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Heart Health - ClassJump.com - free websites for teachers Heart Health - ClassJump.com - free websites for teachers Presentation Transcript

  • Healthy Heart
  • The Healthy Heart
  • The Healthy Heart
  • Chambers of the Heart
    Right Atrium
    Receives blood
    through the
    superior and
    inferior vena cava.
    Left Atrium
    Receives oxygenated
    blood from the lungs.
    Left Ventricle
    Pumps blood rich in
    oxygen through the aorta
    to the arteries to nourish
    the body systems.
    Right Ventricle
    Pumps blood in need of
    oxygen to the lungs.
  • The Path Of Blood Flow
  • Oxygenation of blood in
    alveoli capillaries
  • Death Rates for Cardiovascular Disease in the United States, 1940 & 2000
  • Women & Heart Disease
    Coronary Vascular Disease:
    Coronary heart disease + Stroke
    Misconception: Coronary vascular disease is not a major problem for women
    CVD = 493,000 female deaths
    Breast cancer = 41,514 female deaths
    Lifetime risk of developing CVD after age 40:
    Men: 49%
    Women: 32%
    First among all disease categories in hospital discharges for women
    40% of all female deaths in USA from CVD
  • Women & Heart Disease
    Greater incidence in minority women
    38% of women compared to 25% of men will die within one year post heart attack
    Average age of first heart attack:
    Men: 65.8 y/o
    Women: 70.4 y/o
    Incidence of hypertension is greater in men until age 55; after 55, incidence is higher in women
  • Development of Atherosclerosis
    Fatty Streaks Develop on the Arterial Walls at Injury Spots
    Growth and Hardening of Fatty Streaks
    Plaque Formation (well developed by age 30)
    Narrowing and Loss of Elasticity of the Arteries
    Restriction of Blood Flow to the Heart or Brain
    Limited Oxygen Delivery to the Heart or Brain
    Blood Pressure Elevation
    Blood Clot Formation and Thrombosis
    Angina, Heart Attack and/or Stroke
  • The Atherosclerotic Process
  • Atherosclerotic Plaque:Artery cross-section
  • Atherosclerotic plaque occluding an artery
  • Arterial Plaque
    Normal Artery
  • Unclogging The Arteries
    Cholesterol-lowering drugs
    Low-fat diet
    Dean Ornish Diet (without medications)
    Very low-fat diet (8% of total daily calories)
    Moderate exercise for 1 hour three times per week.
    Stress counseling.
    One hour of yoga, meditation, breathing, and progressive relaxation per day.
  • Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
    Factors You Can Control
    Physical Inactivity
    Tobacco
    Obesity
    Hypertension
    Hypercholesterolemia
    Diabetes Mellitus
    Stress
    Homocysteine levels
    Artery inflammation
    Factors You Can’t Control
    Heredity
    Race and Ethnicity
    Age
    Gender
    Bacterial Infection
  • Heart Healthy Benefits of Regular Physical Activity
    Reduction in body weight.
    Reduction in blood pressure.
    Reduction of LDL and total cholesterol levels.
    Increase in HDL cholesterol.
    Increased insulin sensitivity.
  • Regular Physical Exercise
    American Heart Association, American
    College of Sports Medicine and the CDC
    30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week.
    Institute of Medicine
    60 minutes of daily physical activity to counter the obesity epidemic.
  • Which of the following is NOT a heart benefit of regular exercise?
    :10
    Answer Now
    0 of 40
    Reduction in blood pressure
    Reduction of HDL and total cholesterol levels
    Increased insulin sensitivity
    Improved coronary artery circulation
  • Heart Healthy Nutrition
    Plenty of fruits and vegetables.
    Cholesterol Lowering Foods:
    Oats, barley, soy protein, and nuts.
    Fish 2 times a week (AHA).
    Insufficient Evidence to Recommend For or Against the Use of:
    Supplements of vitamin A, C, or E.
    Multivitamins with folic acid.
    Antioxidant combinations.
  • Tobacco and Heart Disease
    How Smoking Damages The Heart:
    Nicotine overstimulates the heart.
    Carbon monoxide reduce the oxygen supply to the heart.
    Tars and other smoke residues increase the risk of cholesterol build-up in the arteries.
    Smoking increases blood clotting.
    Smoking causes irreversible damage to the arteries.
    Second-hand smoke
  • Blood Pressure
    Definition: A measure of the force exerted against the walls of
    the vessels by the blood flowing through them.
    Systolic Blood Pressure
    Pressure exerted by blood
    against walls of the arteries
    during forceful contraction
    of the heart.
    Diastolic Blood Pressure
    Pressure exerted by blood against the walls of the arteries during
    relaxation of the heart.
    Sphygmomanometer &
    Stethoscope
  • Measuring Blood Pressure
  • Measurement of Blood Pressure
  • What Is a Healthy Blood Pressure?
    115/75 mm Hg
    HEALTHY READING
    120-139/80-90 mm Hg
    PREHYPERTENSION
    140-159/90-99 mm Hg
    160+/100+ mm Hg
    HYPERTENSION
  • 0
    What are common symptoms of patients with hypertension?
