, dynamics, and driving mechanisms in non-equilibrium states of matter; quantum information processing exploring new properties of atomic nuclei. (2) Geographic Information Science (GIS): Involves strategic research to investigate new algorithms for representation and transformation of massive dynamic data allowing a cognitive and visual interpretation for analysts by exploiting invariant geometric properties. Research in the CNE area is expected to have significant impact in a wide range of technological applications including low-power and fast transistors, coatings, lithography, adhesives to light emitting diodes and sensors, various smart and functionalized materials, and quantum computation. The GIS research will facilitate efficient data streaming, crime and health studies, medical imaging, and genome mapping. SIHPSI will also serve as a nucleation center for further addition of HPC resources and will offer SIUC’s faculty members a much quicker time frame (1-2 weeks) to start computing as compared to a custom cluster configuration which usually takes about 6 months from start to production. <br />SIHPSI has an educational interface that will support: (1) revamping several courses in the areas of scientific modeling and numerical analysis; (2) developing a new course on computational nanoelectronics; and (3) training (through summer workshops) a diverse community of college teachers as well as K-12 students in the field of scientific computing and data analysis. Materials/modules developed in the teaching/training activities will be posted on NSF’s nanoHUB.org for use by the broader community. <br />This award is funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-5), NSF award number: 0855221<br />13. April Strader (Physiology)$391,269 (yr 1)Understanding the Role of Bile as a Mechanism for Improved Glucose Homeostasis following Bariatric SurgeryUSDHS/NIH/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease2010         09/20-2009-08/31/2010    Research 1RC1DK086999-01<br />Weight loss surgery remains the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. In addition, obesity surgery such as Roux-en Y Gastric Bypass causes an immediate remission of type-II diabetes in the majority of patients (84%). This remarkable effect occurs well before any measureable weight loss. The mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown, but may involve stimulation of the lower intestine by secretions arising within the GI tract. Lower intestinal stimulation can be accomplished using a model called Ileal interposition. Interposition has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in rat models of diabetes. Importantly, ileal interposition improves type-II diabetes in humans. With this model a portion of the lower intestine, or ileum, is relocated into a region within the jejunum and is therefore prematurely exposed to higher concentrations of nutrients and biliopancreatic secretions. Physiologically, interposition of the ileum results in dramatically enhanced secretion of two important ileal produced hormones, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide- YY (PYY), the former believed to be critical in the euglycemic effect. It is known that nutrient infusions into the gut will stimulate the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones like GLP-1 and PYY. However, the hypothesis is that the key anatomical aspect of bariatric procedures that result in the resolution of type-II diabetes is the exposure of the lower intestine to higher concentrations of bile salts. As mentioned above, the interposed ileum is exposed to high concentrations of biliopancreatic secretions. Bile uptake within the ileum and liver stimulate many factors critical for improved glucose and lipid homeostasis. Interestingly, other surgical procedures that result in delivery of elevated concentrations of bile to the lower intestine also lead to the immediate resolution of type-II diabetes. For example, by simply diverting bile flow to the lower intestine with a procedure called “Internal Biliary Diversion” diabetes is completely reversed within three days. In this proposal I will test the hypothesis that lower intestinal exposure to bile salts is sufficient for improving type-II diabetes in rats using Internal Biliary Diversion. Further, Internal Biliary Diversion will be compared with Ileal Interposition and the hormonal and bile-mediated factors will be examined to reveal the essential mechanisms by which these procedures improve glucose and lipid homeostasis. This work could lay the foundation for new treatments for type II diabetes in humans.