heart failure.ppt

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heart failure.ppt

  1. 1. Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Heart Failure
  2. 2. Heart Failure <ul><li>What is Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The heart is not pumping as well as it should </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually, the heart has been weakened by an underlying condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blocked arteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart valve abnormalities </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation
  3. 3. Heart Failure <ul><li>What is Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart failure can involve the left or right side of the heart or both </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually the left side is affected first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart failure occurs when either side of the heart cannot keep up with the flow of blood </li></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation
  4. 4. Heart Failure <ul><li>What is Heart Failure? </li></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation
  5. 5. Heart Failure <ul><li>What is Left Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the left ventricle (lower chamber) of the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systolic failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The heart looses it’s ability to contract or pump blood into the circulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastolic failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The heart looses it’s ability to relax because it becomes stiff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart cannot fill properly between each beat </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation
  6. 6. Heart Failure <ul><li>What is Left Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systolic and diastolic heart failure are treated with different types of medications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In both types, blood may “back up” in the lungs causing fluid to leak into the lungs (pulmonary edema) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid may also build up in tissues throughout the body (edema) </li></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation
  7. 7. Heart Failure <ul><li>What is Right Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually occurs as a result of left heart failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs for oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasionally isolated right heart failure can occur due to lung disease or blood clots to the lung (pulmonary embolism) </li></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation
  8. 8. Heart Failure <ul><li>How fast does heart failure develop? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually a chronic disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The heart tries to compensate for the loss in pumping function by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing more muscle mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enlarging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pumping faster </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation
  9. 9. Heart Failure <ul><li>What Causes Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health conditions that either damage the heart or make it work too hard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary artery disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal heart valves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart muscle diseases (cardiomyopathy) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart inflammation (myocarditis) </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation
  10. 10. Heart Failure <ul><li>What Causes Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congenital heart defects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe lung disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe anemia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal heart rhythms </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation
  11. 11. Heart Failure <ul><li>What Causes Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary artery disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol and fatty deposits build up in the heart’s arteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less blood and oxygen reach the heart muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This causes the heart to work harder and occasionally damages the heart muscle </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  12. 12. Heart Failure <ul><li>What Causes Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An artery supplying blood to the heart becomes blocked </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of oxygen and nutrients damages heart muscle tissue causing it to die </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining healthy heart muscle must pump harder to keep up </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  13. 13. Heart Failure <ul><li>What Causes Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled high blood pressure doubles a persons risk of developing heart failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart must pump harder to keep blood circulating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over time, chamber first thickens, then gets larger and weaker </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  14. 14. Heart Failure <ul><li>What Causes Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal heart valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart muscle disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to heart muscle due to drugs, alcohol or infections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congenital heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe lung disease </li></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  15. 15. Heart Failure <ul><li>What Causes Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to have other conditions that make the heart work harder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  16. 16. Heart Failure <ul><li>What Causes Heart Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough red blood cells to carry oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart beats faster and can become overtaxed with the effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperthyroidism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body metabolism is increased and overworks the heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal Heart Rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the heart beats too fast, too slow or irregular it may not be able to pump enough blood to the body </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                                                                 
  17. 17. Heart Failure <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortness of Breath (dyspnea) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood “backs up” in the pulmonary veins because the heart can’t keep up with the supply an fluid leaks into the lungs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SYMPTOMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dyspnea on exertion or at rest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty breathing when lying flat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waking up short of breath </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  18. 18. Heart Failure <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent Cough or Wheezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid “backs up” in the lungs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SYMPTOMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coughing that produces white or pink blood-tinged sputum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  19. 19. Heart Failure <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased blood flow out of the weak heart </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood returning to the heart from the veins “backs up” causing fluid to build up in tissues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SYMPTOMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling in feet, ankles, legs or abdomen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight gain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  20. 20. Heart Failure <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiredness, fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart can’t pump enough blood to meet needs of bodies tissues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body diverts blood away from less vital organs (muscles in limbs) and sends it to the heart and brain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SYMPTOMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constant tired feeling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty with everyday activities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  21. 21. Heart Failure <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of appetite/ Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The digestive system receives less blood causing problems with digestion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SYMPTOMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling of being full or sick to your stomach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  22. 22. Heart Failure <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion/ Impaired thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing levels of substances in the blood ( sodium) can cause confusion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SYMPTOMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory loss or feeling of disorientation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative or caregiver may notice this first </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  23. 23. Heart Failure <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The heart beats faster to “make up for” the loss in pumping function </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SYMPTOMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart palpitations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May feel like the heart is racing or throbbing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  24. 24. Heart Failure <ul><li>New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification </li></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                              Severe limitation. Experiences symptoms even at rest 5% IV Marked limitation in activity even during minimal activity. Comfortable only at rest 25% III Mild symptoms and slight limitation during ordinary activity 35% II No symptoms or limitations in ordinary physical activity 35% I Symptoms % of patients Class
  25. 25. Heart Failure <ul><li>Treatment Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more common forms of heart failure cannot be cured, but can be treated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  26. 26. Heart Failure <ul><li>Lifestyle changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid or limit caffeine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat a low-fat, low-sodium diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  27. 27. Heart Failure <ul><li>Lifestyle changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep track of symptoms and weight and report any changes or concern to the doctor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit fluid intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See the doctor more frequently </li></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  28. 28. Heart Failure <ul><li>Medications used to treat Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACE Inhibitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cornerstone of heart failure therapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proven to slow the progression of heart failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vasodilator – cause blood vessels to expand lowering blood pressure and the hearts work load </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  29. 29. Heart Failure <ul><li>Medications used to treat Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diuretics (water pills) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prescribed for fluid build up, swelling or edema </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause kidneys to remove more sodium and water from the bloodstream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases workload of the heart and edema </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fine balance – removing too much fluid can strain kidneys or cause low blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  30. 30. Heart Failure <ul><li>Medications used to treat Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most diuretics remove potassium from the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium pills compensate for the amount lost in the urine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium helps control heart rhythm and is essential for the normal work of the nervous system and muscles </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  31. 31. Heart Failure <ul><li>Medications used to treat Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasodilators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause blood vessel walls to relax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occasionally used if patient cannot tolerate ACE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease workload of the heart </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  32. 32. Heart Failure <ul><li>Medications used to treat Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digitalis preparations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases the force of the hearts contractions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relieves symptoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slows heart rate and certain irregular heart beats </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  33. 33. Heart Failure <ul><li>Medications used to treat Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta-blockers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower the heart rate and blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease the workload of the heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood-thinners (coumadin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in patients at risk for developing blood clots in the blood vessels, legs, lung and heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in irregular heart rhythms due to risk of stroke </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             
  34. 34. Heart Failure <ul><li>Treatment options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery and other Medical Procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not often used in heart failure unless there is a correctable problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary artery bypass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angioplasty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valve replacement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defibrillator implantation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart transplantation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) </li></ul></ul></ul>Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation                             

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