    ? ?
  • 0
    What is the most common symptom of someone who has hypertension?
    NONE
    Hypertension is often called the
    “Silent Killer”
  • Consequences of High Blood Pressure
  • Cross-section of an artery
    Normal artery
    Hypertension
  • Preventing Hypertension
    Lifestyle Changes
    Losing weight
    Regular exercise
    Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension (DASH Diet)
    Restriction of daily sodium intake
    Factors That Have Not Proven Effective
    Dietary supplements such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, and fish oil
  • Answer Now
    :10
    0 of 40
    Complications of hypertension involve all of the following organ systems except:
    Heart
    Kidney
    Eye
    Peripheral arteries
    Brain
    None of the above
  • Understanding Blood Lipids
    Low Density
    Lipoprotein
    (LDL)
    Fatty substances produced by the liver that carry
    cholesterol to arterial walls; “bad” cholesterol.
    High Density
    Lipoprotein
    (HDL)
    Fatty substance that picks up cholesterol in the blood-
    stream and returns it to the liver; “good” cholesterol.
    Very Low Density
    Lipoprotein
    (VLDL)
    The largest of the lipoproteins which allow cholesterol to
    circulate in the bloodstream.
    Triglycerides
    Fats that flow through the blood after meals and have been
    linked to increased risk of coronary artery disease.
  • Metabolic SyndromeSyndrome X or Insulin-Resistant Syndrome
    Definition: A cluster of medical abnormalities that increases the risk of heart disease and diabetes.
    Probable Causes: Genetics, lack of exercise, and overeating.
    Diagnostic Criteria:
    Waist Circumference: Men > 40 inches; Women >35 inches.
    Triglycerides: >150 mg/dL.
    High-Density Lipoproteins: Men <40 mg/dl; Women <50 mg/dl.
    Blood Pressure:130 mm Hg (systole)/85 mm Hg (diastole).
    Fasting Blood Sugar: >110 mg/dl.
  • Serum Cholesterol Guidelines
  • Lowering Cholesterol
    Therapeutic Life Changes:
    Dietary changes
    Weight loss
    Physical activity
    Medications:
    Statins
    Niacin
  • Acute Myocardial InfarctionHeart Attack
    Definition: A condition that occurs when blood supply to the heart muscle is cut off and the tissue dies.
    Crushing or heavy
    discomfort or pain
    in the chest
    Heartburn symptoms
    accompanied by
    nausea and vomiting
    Chest pain that spreads
    to the shoulders, neck,
    jaw or arms
    Lightheadedness,
    dizziness or
    fainting
    Sweating
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Myocardial Infarction
    Myocardial Infarction
    Where is it located?
    Healthy heart
  • A temporary decrease in oxygen supply to the myocardium is
    Answer Now
    :10
    0 of 40
    Myocardial Infarction
    Atherosclerosis
    Angina
    Hypercholesterolemia
    Stroke
  • ArrhythmiasIrregular Heart Beat
    Bradycardia:
    Heart rate of fewer than 60 beats per minute
    Tachycardia:
    Heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute
    Potential Causes:
    Atherosclerosis, hypertension, mineral imbalance, alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, or other drugs
    Symptoms:
    Fatigue, lightheadedness, loss of consciousness, death, and organ damage
    Diagnosis:
    Electrocardiogram
    Treatment:
    Medications and/or pacemakers
  • Diagnostic Tests
    Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)
  • Diagnostic Tests
    Stress Test
    Thallium scintigraphy
  • Treatments
    Aspirin therapy
    Medications
    diuretics
    beta-blockers
    calcium channel blockers
    angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE)
    Surgical Procedures
    Coronary bypass
    Use of saphenous vein to bypass occlusion
    Placement of a titanium stent to bypass artery occlusion
    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    Pacemaker
  • Using a stent to bypass occluded arteries
    Titanium stent
    Expanded stent
  • Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
  • Pacemaker
  • Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke)
    Definition
    Blockage of the blood supply to a portion of the brain
    Statistics
    the 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S.
    Worldwide: the second leading cause of death
    Types
    Ischemic stroke
    Thrombotic
    Embolic
    Hemorrhagic stroke
    Acute / chronic bleed
    Rupture of aneurysm
    Transient ischemic attacks (TIA)
  • Warning Signs of a Stroke
  • Risk Factors for Strokes
  • Prevention and Treatment for Strokes
    A baby aspirin a day keeps strokes away.
    Surgery
    Carotid endartectomy
    Brain angioplasty
    Medications
    Thrombolytic drugs
  • Which of the following concerning stroke is INCORRECT?
    Answer Now
    :10
    0 of 40
    Hemorrhagic type results from blood clot
    Right brain involvement can result in weakness of left leg
    Major risk factor is hypertension
    Can be prevented by taking a baby aspirin a day.
  • Heart-Smart Strategies For Life
    Don’t smoke
    Watch your weight
    Cut down on saturated fat and cholesterol
    Get moving
    Lower your stress levels
    Know your family history
    Get your blood pressure checked regularly
    Tame your temper
    Get a lipoprotein profile
    Take appropriate medications