• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
PowerPoint to accompany
 

PowerPoint to accompany

on

  • 740 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
740
Views on SlideShare
740
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
34
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    PowerPoint to accompany PowerPoint to accompany Presentation Transcript

    • 1
      Cardiovascular System
    • 2
      Size of Heart
      Average Size of Heart
      • 14 cm long
      • 9 cm wide
    • 3
      Location of Heart
      • posterior to sternum
      • medial to lungs
      • anterior to vertebral column
      • base lies beneath 2nd rib
      • apex at 5th intercostal space
      • lies upon diaphragm
    • 4
      Coverings of Heart
    • 5
      Wall of the Heart
    • 6
      Wall of the Heart
    • 7
      Heart Chambers
      Right Atrium
      • receives blood from
      • inferior vena cava
      • superior vena cava
      • coronary sinus
      Left Atrium
      • receives blood from pulmonary veins
      Right Ventricle
      • receives blood from right atrium
      Left Ventricle
      • receives blood from left atrium
    • 8
      Heart Valves
    • 9
      Coronal Sections of Heart
    • 10
      Heart Valves
      Tricuspid Valve
      Pulmonary and Aortic Valve
    • 11
      Skeleton of Heart
      • fibrous rings to which the heart valves are attached
    • 12
      Path of Blood Through the Heart
    • 13
      Path of BloodThrough the Heart
    • 14
      Blood Supply to Heart
    • 15
      Blood Supply to Heart
    • 16
      Angiogram of Coronary Arteries
    • 17
      Heart Actions
      Atrial Diastole/Ventricular Systole
      Atrial Systole/Ventricular Diastole
    • 18
      Cardiac Cycle
      Atrial Systole/Ventricular Diastole
      • blood flows passively into ventricles
      • remaining 30% of blood pushed into ventricles
      • A-V valves open/semilunar valves close
      • ventricles relaxed
      • ventricular pressure increases
    • 19
      Cardiac Cycle
      Ventricular Systole/Atrial diastole
      • A-V valves close
      • chordae tendinae prevent cusps of valves from bulging too far into atria
      • atria relaxed
      • blood flows into atria
      • ventricular pressure increases and opens semilunar valves
      • blood flows into pulmonary trunk and aorta
    • 20
      Heart Sounds
      Lubb
      • first heart sound
      • occurs during ventricular systole
      • A-V valves closing
      Dupp
      • second heart sound
      • occurs during ventricular diastole
      • pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves closing
      Murmur – abnormal heart sound
    • 21
      Heart Sounds
    • 22
      Cardiac Muscle Fibers
      Cardiac muscle fibers form a functional syncytium
      • group of cells that function as a unit
      • atrial syncytium
      • ventricular syncytium
    • 23
      Cardiac Conduction System
    • 24
      Cardiac Conduction System
    • 25
      Muscle Fibers in Ventricular Walls
    • 26
      Electrocardiogram
      • recording of electrical changes that occur in the myocardium
      • used to assess heart’s ability to conduct impulses
      P wave – atrial depolarization
      QRS wave – ventricular depolarization
      T wave – ventricular repolarization
    • 27
      Electrocardiogram
    • 28
      Electrocardiogram
      A prolonged QRS complex may result from damage to the A-V bundle fibers
    • 29
      Cardiac Cycle
    • 30
      Regulation of Cardiac Cycle
      Autonomic nerve impulses alter the activities of the S-A and A-V nodes
    • 31
      Regulation of Cardiac Cycle
      Additional Factors that Influence HR
      • physical exercise
      • body temperature
      • concentration of various ions
      • potassium
      • calcium
      • parasympathetic impulses decrease heart action
      • sympathetic impulses increase heart action
      • cardiac center regulates autonomic impulses to the heart
    • 32
      Blood Vessels
      • arteries
      • carry blood away from ventricles of heart
      • arterioles
      • receive blood from arteries
      • carry blood to capillaries
      • capillaries
      • sites of exchange of substances between blood and body cells
      • venules
      • receive blood from capillaries
      • veins
      • carry blood toward ventricle of heart
    • 33
      Arteries and Arterioles
      Arterioles
      • thinner wall than artery
      • endothelial lining
      • some smooth muscle tissue
      • small amount of connective tissue
      • helps control blood flow into a capillary
      Artery
      • thick strong wall
      • endothelial lining
      • middle layer of smooth muscle and elastic tissue
      • outer layer of connective tissue
      • carries blood under relatively high pressure
    • 34
      Walls of Artery and Vein
    • 35
      Arteriole
      • smallest arterioles only have a few smooth muscle fibers
