Heart Health - ClassJump.com - free websites for teachersPresentation Transcript
The Healthy Heart
The Healthy Heart
Chambers of the Heart Right Atrium Receives blood through the superior and inferior vena cava. Left Atrium Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs. Left Ventricle Pumps blood rich in oxygen through the aorta to the arteries to nourish the body systems. Right Ventricle Pumps blood in need of oxygen to the lungs.
The Path Of Blood Flow
Oxygenation of blood in alveoli capillaries
Death Rates for Cardiovascular Disease in the United States, 1940 & 2000
Women & Heart Disease Coronary Vascular Disease: Coronary heart disease + Stroke Misconception: Coronary vascular disease is not a major problem for women CVD = 493,000 female deaths Breast cancer = 41,514 female deaths Lifetime risk of developing CVD after age 40: Men: 49% Women: 32% First among all disease categories in hospital discharges for women 40% of all female deaths in USA from CVD
Women & Heart Disease Greater incidence in minority women 38% of women compared to 25% of men will die within one year post heart attack Average age of first heart attack: Men: 65.8 y/o Women: 70.4 y/o Incidence of hypertension is greater in men until age 55; after 55, incidence is higher in women
Development of Atherosclerosis Fatty Streaks Develop on the Arterial Walls at Injury Spots Growth and Hardening of Fatty Streaks Plaque Formation (well developed by age 30) Narrowing and Loss of Elasticity of the Arteries Restriction of Blood Flow to the Heart or Brain Limited Oxygen Delivery to the Heart or Brain Blood Pressure Elevation Blood Clot Formation and Thrombosis Angina, Heart Attack and/or Stroke
The Atherosclerotic Process
Atherosclerotic Plaque:Artery cross-section
Atherosclerotic plaque occluding an artery
Arterial Plaque Normal Artery
Unclogging The Arteries Cholesterol-lowering drugs Low-fat diet Dean Ornish Diet (without medications) Very low-fat diet (8% of total daily calories) Moderate exercise for 1 hour three times per week. Stress counseling. One hour of yoga, meditation, breathing, and progressive relaxation per day.
Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Factors You Can Control Physical Inactivity Tobacco Obesity Hypertension Hypercholesterolemia Diabetes Mellitus Stress Homocysteine levels Artery inflammation Factors You Can’t Control Heredity Race and Ethnicity Age Gender Bacterial Infection
Heart Healthy Benefits of Regular Physical Activity Reduction in body weight. Reduction in blood pressure. Reduction of LDL and total cholesterol levels. Increase in HDL cholesterol. Increased insulin sensitivity.
Regular Physical Exercise American Heart Association, American College of Sports Medicine and the CDC 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week. Institute of Medicine 60 minutes of daily physical activity to counter the obesity epidemic.
Which of the following is NOT a heart benefit of regular exercise? :10 Answer Now 0 of 40 Reduction in blood pressure Reduction of HDL and total cholesterol levels Increased insulin sensitivity Improved coronary artery circulation
Heart Healthy Nutrition Plenty of fruits and vegetables. Cholesterol Lowering Foods: Oats, barley, soy protein, and nuts. Fish 2 times a week (AHA). Insufficient Evidence to Recommend For or Against the Use of: Supplements of vitamin A, C, or E. Multivitamins with folic acid. Antioxidant combinations.
Tobacco and Heart Disease How Smoking Damages The Heart: Nicotine overstimulates the heart. Carbon monoxide reduce the oxygen supply to the heart. Tars and other smoke residues increase the risk of cholesterol build-up in the arteries. Smoking increases blood clotting. Smoking causes irreversible damage to the arteries. Second-hand smoke
Blood Pressure Definition: A measure of the force exerted against the walls of the vessels by the blood flowing through them. Systolic Blood Pressure Pressure exerted by blood against walls of the arteries during forceful contraction of the heart. Diastolic Blood Pressure Pressure exerted by blood against the walls of the arteries during relaxation of the heart. Sphygmomanometer & Stethoscope
Measuring Blood Pressure
Measurement of Blood Pressure
What Is a Healthy Blood Pressure? 115/75 mm Hg HEALTHY READING 120-139/80-90 mm Hg PREHYPERTENSION 140-159/90-99 mm Hg 160+/100+ mm Hg HYPERTENSION
