Robots in Medicine

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  • The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor. Since that time, robots have developed from primitive machines that could perform a variety of menial tasks to today where they can perform very complex tasks. Robots are used in computers, in research, and in manufacturing. Robots have only recently entered the medicine. Industrial robots are now used for a variety of surgical techniques, are FDA approved, and are marketed. (18.3)
  • The PROBOT is used for prostate resection. It is designed to allow a surgeon to select a volume within the prostate to be cut, and then automatically cut this without further intervention from the surgeon.
  • Robots were first introduced in 1987 with the first laparoscopic surgery, a cholescystecotomy. MASH where a soldier could be loaded into a vehicle with robotic surgical equipment and could be operated on by a surgeon in the mobile unit
  • Prostatectomies- is the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland . This machines alows surgery to be done without removing the opeining the chest
  • Typically, the equipment needs a surgeon to move the instruments while watching a video monitor and the surgeon must move in the opposite direction from the target on the monitor to interact with the right area on the patient.
  • CyberKnife is the name of a frameless robotic radiosurgery system invented by John R. Adler , a Stanford University Professor of Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology The CyberKnife system is used for treating benign tumors, malignant tumors and other medical conditions. (wikipedia)
  • most patients definitely know they would prefer a surgery that will cause the least amount of pain and scarring and have the shortest recuperation time. For their part, surgeons generally prefer procedures that require the smallest incisions, involve a negligible possibility of infection, cause minimal blood loss, and offer improved speed and efficiency. (wikipedia)
  • Cardiac surgery Endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) surgery and mitral valve replacement have been performed Gastrointestinal surgery several types of procedures have been performed with either the Zeus or da Vinci robot systems, including bariatric surgery. (deals with obesity) modification of Gastrointestinal tract ] Gynecology Reproductive surgery and ablative surgery including hysterectomy have been performed. [e Neurosurgery Several systems for stereotactic intervention are currently on the market. MD Robotic's NeuroArm is the world’s first MRI-compatible surgical robot. Orthopedics The ROBODOC system was released in 1992 by the Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc Pediatrics Surgical robotics has been used in many types of pediatric surgical procedures including: tracheoesophageal fistula repair, cholecystectomy, nissen fundoplication, repair, , congenita diaphragmatic hernia repair, and others. On January 17, 2002, surgeons at in Detroit performed the nation's first advanced computer-assisted robot-enhanced surgical procedure at a children's hospital. Radiosurgery The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System uses image-guidance and computer controlled robotics to treat tumors throughout the body by delivering multiple beams of high-energy radiation to the tumor from virtually any direction. Urology The da Vinci robot is commonly used to remove the prostate gland for cancer, repair obstructed kidneys, repair bladder abnormalities and remove diseased kidneys. (wikipedia)
  • Robots in Medicine

    1. 1. Surgical Robotics William J. Rinaldi Computer Science Presbyterian College April 17, 2008
    2. 2. Robotics <ul><li>The Word “Robot” comes from the Check word Robata which means forced labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Robots have evolved remarkably over the years from their humble beginnings performing menial tasks, to today where they can perform very complex tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Robots are used in research, in computers, and in manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>only until recently did they start being used for medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Today about 4 million procedures are carried out annually around the world </li></ul>
    3. 3. Surgical Robotics <ul><li>When you refer to robots you think of totally autonomous machines that can work on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Science fiction literature </li></ul><ul><li>Screen entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>“ Transformers” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Irobot” </li></ul>
    4. 4. Scary!
    5. 5. <ul><li>Fortunately, this is not the case with robotics in surgeries </li></ul><ul><li>These machines simply assist surgeons. </li></ul><ul><li>They still require a human surgeon to operate them and input instructions </li></ul>
    6. 6. Surgical Robotics
    7. 7. Beginnings <ul><li>The first robotic surgery was performed in 1985 by a robot, the PUMA 560 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Surgery Consisted of the robot placing a needle into the brain for a biopsy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The PROBOT was developed in 1988 at Imperial College London and was the first robotic surgical unit to perform prostatic surgery </li></ul>
    8. 8. Puma 560
    9. 9. PROBOT
    10. 10. Military Use <ul><li>The military really helped in the development of robotics in medicine </li></ul><ul><li>The thought was to perform surgery on an injured solider from a remote location </li></ul><ul><li>MASH (Mobile Advanced Surgical Hospital) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Types <ul><li>Da Vinci Surgical System </li></ul><ul><li>Cyberknife </li></ul>
    12. 12. Da Vinci Surgical System <ul><li>Was created by Intuitive Surgical Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>It is primarily used in prostatectomies cardiac valve repair and gynecologic surgical procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Approved by FDA first to be used in America </li></ul><ul><li>Cost $1,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>The system is made up of four robotic arms. Three of those arms hold tools. The fourth has a camera with two lenses that allow the surgeon full vision. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Da Vinci Surgical System
    14. 16. Cyberknife <ul><li>This machine was invented by John R. Adler </li></ul><ul><li>It is designed for radio surgery </li></ul><ul><li>It produces radiation from a small linear particle accelerator </li></ul><ul><li>Has a robotic arm which allows its energy to be aimed at any part of the body from any direction </li></ul>
    15. 17. Cyberknife
    16. 18. Limitations <ul><li>These Specific machines can be very expensive to own and operate </li></ul><ul><li>Surgeons and nurses have to be specially trained to know how to use them </li></ul><ul><li>There is not much data out there about come procedures </li></ul>
    17. 19. Benefits <ul><li>The fatigue factor is considerably reduced as the surgeon is seated and does not have to constantly hold onto the instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>Robotic surgeries are minimally invasive </li></ul><ul><li>Incisions are smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Less risk of infection </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital stays are generally shorter </li></ul><ul><li>Patients recuperate faster </li></ul>
    18. 20. Uses <ul><li>Cardiac surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Gynecology </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopedics </li></ul><ul><li>Pediatrics </li></ul><ul><li>Radio surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Urology </li></ul>
    19. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>Today Robotic Surgeries are becoming more and more prevalent </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals and surgeons are realizing how amazing these machines really are and spending the money to get them </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually surgeons may not even be needed, robots will be able to do surgeries on their own. </li></ul>
    20. 22. References <ul><li>http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2004_Groups/Group02/Group%2002%20Website/history_robotic.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotic_surgery </li></ul><ul><li>http://mediatheek.thinkquest.nl/~ll106/Applications/Medical/main.html </li></ul>
    21. 23. Questions?

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