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Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt
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Micro_Surgical_Tools.ppt

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  • 1. Precision Design in Surgical Tools Presented by: Hugo Ramirez Eugene Kushnir
  • 2. Agenda
        • Microsurgery Overview
        • Current Designs
          • DaVinci Surgical System
          • Harmonic Scalpel
          • Microsurgical Tele Robotic System
        • Future of Microsurgery
        • References
        • Questions / Comments
  • 3. Principles for the development of Microsurgery Devices
    • Limits of Human precision
      • Involuntary and inadvertent movements
      • Noise and error in hand motion
    • Convert Procedures to Minimally Invasive
      • Increase Precision
        • Increase recovery time
        • Decrease post-operative pain
        • Enhance dexterity
      • Enable Remote Participation
        • Surgical Systems
        • Neuroendoscopy
  • 4. Analysis of the Microsurgical Environment Table 1. Microsurgical environment general specifications
  • 5. Analysis of the Microsurgical Environment Figure 1. Microsurgical environment general force specifications
  • 6. Material Qualities Comparison TABLE 2. MATERIAL QUALITY EXCELLENT N/A * MATERIAL OF CHOICE FOR GEARS IN MOTOR HEADS WHERE WEIGHT AND COST IS IMPORTANT * LIGHT AND SELF LUBRICATING * LOW WATER ABSORBTION <0.5% NYLON 12 (30% GLASS) * GALLING HIGHER THAN STEEL * LOWER MODULUS OF ELASTISITY CAUSES SPRING-BACK * LOWER THAN STEEL DUCTILITY FAIR ANNEALING REQUIRED MOST WIDELY USED ALLOY * MEDICAL TOOLS DIFFERENT COLORS TO PREVENT REFLECTION OF LIGHT (EX. EYE SURGERY) * AEROSPACE * POWER GENERATION IND. * CORROSION RESISTANCE IN NATURAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENTS * RESISTANCE TO CHLORIDES * RESISTANT TO STRESS CORROSION CRACKING * CAN BE ANODIZED Ti6Al4V TITANIUM (Ti-90, Al-6, V-4) EXCELLENT GOOD ANNEALING REQUIRED * PHARMACEUTICAL * JET ENGINE PARTS * PAPER PROCESSING * MOLYBDENUM ADDS RESISTANCE TO PITTING, SULFURIC AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID, ALKALINE CHLORIDES 316L STAINLESS STEEL CROMIUM = 20% (EXTRA LOW CARBON) EXCELLENT EXCELLENT USUALY NO ANNEALING MOST WIDELY USED SST * SEMICONDUCTOR IND. * SPRINGS * STRESS CORROSION CRACKING ABOVE 60ºC * PITTING IN CHLORIDE ENVIRONMENTS 304 STAINLESS STEEL CROMIUM = 12% FORMABILITY WEDLING USES PROPERTY MATERIAL
  • 7. Material Properties Comparison TABLE 3. MATERIAL PROPERTIES Rockwell R (1/2&quot; steel ball, 60kg) 108 27.8 305 8702 0.037 NYLON 12 (30% GLASS) 334 4.78 16500 120000 0.163 Ti6Al4V TITANIUM (Ti-90, Al-6, V-4) 146 8.89 28000 34100 0.289 316L STAINLESS STEEL (EXTRA LOW CARBON) 123 9.61 28000 31200 0.289 304 STAINLESS STEEL HARDNESS BRINELL (3000kg) CTE (  in/in-ºF) MODULUS OF ELASTISITY (ksi) YIELD STRENGTH (psi) DENSITY (lb/in^3) MATERIAL
  • 8. Da Vinci System Overview Illustration courtesy Dr. Akhil Madhani
    • Da Vinci Surgical System – Three arm tele-operated robot
    • Degrees of Freedom (DOF) – 34-DOF Total
      • Arms – 3-DOF for operation and 6-DOF for initial position on the ports (incisions) plus 4-DOF for the endoscope
      • Active End Effector (EndoWrist) – 3-DOF plus grip
  • 9. DaVinci System Overview (continued) EndoWrist Position Mechanism 0.4 inch Incision
  • 10. DaVinci Position Actuators – Arm
    • Force-Feedback System
      • 1. Master Device – Servo-motors and encoders receive input from a surgeon’s hands actuating robotic arms
      • 2. Slave Device – Arms exert forces back through the console
    Master Device Surgeon Control System Slave Device EndoWrist Control System
  • 11. DaVinci Position Actuators – Arm (continued) Click on image to Play/Pause Video Click on image to Play/Pause Video TABLE 3. POSITION SYSTEM PRELOADED - 0° BACKLASH BALL SCREWS ROTATIONAL 180°/sec LENEAR 40 mm/sec SPEED (MAX.) * OPTICAL ROTARY WITH UP TO 2000 COUNTS/REV. * MAGNATIC LINEAR ENCODERS * PRECISION <50  m FEEDBACK SYSTEM (REAL TIME < 35 msec.) REDUCTION 4:1 TO 20:1 TORGQUE 0.15 lbf-ft TO 1.70 lbf-ft BACKLASH 0.7° MOTOR GEAR HEARS (NYLON 12 GEARS FOR 13mm SIZES) 13mm - 35mm MOTORS (TOTAL OF 36 MOTORS) PARAMETERS COMPONENTS/SUBSYSTMES
  • 12. DaVinci Position Actuators - EndoWrist
    • EndoWrist – 4-DOF
    • Motion controlled by tendon like cables to simulate human wrist movement
    • Modular design allows various surgical accessories and instruments to be used
    Ultrasonic Shears
  • 13. Harmonic Scalpel
    • High frequency ultrasonic energy to actuate the cutting blade.
