Physics <br />Basic Principle: <br />Doppler Effect- the effect of motion of sound in relation to the frequency of the sound by the observer.<br /> V=(∆f c)/(2fcosθ)<br />Harmonic imaging- contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging<br />The reflection from the microbubbles at the second harmonic has the frequency 2(f + f), whereas that from the heart wall is at the<br />frequency (f + f).<br /> -the second harmonic difference 2∆f<br />
CONTRAST AGENTS<br />Microbubbles:<br /><ul><li>Miniature gas bubbles of less than 50 micron diameter.
Comparison<br />Enhancement of image quality<br /> - Able to image small vessels and deep tissues/organs- Harmonic ultrasonic frequencies and mechanical indices<br />Strong signal production <br />Manage ultrasonic frequencies<br />Statistics<br /> -Before contrast enhanced ultrasound(CEU) 86.7% of the echocardiograms had 2+ myocardial segments that could not be visualized. -After CEU, the average of myocardial segments visualized increased to 98.8% <br /> -CEU diagnostics helped avoid further indicative procedures(i.e. nuclear imaging) as seen in 32.8% of patients<br />Effective Cost<br />
Future Outlook<br />Based on these research investigations we believe there will be extensive growth in regards to these certain areas:<br />3D Real Time Imaging<br />Coronary Artery flow detection<br />Flow Reserve measurements<br /> Endothelial integrity <br />Intracavitary Pressure measurements <br />Targeted delivery of drugs, ligands, and genes<br />