      • capillaries lack muscle fibers
    • 36
      Metarteriole
      connects arteriole directly to venule
    • 37
      Capillaries
      • smallest diameter blood vessels
      • extensions of inner lining of arterioles
      • walls are endothelium only
      • semipermeable
      • sinusoids – leaky capillaries
    • 38
      Capillary Network
    • 39
      Regulation of Capillary Blood Flow
      Precapillary sphincters
      • may close a capillary
      • respond to needs of the cells
      • low oxygen and nutrients cause sphincter to relax
    • 40
      Exchange in the Capillaries
      • water and other substances leave capillaries because of net outward pressure at the capillaries’ arteriolar ends
      • water enters capillaries’ venular ends because of a net inward pressure
      • substances move in and out along the length of the capillaries according to their respective concentration gradients
    • 41
      Venules and Veins
      Venule
      • thinner wall than arteriole
      • less smooth muscle and elastic tissue than arteriole
      Vein
      • thinner wall than artery
      • three layers to wall but middle layer is poorly developed
      • some have flaplike valves
      • carries blood under relatively low pressure
      • serves as blood reservoir
    • 42
      Venous Valves
    • 43
      Characteristics of Blood Vessels
    • 44
      Blood Volumes in Vessels
    • 45
      Arterial Blood Pressure
      Blood Pressure – force the blood exerts against the inner walls of the blood vessels
      Arterial Blood Pressure
      • rises when ventricles contract
      • falls when ventricles relax
      • systolic pressure – maximum pressure
      • diastolic pressure – minimum pressure
    • 46
      Pulse
      • alternate expanding and recoiling of the arterial wall that can be felt
    • 47
      Factors That InfluenceArterial Blood Pressure
    • 48
      Control of Blood Pressure
      Controlling cardiac output and peripheral resistance regulates blood pressure
    • 49
      Control of Blood Pressure
      If blood pressure rises, baroreceptors initiate the cardioinhibitory reflex, which lowers the blood pressure
    • 50
      Control of Blood Pressure
      Dilating arterioles helps regulate blood pressure
    • 51
      Venous Blood Flow
      • not a direct result of heart action
      • dependent on
      • skeletal muscle contraction
      • breathing
      • venoconstriction
    • 52
      Central Venous Pressure
      • pressure in the right atrium
      • factors that influence it alter flow of blood into the right atrium
      • affects pressure within the peripheral veins
      • weakly beating heart increases central venous pressure
      • increase in central venous pressure causes blood to back up into peripheral vein
    • 53
      Pulmonary Circuit
      • consists of vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
    • 54
      Blood Flow Through Alveoli
      • cells of alveolar wall are tightly joined together
      • the high osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid draws water out of them
    • 55
      Systemic Circuit
      • composed of vessels that lead from the heart to all body parts (except the lungs) and back to the heart
      • includes the aorta and its branches
      • includes the system of veins that return blood to the right atrium
    • 56
      Major Vessels of Arterial System
    • 57
      Major Blood Vessels of the Heart
    • 58
      Principal Branches of the Aorta
    • 59
      Abdominal Aorta and Its Major Branches
    • 60
      Arteries to Neck, Head, and Brain
    • 61
      Cerebral Arterial Circle
      • Circle of Willis
      • formed by anterior and posterior cerebral arteries, which join the internal carotid arteries
    • 62
      Arteries to Shoulder and Upper Limb
    • 63
      Arteries to Thoracic Wall
    • 64
      Arteries to Pelvic Region
    • 65
      Arteries to the Lower Limb
    • 66
      Major Vessels of the Venous System
    • 67
      Major Veins of the Brain, Head and Neck
    • 68
      Veins from the Upper Limb and Shoulder
    • 69
      Veins That Drain the Thoracic Wall
    • 70
      Veins That Drain the Abdominal Viscera
    • 71
      Veins from the Abdominal Viscera:Hepatic Portal Vein
      Hepatic portal vein drains one set of capillaries and leads to another set
    • 72
      Veins of the Lower Limb and Pelvis
    • 73
      Life-Span Changes
      • cholesterol deposition in blood vessels
      • heart enlargement
      • death of cardiac muscle cells
      • increase in fibrous connective tissue of the heart
      • increase in adipose tissue of the heart
      • increase in blood pressure
      • decrease in resting heart rate
    • 74
      Clinical Application
      Arrhythmias
      Ventricular fibrillation
      • rapid, uncoordinated depolarization of ventricles
      Tachycardia
      • rapid heartbeat
      Atrial flutter
      • rapid rate of atrial depolarization