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Strength decline: diminished walking speed and balance difficulties as a result
Grip strength: inversely related to IADL deficits
Spinal mobility: affects many functional tasks
Exercise (Activity) Prescription for Older Adults Fitness and Functional Status Function Strength Poor Normal Low High Healthy Adults Frail Adults Near Frail THRESHOLD Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) . J Gerontology, 1994;49(3):M109-15
AM J Med. 2007. 120(9):748-753 Chronic Malnutrition Sarcopenia Decreased metabolic rate and activity Decreased appetite Aging Decreased taste Poor dentition Dementia and depression Chronic illness Multiple hospitalizations Aging Weight loss Chronic inflammation Illness Chronic illness Hospitalization Medications Stressful life events Falls Osteopenia Decreased strength Immobility Dependency Impaired balance and falls Frailty Cycle
Associations with co-morbidity and disability Overall: 2,762 subjects with comorbidity and/or disability and/or frailty If identified as Frail: 27% reported ADL disability 46% had co-morbid disease 22% had ADL disability and com-morbid illness 27% had neither disability or co-morbidity