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Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI
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Introduction of Medical Imaging and MRI

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  • 1. Introduction of Medical Imaging
    Chun Yuan
  • 2. Organization of the Course
    • 8 Lectures (1.5 hours per lecture)
    • 3. Introduction of medical imaging and MRI
    • 4. Basic concept of image formation
    • 5. Basic pulse sequences and contrast manipulation
    • 6. Image Reconstruction
    • 7. RF pulse and gradient pulse
    • 8. Fast imaging and advanced applications
    • 9. MRI hardware
    • 10. Functional MRI
  • Text Books
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Physical Principles and Sequence Design
    • 11. ISBN: 0-471-35128-8
    • 12. Authors: E. M. Haacke, R. W. Brown, M. R. Thompson, and R. Venkatesan
    • 13. Publisher: John Wiley and Sons, 1999
    • 14. Handbook of MRI Pulse Sequences
    • 15. ISBN: 0-7803-4723-4
    • 16. Authors: Bernstein, King, and Zhou
    • 17. Publisher: Elsevier Publishing, 2004
  • Credits
    Home work
    One for each day
    60%
    Term project
    Topics will be provided
    40%
  • 18. What is Medical Imaging
    Introduce some form of radiation
    electromagnetic
    Acoustic
    Observe its interaction with tissue
    attenuation
    scattering / reflection
    Concentration
    Convert the observations into a clinically meaningful image
    film
    computer
  • 19. Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • 20. Imaging Considerations
    • Type of information
    • 21. anatomical - from head to toe
    • 22. functional - cardiac, brain, etc.
    • 23. quantitative vs. qualitative
    • 24. Limitations
    • 25. resolution
    • 26. sensitive range (e.g. view angles)
    • 27. speed
    • 28. cost
    • 29. invasiveness
  • “Classical” methods
    Images that are direct manifestations of the interaction
    between radiation and tissue
    Projection Radiography (Conventional X-ray)
    Ultrasound
    Conventional Nuclear Medicine
  • 30. Projection Radiography
    • Physical Principle: Variation in X-ray attenuation of different tissues
    • 31. Methodology: A beam of X-rays is directed through a patient onto a film.
    • 32. Image: An X-ray “shadow” of the patient.
    • 33. History:
    • 34. Roentgen’s discovery - 1895
    • 35. Application to medicine – 1896
    • 36. contrast materials - early 1900’s
    • 37. angiography - 1927
  • Projection Radiography System
  • 38. Projection Radiography Examples
    Chest X-Ray
    Angiogram
    Mammogram
  • 39. Ultrasound
    • Physical Principle: Ultrasound waves scatter and reflect within the body
    • 40. Methodology: A pulse of ultrasonic energy is propagated into the body and backscattered echoes record the depth of objects in the body.
    • 41. Image: A “depth map” of patient organs.
    • 42. History:
    • 43. Concept derived from W.W.II sonar
    • 44. Major clinical development - 1970’s
  • Ultrasound System
  • 45. Ultrasound Mode
    B-mode image
    Longitudinal view of digital artery
    Frequency: 40MHz
    Resolution: up to 50mm
    Doppler
    Flow velocity in digital artery
  • 46. Nuclear Medicine
    • Physical Principle: Variable uptake of radioactive materials by different organs
    • 47. Methodology: Inject patient with radiolabeled substance and record time-space pattern of radiation.
    • 48. Image: A map of the radioactivity of the patient.
    • 49. History:
    • 50. Therapeutic administration of radiolabeled substances - 1950
    • 51. Scintillation camera - 1952
  • Nuclear Medicine System
  • 52. Nuclear Medicine Example
  • 53. “Computed” methods
    Images that are formed using mathematical methods and computers from indirect measurements of the interaction between radiation and tissue
    Computed Tomography (CT)
    X-ray CT
    PET
    SPECT
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    (3D Ultrasound)
  • 54. Computed Tomography
    • Physical Principle: Projection slice theorem dictates how to reconstruct a 2-D image from multiple 1-D projections (Radon Transform).
    • 55. Methodology: Obtain multiple projection images and reconstruct images using a computer.
    • 56. Image: A 2-D slice mapping the patient’s X-ray attenuation coefficient (X-ray CT) or radioactivity (PET and SPECT).
    • 57. History:
    • 58. X-ray CT proposed - mid 1960’s
    • 59. Early clinical use - 1972
    • 60. PET and SPECT followed X-ray CT
  • Computed Tomography System
  • 61. X-ray CT Example
  • 62. PET Example
  • 63. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • Physical Principle: Within a strong magnetic field, paramagnetic nuclei (usually hydrogen protons) will resonate in response to RF radiation
    • 64. Methodology: Place patient in a magnet, irradiate with RF field, and record spatially encoded RF echoes.
    • 65. Image: A map of proton concentration through a slice of the body.
    • 66. History:
    • 67. NMR discovered - 1940’s
    • 68. Imaging proposed in 1972
    • 69. Current generation of machines developed in 1980’s
  • Nobel Prize for MRI
  • 70. MRI System
  • 71. MRI Example
  • 72. Star Artifacts in CT
  • 73. Shadow Artifacts in Ultrasound
  • 74. Wrap-around Artifacts in MRI

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