      • Simultaneous cutting and blood coagulation due to high speed
      • Advantages:
        • Fewer instrument exchanges,
        • Improved visibility in the surgical field
        • Less tissue charring and dehydration (coagulation occurs at less than 100 º C)
      • Disadvantages:
        • High initial cost
    ULTRASONIC SCALPEL BODY DSP CONTROLED ULTRASONIC WAVE GENERATOR (55.5 KHZ)
  • 14. Harmonic Scalpel (continued)
    • The ultrasonic vibration of the cutting blade is generated by a piezoelectric ceramics that expand and contract under power from a 55.5 KHz wave generator.
      • Vibration Range: 50 to 100 µm (function of power level)
      • 100 µm – Faster cutting less coagulation
      • 50 µm – Slower cutting more coagulation
    Tissue
  • 15. System Overview (Microsurgical Tele Robotic System)
    • Modified Steward type platform for the Micro-manipulator
      • 6-DOF
      • Positional Accuracy - within 50μm
      • Workspace - 20mm × 20mm × 20mm
    Master : Force-reflecting haptic master device. Slave: Surgery micro-manipulator
  • 16. Microsurgical Tele Robotic System - Slave Stewart Platform Schematic
  • 17. Microsurgical Tele Robotic System - Master Modified Stewart Platform Schematic X Y Z Base 5 bar Linkage (Ball-Joined –top, Pin-Joined-bottom) Platform End Effector
  • 18. FUTURE OF MICROSURGERY
    • The New Order of Surgery
      • Patient dataset of MRI, CT, and other physiological data
      • Systems for interfacing anatomical and physiological data with finite ele-ment modeling tools
      • A surgical model to construct a simulation of the surgery
      • High Precision Tele-robotic Surgical systems
  • 19. QUESTIONS / COMMENTS Questions, comments and group discussion
  • 20. References
    • Chintwood, W. Randolph Jr, MD. “Enddoscopic Robotic Coronary Surgery- Is this Reality or Fantasy?” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. July 1999; Volume 118: 1-3
    • Dong-Soo Kwon, et. al , “Microsurgical Telerobot System” Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems ,pp. 945 - 950, 1998
    • Guthart, Gary, Salisbury, Kenneth Jr. “The IntuitiveTM Telesurgery System: Overview and Application” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 618-621, 2000
    • K.Y.Woo, B.D.Jin, D.S.Kwon, “A 6 DOF Force Reflecting Hand Controller Using the Fivebar Parallel Mechanism,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1597-1602, 1998
    • ” Surgical Robots”, National Horizon Scanning Centre, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, January 2000.
    • Yamano Ikuo, et. al , “Method for Controlling Master-Slave Robots using Switching and Elastic Elements” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1717-1722, 2002.
  • 21. References
    • www.intuitivesurgical.com
    • www.cybelius.com
    • www.thetrocar.net
    • www.harmonicdrive.de
  • 22. Surgical System Applications
  • 23. Patient care advantages
    • less post-operative pain
    • less blood loss
    • lower risk for infection
    • decreased recovery times
    • reduced time in hospital
    • enhanced cosmetic results
  • 24. Motor Specifications
  • 25. Surgical System video Camera
  • 26. Block Diagram of EndoWrist
  • 27. Human Arm Degrees of Freedom
  • 28. Position Actuator (Microsurgical Tele Robotic System)
    • Harmonic Servo Motor
    • Advantages
      • Positioning accuracy and repeatability
      • Not back-drivable
      • Zero-Backlash
      • High efficiency
    Motor in Motion Simulation
  • 29. Harmonic Servo Motor Operation Principle
    • As soon as the Wave Generator starts to rotate clockwise, the zone of tooth engagement travels with the major elliptical axis.
    • When the Wave Generator has turned through 180 degrees clockwise the Flexspline has regressed by one tooth relative to the Circular Spline.
    • Each turn of the Wave Generator moves the Flexspline two teeth anti-clockwise relative to the Circular Spline.

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