0 What are common symptoms of patients with hypertension? ? ?
0 What is the most common symptom of someone who has hypertension? NONE Hypertension is often called the “Silent Killer”
Consequences of High Blood Pressure
Cross-section of an artery Normal artery Hypertension
Preventing Hypertension Lifestyle Changes Losing weight Regular exercise Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension (DASH Diet) Restriction of daily sodium intake Factors That Have Not Proven Effective Dietary supplements such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, and fish oil
Answer Now :10 0 of 40 Complications of hypertension involve all of the following organ systems except: Heart Kidney Eye Peripheral arteries Brain None of the above
Understanding Blood Lipids Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Fatty substances produced by the liver that carry cholesterol to arterial walls; “bad” cholesterol. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Fatty substance that picks up cholesterol in the blood- stream and returns it to the liver; “good” cholesterol. Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) The largest of the lipoproteins which allow cholesterol to circulate in the bloodstream. Triglycerides Fats that flow through the blood after meals and have been linked to increased risk of coronary artery disease.
Metabolic SyndromeSyndrome X or Insulin-Resistant Syndrome Definition: A cluster of medical abnormalities that increases the risk of heart disease and diabetes. Probable Causes: Genetics, lack of exercise, and overeating. Diagnostic Criteria: Waist Circumference: Men > 40 inches; Women >35 inches. Triglycerides: >150 mg/dL. High-Density Lipoproteins: Men <40 mg/dl; Women <50 mg/dl. Blood Pressure:130 mm Hg (systole)/85 mm Hg (diastole). Fasting Blood Sugar: >110 mg/dl.
Serum Cholesterol Guidelines
Lowering Cholesterol Therapeutic Life Changes: Dietary changes Weight loss Physical activity Medications: Statins Niacin
Acute Myocardial InfarctionHeart Attack Definition: A condition that occurs when blood supply to the heart muscle is cut off and the tissue dies. Crushing or heavy discomfort or pain in the chest Heartburn symptoms accompanied by nausea and vomiting Chest pain that spreads to the shoulders, neck, jaw or arms Lightheadedness, dizziness or fainting Sweating
Myocardial Infarction Myocardial Infarction Where is it located? Healthy heart
A temporary decrease in oxygen supply to the myocardium is Answer Now :10 0 of 40 Myocardial Infarction Atherosclerosis Angina Hypercholesterolemia Stroke
ArrhythmiasIrregular Heart Beat Bradycardia: Heart rate of fewer than 60 beats per minute Tachycardia: Heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute Potential Causes: Atherosclerosis, hypertension, mineral imbalance, alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, or other drugs Symptoms: Fatigue, lightheadedness, loss of consciousness, death, and organ damage Diagnosis: Electrocardiogram Treatment: Medications and/or pacemakers
Diagnostic Tests Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)
Diagnostic Tests Stress Test Thallium scintigraphy
Treatments Aspirin therapy Medications diuretics beta-blockers calcium channel blockers angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) Surgical Procedures Coronary bypass Use of saphenous vein to bypass occlusion Placement of a titanium stent to bypass artery occlusion Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty Pacemaker
Using a stent to bypass occluded arteries Titanium stent Expanded stent
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) Definition Blockage of the blood supply to a portion of the brain Statistics the 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S. Worldwide: the second leading cause of death Types Ischemic stroke Thrombotic Embolic Hemorrhagic stroke Acute / chronic bleed Rupture of aneurysm Transient ischemic attacks (TIA)
Warning Signs of a Stroke
Risk Factors for Strokes
Prevention and Treatment for Strokes A baby aspirin a day keeps strokes away. Surgery Carotid endartectomy Brain angioplasty Medications Thrombolytic drugs
Which of the following concerning stroke is INCORRECT? Answer Now :10 0 of 40 Hemorrhagic type results from blood clot Right brain involvement can result in weakness of left leg Major risk factor is hypertension Can be prevented by taking a baby aspirin a day.
Heart-Smart Strategies For Life Don’t smoke Watch your weight Cut down on saturated fat and cholesterol Get moving Lower your stress levels Know your family history Get your blood pressure checked regularly Tame your temper Get a lipoprotein profile Take appropriate medications