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Digestive System
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Digestive System

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    Digestive System Digestive System Presentation Transcript

    • Notes page
      functions of the digestive system
      single cell digestive system
      simple gut one cavity
      complete tube
      sketch earthworm & label
      (next side of page) (leave space for each)
      grinding parts
      digestive enzymes
      absorption
      water removal
      elimination
    • Digestive System
      The point of the digestive system:
      take in nutrients
      absorb nutrients
      eliminate wastes
      It’s all about ATP!!
    • Type 1: (Earliest) Single Cell
      LYSOSOMES are “bubbles” in the cell that contain enzymes
      LYSIS means to “break”
      Enzymes do HYDROLYSIS:
      Break down larger particles
    • Cell Digestion using lysosomes
      “PHAGOCYTOSIS” = “CELL EATING”
    • Type 2: Simple Gut, one cavity
      One opening for entry & exit
      Gastrocavity
    • Type 3: COMPLETE TUBE:
      Mouth for entry
      Anus for exit of waste
      Tube based intestines for absorption
    • Worms (Platys) thru Humans!
    • Worms thru Humans
      Arthropods
    • Humans
    • First line of digestion: Mouth, Teeth
      Teeth physically break up food
      Saliva: breaks down sugars
      Animals without teeth have “gizzards” to grind up food!
    • Esophagus: tube for eating
      “phage” means “to eat”
      Expandable, muscular
      Movement through digestive system = “PERISTALSIS”
    • STOMACH: digestion begins
      Acidic (low pH)
      Activates Enzymes
      Breaks bonds
    • Special adaptations: extra stomachs!
      Animals that eat tough plants have extra stomachs to house bacteria that help them digest
      “Ruminants”: digest over time
    • PANCREAS: secretes insulin
      Insulin opens channels on cells to let in sugar to make ATP!
      Diabetes type 1: cells that make insulin die.
      Diabetes type 2: receptors for insulin on cells don’t work
    • Small Intestine: absorbs nutrients!
      Lots of SURFACE AREA, due to finger like villi (remember rug?)
    • LARGE intestine: absorbs water!
      Absorbs water, salt, vitamins back into your body
      As it makes wastes more SOLID.
    • Appendix: once it stored waste
      Now its pretty useless, can sometimes become infected.
      Appendicitis: infection of appendix
    • LIVER: hundreds of functions
      Main one for digestion: BILE
      Liver makes BILE, an alkaline solution
      Neutralizes stomach acid
      Breaks down fats
    • CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
      The point:
      TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS
      NUTRIENTS TO CELLS
      WASTE AWAY FROM CELLS
    • Type 1: simple diffusion (no blood)
    • Type 2: OPEN (not complete vessels)
      Animals have “heart”
      Vessels empty into body cavity
      NO BLOOD:
      HEMOLYMPH
    • Type 3: CLOSED (true blood)
      Blood always enclosed in vessels
      Materials diffuse out of blood into cells
    • HEART: muscular organ that pushes blood
      Earthworm: AORTIC ARCHES
      Arthropods: TUBULAR HEART
      FISH… AMPHIBIANS… MAMMAL: CHAMBERED HEARTS
    • Heart chambers
    • CHAMBER NAMES
      ATRIA (atrium): entrance
      VENTRICLES: BIG PUSH
      WHICH SIDE IS RIGHT?
      WHICH SIDE IS LEFT?
      V
      V
    • To lungs & body
      ‘PULMONARY’ means lungs
      AORTA means big bridge to body.
    • Protective Sack around heart: PERICARDIUM
      Peri- like perimeter
    • Cardiac Vessels
      Supply heart muscle with oxygen
      If they get blocked, they cause a “heart attack”.
      Bypass surgery
    • VESSELS: arteries & veins
      ARTERIES carry blood away from heart (red blood usually)
      VEINS carry blood towards heart (blue blood usually)
      Color due to oxygen:
      RED = oxygen
      BLUE = carbon dioxide
    • ARTERIES
      • Veins less muscular
      • Have valves to keep blood going right direction
      Arteries very muscular & elastic
      Blood moves due to heart pumping
      VEINS: blood moves due to your muscle movement
      VARICOSE veins:
      Valves fail, blood pools in vein
    • Blood cell types
      Red: oxygen
      Platelets: clotting
      White: immune system cells
    • Red blood cells: hemoglobin to carry oxygen
    • How carbon monoxide kills:
      Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin TIGHTER THAN OXYGEN CAN
      One carbon monoxide is in the blood, it can’t come out
      Your body can’t use carbon monoxide to make ATP
      You die from lack of ATP
    • Diseases of digestive system:
      ULCERS: caused by bacteria attacking stomach lining
      NOBEL PRIZE!
    • Diseases of digestive system
      Eating Disorders
      ANOREXIA
      BULEMIA
      ETC.
      Immune System
      CROHN’S DISEASE
      IRRITABLE BOWEL
    • Diseases of digestive system
      Food poisoning: bacterial!!!
      NOROVIRUS: viral stomach flu
      Both spread from contaminated food when someone sick prepares food
      Often in dorms, cruise ships hotels.
    • Diseases of circulatory system
      Heart attack: clot in coronary arteries causes heart muscle to die
      If muscle area is big enough, person can die.
      Fatty foods can cause narrowing of arteries
    • Diseases of circulatory system
      Artherosclerosis :
      “artery hardening”:
      Arteries fill with cholesterol & fat, narrowing channel
      Then clot can cause blood stoppage, stroke, death
    • Diseases of circulatory system
      Babies can be born with hole in septum, allows non-oxygenated blood through to body.
    • Diseases of blood cells:
      Leukemia: cancer of white blood cells (too many of them, and they don’t work properly)
      • Anemia: not enough red blood cells
      • Iron supplements to help make hemoglobin
      Bone marrow transplants
    • Bone marrow transplants:
    • Heart transplants
      Use a machine to pump blood temporarily