<br />14. John Bozzola, Punit Kohli, Samir Aouadi, Max Yen, Peter Filip$464,075MRI-R2: Acquisition of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Dispersive Capabilities<br />NSF<br />Research 01/01/2010-12/31/2012<br />This ARRA award is for the purchase of a high-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) with microanalytical capabilities to determine the types and amounts of elements distributed in a specimen. The SEM is essential for the study of: (a) the assembly of molecular components for use in electronic nanodevices and nanocatalysts, (b) practical applications for nanotubes and nanowires, (c) nano-sized, solid lubricants, (d) polymer surfaces for use in biomarker screening, (e) basic geochemical studies and radiation chemistry, (f) fundamental properties of components for use in friction and wear surfaces such as aircraft brakes or synthetic hip joints, and (g) molecular changes in cellulose during microbial degradation. SEM is a mainstay technique in all of these studies since it enables scientists to see the fine structural details of nanofabricated systems, molecular arrangements of man-made nanostructures and the subtle changes associated with friction and wear surfaces. The SEM will be used in numerous, high-quality research projects that have been continuously funded by agencies such as NSF, private industry and other federal agencies. These studies involve large numbers of investigators and students exploring high-priority research areas and have yielded significant numbers of publications in well-regarded journals.<br />The analytical features of the requested instrumentation, and the ability to examine specimens at high resolution at low accelerating voltages, will greatly enhance scholarly productivity by providing new capabilities to the research community. Sharing of data will be nearly instantaneous since the digital information is readily accessible over the Internet. Researchers from surrounding universities and community colleges with limited research facilities use our central facility, and the new instrument will facilitate and increase these interactions since it can directly link with the Internet, allowing off-campus researchers and students to view specimens nearly simultaneously with the actual imaging in the electron microscope. The new SEM will be housed in a specially-designed building serving the imaging and microanalytical needs of Southern Illinois University as well as universities, colleges and industries within a 90-mile radius. Centralization of the instrumentation permits the interaction of chemists, engineers, materials scientists and biologists, fostering the potential for collaborative and inter-disciplinary studies.<br />All of the researchers included in this proposal are excellent mentors and share a deep commitment to providing enriching research experiences for undergraduate and graduate students, particularly minority and underrepresented students. The IMAGE facility has a reputation for reaching out into the educational system within Southern Illinois and the surrounding states. Educators and students from primary and secondary schools are frequent visitors to the facility. The researchers involved in this proposal have admirable records in attracting ethnic minorities and women to research. Over a 5-year period, more than 200 students (including, 82 female and 37 minority students) were trained in electron microscopy while conducting research in the laboratories of the investigators involved in this proposal.<br />15. Vivak Mohan Malhotra$300,000Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored C02 in Organic Rocks Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions<br />U.S. Department of Energy/NETL<br />12/1/2009-11/30/2012<br />The USA is embarking upon tackling the serious environmental challenges posed to the world by greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). The dimension of the problem is daunting. In fact, according to the Energy Information Agency (US Department of Energy project) nearly 6 billion metric tons of CO2 were produced in the USA in 2007 with coal-burning power plants contributing about 2 billion metric tons. Among the potential geological storage sites, un-minable coal and organic shale seams in particular show promise because of the probability of methane recovery while sequestering the CO2. While the interactions between various ranked coals or organic shale with CO2 are complex and not well understood, the fact that potential risk assessments of the storage is seldom evaluated under plausible but extreme transient conditions poses a serious flaw in assessment. Most risk assessments are typically made under equilibrium conditions. However, under extreme non-equilibrium conditions, whether natural seismic or manmade, there are serious implications for the re-emission of stored CO2 in organic rocks. The possible mechanisms have not been studied and without sound scientific and engineering understanding it will be difficult to meet the public’s expectations of safety. Therefore, we propose novel experiments to evaluate the structural behavior of the Illinois Basin’s organic rocks under extreme transient conditions and to ascertain whether the dynamic stresses will overcome the adsorption forces holding CO2 in place. Six specific tasks are proposed to evaluate the structural and mechanical behavior of organic rocks under static, hydrostatic, and extreme dynamic stresses. We will systematically evaluate how the aforementioned conditions control the adsorption and/or absorption of carbon dioxide in organic rocks and whether there is a potential of CO2 emission during these conditions.<br />$3,366,742<br />